Julie Talbot

Julie Talbot
Université de Montréal | UdeM · Department of Geography

About

65
Publications
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2,340
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Université de Montréal
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
Academic mobility for field work, research dissemination and global outreach is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the overall environmental footprint of research institutions. Student mobility, while less studied, also contributes to universities' environmental footprint. Université de Montréal (UdeM) is the largest university...
Article
Full-text available
The carbon balance of peatlands is predicted to shift from a sink to a source this century. However, peatland ecosystems are still omitted from the main Earth system models that are used for future climate change projections, and they are not considered in integrated assessment models that are used in impact and mitigation studies. By using evidenc...
Article
Full-text available
Natural peatlands contribute significantly to global carbon sequestration and storage of biomass, most of which derives from Sphagnum peat mosses. Atmospheric CO 2 levels have increased dramatically during the twentieth century, from 280 to > 400 ppm, which has affected plant carbon dynamics. Net carbon assimilation is strongly reduced by photoresp...
Article
Full-text available
Swamps are a highly significant wetland type in North America both in terms of areal extent and their role in terrestrial carbon cycling. These wetlands, characterized by woody vegetation cover, encompass a diverse suite of ecosystems, including broad-leaved, needle-leaved, mixedwood or shrub/thicket swamps. Uncertainties in the role of swamps in c...
Article
Full-text available
Small lentic freshwater ecosystems play a disproportionate role in global biogeochemical cycles by processing large amounts of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), but it is unlikely that they behave as one homogenous group for the purpose of extrapolation. Here, we synthesize biogeochemical data from > 12,000 geographically distinct freshw...
Article
Full-text available
High-latitude peatlands are changing rapidly in response to climate change, including permafrost thaw. Here, we reconstruct hydrological conditions since the seventeenth century using testate amoeba data from 103 high-latitude peat archives. We show that 54% of the peatlands have been drying and 32% have been wetting over this period, illustrating...
Data
Supplementary Figures to Serk et al. Sci Rep 11, 24517 (2021)
Data
Supplementary Tables to Serk et al. Sci Rep 11, 24517 (2021)
Preprint
Full-text available
Natural peatlands contribute significantly to global carbon sequestration and storage of biomass, most of which derives from Sphagnum peat mosses. Atmospheric CO 2 levels have increased dramatically during the 20th century, from 280 to > 400 ppm, which has affected plant carbon dynamics. Net carbon assimilation is strongly reduced by photorespirati...
Article
Numerous temperate peatlands are currently experiencing an accelerated process of woody encroachment. Such encroachment may have harmful impacts on peatland biodiversity and functions. Our objective was to investigate the recent history of woody encroachment in a temperate bog using plant macrofossil, testate amoeba, aerial photograph analyses, and...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-021-00991-1.
Article
A recent paper by Miszczak et al. (2020) examines metal contamination in mires in Poland and Norway. The authors conclude that lead (Pb) records in ombrotrophic peatlands cannot be used to reconstruct the chronological history of anthropogenic activities due to post-depositional mobility of the metal. We contest this general conclusion which stands...
Article
Full-text available
Excess reactive nitrogen (N) is linked to a myriad of environmental problems that carry large societal costs. Nitrogen footprint tools can help institutions understand how their direct and indirect activities are associated with N release to the environment through energy use, food, and transportation. However, little is known about how geographic...
Article
Full-text available
Peatlands in northern permafrost regions store a significant proportion of global soil carbon. Recent warming is accelerating peatland permafrost thaw and thermokarst collapse, exposing previously frozen peat to microbial decomposition and potential mineralization into greenhouse gases. Here we show from a site in the sporadic permafrost zone of we...
Article
Full-text available
Ombrotrophic bogs can comprise a mosaic of vegetation patches and open-water pools, with hydrological and biogeochemical connections between pools and the surrounding peat and vegetation. To establish these connections, we studied the spatial heterogeneity of hydrology and water chemistry in two zones of distinct vegetation assemblages in the subbo...
Poster
Full-text available
Open-water pools are common features in high-latitudes and coastal peatlands but their biogeochemistry is poorly understood. In previous studies, we showed that pools C, N and P biogeochemistry is very heterogeneous within a peatland, and that variations are controlled by internal processes related to pools depth, and by the surrounding vegetation...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Peatlands are ecosystems that accumulate carbon (C) over long periods of time. The anoxic conditions created by prevailing water saturation, coupled with vegetation litter slow to decompose, reduces organic matter decay and allows net C accumulation. Open-water pools that cover many boreal and maritime peatlands are, however, net C sources to the a...
Article
Full-text available
Glacial−interglacial variations in CO 2 and methane in polar ice cores have been attributed, in part, to changes in global wetland extent, but the wetland distribution before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka to 18 ka) remains virtually unknown. We present a study of global peatland extent and carbon (C) stocks through the last glacial cycle (13...
Article
Fossil testate amoeba assemblages have been used to reconstruct peatland palaeohydrology for more than two decades. While transfer function training sets are typically of local-to regional-scale in extent, combining those data to cover broad ecohydrological gradients, from the regional-to continental- and hemispheric-scales, is useful to assess if...
Article
Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) form ~90% by mass of peat, a product of the input of plant tissues and litter and the output of decomposition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We examined patterns of these elements, as the O:C and H:C atomic ratios, in over 1,300 peat samples collected from over 400 profiles in Ontario, Canada, repre...
Poster
Full-text available
Université de Montréal (UdeM) is the largest of Montreal's four full scale universities : 33,770 undergraduate and 11,860 graduate students, 1925 professors and 5825 full-time equivalent employees. Its main campus is located in the heart of the city and is well served by public transit. Three small satellite campuses have also been considered in th...
Poster
Full-text available
Open-water pools are common features in boreal peatlands but their biogeochemistry is poorly understood. Here, we focus on the relationship between vegetation and pool biogeochemistry in two distinct zones of a sub-boreal peatland in Québec, Canada. We assess the summer hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity between peat and pools in a moss-d...
Article
Nutrient availability is an important control on the vegetation distribution, productivity and functioning of peatland ecosystems and we examined spatial and temporal patterns of nutrient availability through ion exchange at Mer Bleue bog, southeast Ontario, Canada. We installed ion exchange probes at 5-15cm for 4weeks and determined nutrient sorpt...
Article
Climatic change that occurred during the Holocene is often recognized as the main factor for explaining fire dynamics, while the influence of human societies is less apparent. In eastern North America, human influence on fire regime before European settlement has been debated, mainly because of a paucity of sites and paleoecological techniques that...
Article
While considerable attention has been given to the measurement of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) concentrations and accumulation in detailed peat cores in central Canada, the geographic distribution and density of sampling are generally limited. Here, we use the Ontario Peatland Inventory to examine broad patterns of Hg and Pb concentration with depth,...
Article
Continuous paleoenvironmental records covering the period prior to the Last Glacial Maximum in northeastern Beringia are sparse. This study presents a multi-proxy analysis of a 35-m-high yedoma exposure located on the right bank of the Itkillik River in Alaska. The exposure accumulated over 39 thousand years (kyr) during the Middle Wisconsinan Inte...
Poster
Full-text available
Open-water pools are common features in boreal peatlands but their biogeochemistry is poorly known. We studied C, N and P biogeochemistry in open-water pools of a sub-boreal peatland in Québec, Canada. We assessed the relationship between pool physical characteristics and biogeochemistry, and quantified the temporal evolution of C, N and P concentr...
Article
Full-text available
Permafrost in peatlands strongly influences ecosystem characteristics, including vegetation composition, hydrological functions, and carbon cycling. Large amounts of organic carbon are stored in permafrost peatlands in northwestern Canada. Their possible degradation into permafrost-free wetlands including thermokarst bogs may affect carbon (C) stoc...
Article
In this review paper, we identify and address key uncertainties related to four local and global controls of Holocene northern peatland carbon stocks and fluxes. First, we provide up-to-date estimates of the current northern peatland area (3.2 Mkm²) and propose a novel approach to reconstruct changes in the northern peatland area over time (Section...
Article
Permafrost dynamics play an important role in high-latitude peatland carbon balance and are key to understanding the future response of soil carbon stocks. Permafrost aggradation can control the magnitude of the carbon feedback in peatlands through effects on peat properties. We compiled peatland plant macrofossil records for the northern permafros...
Poster
Full-text available
The cold-arid climate associated to the late Pleistocene environment of unglaciated Beringia was favorable for active sedimentation processes (mainly eolian) and accumulation of ground ice. These processes resulted in the formation of an uniquetype of ice-rich syngenetic permafrost, termed yedoma. Yedoma deposits, as accumulated during MIS 4-MIS 2,...
Article
Northern peatlands have stored large amounts (~500 Pg) of carbon (C) since the last glaciation. Combined with peat C are nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K), each of which plays an important role in plant production, litter decomposition and the biogeochemical functioning of peatlands. Yet...
Article
Each year, a peatland has an annual net carbon balance (NCB), which can be positive (net uptake), zero or negative. Over centuries to millennia, this NCB accumulates as a peat profile. Contemporary peatlands can be sampled (cored), and the past apparent carbon accumulation rate (aCAR) can be determined as the quantity of peat carbon in any particul...
Article
Tropical peatlands cover an estimated 440,000 km2 (~10% of global peatland area) and are significant in the global carbon cycle by storing about 40 – 90 Gt C in peat. Over the past several decades, tropical peatlands have experienced high rates of deforestation and conversion, which is often associated with lowering the water table and peat burning...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change scenarios suggest that northern peatlands could become drier. To address the type and magnitude of vegetation change associated with persistent drying, we studied changes in biomass and leaf area index following drainage 85 years previously of a bog, using destructive sampling, allometric relationships, and optical measurements. Our...
Data
Soil bulk density, %C, %N, chemical composition, and macro fossil composition for the 28 soil samples used in 2014 GCB paper. Samples from Alaskan permafrost peatland soils.
Article
Controls on the fate of ~ 277 Pg of soil organic carbon (C) stored in permafrost peatland soils remain poorly understood despite the potential for a significant positive feedback to climate change. Our objective was to quantify the temperature, moisture, organic matter, and microbial controls on soil organic carbon (SOC) losses following permafrost...
Article
Full-text available
Northern peatlands are important carbon (C) sinks and while the patterns of C accumulation have been frequently investigated, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) accumulation are often neglected. Here we link the C:N:P stoichiometry from foliar plant tissues, through senescent litters to peat, and determine C, N and P accumulation rates at Mer Bleue Bo...
Poster
Full-text available
Late Pleistocene and Holocene Beringia vegetation dynamic reconstructions based on a yedoma exposure, Itkillik (Alaska) The Itkillik river area in Alaska (69°34′ N, 150°52′W), is part of the loosely defined region of Beringia, which was largely unglaciated during the last ice age. Beringia is known to have acted as a refugium for boreal trees and s...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term impacts of drier conditions on the hydrology of northern peatlands are poorly understood. We used long-term drainage near a historic drainage ditch, separating an area from the main peatland, as an analogue for long-term drying in a northern temperate bog. The objective was to identify the impact of drier conditions on ecohydrological pro...
Article
Identifying the processes controlling the carbon balance in northern peatlands is crucial for their integration in global climate models. As a first step, current models of peatlands dynamics need to be adequately evaluated to verify the consistency of processes before their integration in global models.We compared here the sensitivity of the total...
Article
Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, dec...
Conference Paper
The 21st century climate change and land-use pressure are likely to subject northern peatlands to climatic conditions and a frequency of disturbances not previously experienced in the Holocene. Northern peatland carbon stocks are large and potentially vulnerable, since several key climatic variables that are expected to change (i.e., precipitation,...
Article
Full-text available
Peatlands occupy a relatively small fraction of the Earth’s land area, but they are a globally important carbon store because of their high carbon density. Undisturbed peatlands are currently a weak carbon sink (~0.1 Pg C y–1), a moderate source of methane (CH4; ~0.03 Pg CH4 y–1), and a very weak source of nitrous oxide (N2O; ~0.00002 Pg N2O–N y–1)...
Article
Full-text available
Northern peatlands contain a large terrestrial carbon pool that plays an important role in the Earth's carbon cycle. A considerable fraction of this carbon pool is currently in permafrost and is biogeochemically relatively inert; this will change with increasing soil temperatures as a result of climate warming in the 21st century. We use a geospati...
Article
Full-text available
Northern peatlands contain a large terrestrial carbon pool that plays an important role in the Earth's carbon cycle. A considerable fraction of this carbon pool is currently in permafrost and is biogeochemically relatively inert; this will change with increasing soil temperatures as a result of climate warming in the 21st century. We use a geospati...
Thesis
Peatlands are important components of the global carbon cycle, storing one-third of the global soil carbon. The accumulation of peat depends on two main interacting factors: the wetness and vegetation composition of a peatland. Previous studies have looked at the impact of a water table lowering on carbon fluxes in different types of peatlands. How...
Conference Paper
Peatlands are important components of boreal and subarctic landscapes, and can be regionally important components of tropical landscapes. As boreal and subarctic peatlands store about one-third of the terrestrial soil carbon pool, peatlands play an important role as a long-term sink for carbon . In the last two decades, many studies have looked at...
Article
Full-text available
Peatland carbon and water cycling are tightly coupled, so dynamic modeling of peat accumulation over decades to millennia should account for carbon-water feedbacks. We present initial results from a new simulation model of long-term peat accumulation, evaluated at a well-studied temperate bog in Ontario, Canada. The Holocene Peat Model (HPM) determ...
Article
Full-text available
Peatland carbon and water cycling are tightly coupled, so dynamic modeling of peat accumulation over decades to millennia should account for carbon-water feedbacks. We present initial results from a new simulation model of long-term peat accumulation, evaluated at a well-studied temperate bog in Ontario, Canada. The Holocene Peat Model (HPM) determ...
Conference Paper
The quantity of carbon stored in peat depends on the imbalance between production and decomposition of organic matter. This imbalance is mainly controlled by the wetness of the peatland, usually described by the water table depth. However, long-term processes resulting from hydrological changes, such as vegetation succession, also play a major role...
Article
Full-text available
Question: We studied vegetation succession after drainage in a bog, as an analogue for potential persistent water table drawdown due to climate change. We asked: (1) how does bog vegetation change following a long-term water table lowering and (2) how are effects of drainage on hydrology and vegetation distributed temporally and spatially? Location...
Article
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter used by most process-oriented ecosystem models. LAI of forest ecosystems has routinely been mapped using spectral vegetation indices (SVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. The application of SVI-based approaches to map LAI in peatlands presents a challenge, mainly due to peatlands characteristic m...
Article
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecological parameter that characterizes the interface between a vegetation canopy and the atmosphere. Indirect measurements of LAI using optical techniques such as the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer have been routinely conducted for different vegetation canopies including forests and agricultural crops. However...
Article
Plant species distribution, interactions, and physiology are affected by climate. Thus, climate change is likely to affect vegetation structure and dynamics, especially in boreal, subarctic, and arctic environments, where the greatest climate warming is expected, and where the vegetation seems to be the most sensitive to environmental factors. Peat...
Article
Full-text available
Snow water equivalent was measured during three springs on north- and south-exposed sites representing a range of stand structure and development stages of Quebec's balsam fir forest. Maximum snow water equivalent of the season, mean seasonal snowmelt rate, snowmelt season duration and total snowmelt season degree-day factor were related to canopy...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Peak flows can be temporarily ,increased by forest harvesting. They usually go back ,to pre- harvest magnitudes,with stand regrowth. The diminution of snowmelt,rate with regeneration has been proposed as an index of hydrological recovery of peak flow. This index, expressed by a snowmelt augmentation coefficient (SAC = 100% - hydrological r...

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Projects (7)
Project
This researcher-led, partnership-assisted, and indigenous community-supported project will identify and quantify the climatic variables that control dust emissions from mountainous regions, integrate them into a new mineral dust (MD) production model to inform Environment Canada’s current global climate model (CanAM4) for its emission and transport of MD aerosols, and evaluate the current and historical impacts of the deposited MD aerosols on surrounding polar landscapes.
Project
Université de Montréal (UdeM) is the largest of Montreal’s four full scale universities : 33,770 undergraduate and 11,860 graduate students, 1925 professors and 5825 full-time equivalent employees. The goal of this project is to calculate the C, N and P footprints of UdeM's research and educational activities.