Julie R Steele

Julie R Steele
University of Wollongong | UOW · Biomechanics Research Laboratory

PhD

About

322
Publications
164,986
Reads
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9,349
Citations
Citations since 2016
76 Research Items
5103 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
I am Director of the Biomechanics Research Laboratory, which is located within the Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences at the University of Wollongong. It is home to a small but passionate group of academic staff and research students who are committed to developing innovative strategies, based on rigorous applied biomechanics research, to decrease injury potential and optimize the quality of life for individuals of all ages.

Publications

Publications (322)
Article
Patellar tendinopathy is the most common overuse knee injury in volleyball, with men reporting more than twice the injury prevalence than women. Although high patellar tendon loading is thought to be a causative factor of patellar tendinopathy, it is unknown whether between-sex variations in landing technique account for differences in patellar ten...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction We explored the footwear profiles and foot-related problems reported by netball players and whether these differed between males and females. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and twenty-five amateur, sub-elite and elite netball players (men n = 279; women n = 2646; age 26.4 ± 10.0 years) completed a custom-designed online survey with...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we used computational fluid dynamics simulation (ANSYS CFX) to compare the performance of surfboard fins with grooves (and a bumpy-leading edge) to conventional surfboard fins. The simulations predicted the performance of each type of fins in terms of hydrodynamic forces and their behavior for angles of attack up to 45 degrees. Our r...
Article
After recently accepting an offer to retire, I have taken the opportunity to reflect on long-term lessons learned throughout my 40-year career as a biomechanist in academia. These lessons formed the basis of my 2021 Geoffrey Dyson Lecture and are summarised within this article. Most of these lessons are targeted at early career researchers, althoug...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Although low breast satisfaction has been associated with a range of potential negative health implications, little is known about key factors that influence breast satisfaction across the lifespan. This study aimed to determine the impacts of age, body mass and breast size on breast satisfaction and how breast satisfaction impacts psy...
Article
Background: A lying prone position is recommended when scanning women's breasts to ensure the entire breast can be visualised. However, several large databases contain three-dimensional scans of women's breasts and torsos that were obtained while the women were standing. This study aimed to establish the error associated with calculating breast vo...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to provide normative data characterising the torsos and breasts of female soldiers and to determine which torso and breast anthropometric measurements contributed to reports of poor body armour fit. Ninety-seven female Australian Army soldiers completed a questionnaire about their experience with current-issue body armour, includin...
Article
Most female soldiers report that in-service body armour systems are too large. We investigated whether a smaller prototype body armour system could improve thoracolumbar range of motion (ROM) and reduce interference when female soldiers performed dynamic postures. 97 female soldiers completed three ROM tasks and seven dynamic postures wearing no ar...
Article
Mining work boot shaft stiffness and sole flexibility variations are likely to affect how a miner moves their foot to clear the ground thus influencing their risk of tripping. Despite the potential negative consequences associated with tripping, limited research has investigated how these boot design features might contribute to a miner’s trip risk...
Article
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Background Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injury that lacks effective evidence-based treatment options. Reduced leg girth has been associated with MTSS development because it is hypothesised to impair the ability of the leg to modulate tibial loading generated during foot–ground contact. Measuring total leg girth, however,...
Article
This study investigated whether female soldiers experience bra integration or breast discomfort/injuries related to body armour use and whether these issues were associated with breast size. Ninety-seven Australian Defence Force female soldiers completed a questionnaire and had their breast volume assessed (range: 91–919 ml/breast) using three-dime...
Article
Despite female soldiers representing a growing user population, military body armour systems are currently better suited to the anthropometric dimensions of male soldiers. The aim of this study was to explore issues that female soldiers experience with current Australian Defence Force (ADF)-issue body armour. Following a sequential exploratory desi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common lower leg injury experienced by runners. Although numerous risk factors are reported in the literature, many are non-modifiable and management of the injury remains difficult. Lower leg muscle structure and function are modifiable characteristics that influence tibial loading during foot-g...
Article
This study explored which technical and physical attributes could predict superior and/or safe landing performance when surfers performed variations of a simulated aerial task. Fourteen surfers (age 20.6 ± 5.7 years, height 178.1 ± 9.50 cm, mass 70.6 ± 10.8 kg) had their lower limb mobility, squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop-and-stick land...
Article
We aimed to determine whether there were any differences in how surfers used their lead and trail limbs when landing two variations of a simulated aerial manoeuvre, and whether technique affected the forces generated at landing. Fifteen competitive surfers (age 20.3 ± 5.6 years, height 178.2 ± 9.16 cm, mass 71.0 ± 10.5 kg) performed a Frontside Air...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose To investigate the content and delivery of physical rehabilitation education and treatment received by women following breast cancer surgery and to establish patient perceptions of this physical rehabilitation. Methods 509 Australian women (55 years SD 6.5) who previously had breast cancer surgery retrospectively completed an online survey...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate the access to and content of physical rehabilitation received by women after different types of breast cancer surgery. Methods: On-line survey of 632 Australia women (59.8 years SD 9.6) grouped according to their last reported breast cancer surgery: (i) breast conserving surgery (BCS; n=228), (ii) mastectomy (n=208; MAST), a...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo investigate the incidence and severity of physical side-effects experienced by women following breast reconstructive surgery and the effect of these side-effects on physical activity and function.Methods Two hundred and thirty-one Australian women (55 years SD 6.5) who had previously had breast reconstruction surgery retrospectively self-...
Article
Design and development of contemporary military body armour has traditionally focused primarily on male soldiers. As the anthropometric body dimensions of male and female soldiers differ, we aimed to determine whether current body armour was meeting fit and functional requirements of female soldiers. One-hundred and forty-seven female Australian De...
Article
Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 28(05): p 7-15. This study aimed to investigate differences in swimming performance and dry-land characteristics of higher and lower performing young swimmers, as well as identify any associations between swim and dry-land performance. Sixteen young, competitive swimmers (8 males; age 15.6±1.7 years,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Physical preparation of competitive surfers includes substantial dry-land training. It is currently unknown, however, how closely these exercises replicate surfing manoeuvres performed in the ocean. This study compared the technique features displayed by surfers when landing simulated aerial manoeuvres on land to critical features previou...
Article
Compression garments are extensively used for various therapeutic treatments and are expected to deliver accurate and reproducible compression pressures. This study focuses on developing an analytical model to predict the pressure generation by compression garments on human limb analogues. The analogues consisted of non-compressible and compressibl...
Article
This study aimed to provide normative data characterising the breast size, breast position and torso size of female contact football players. 117 AFL, Rugby League, Rugby Union and Rugby 7s players attended a single testing session where a three-dimensional scan was taken of their naked breasts and torso. Dimensions relevant to the design of sports...
Article
The structural features of work boots worn by underground coal miners affect comfort, foot motion and, in turn, loading of the plantar surface of miners' feet. Although shaft stiffness and sole flexibility appear to be boot design features that could influence perceived comfort and plantar pressures, no study has systematically altered these boot d...
Article
More systematic breast biomechanics research and better translation of the research outcomes are necessary to inform sports bra designs and develop effective evidence-based strategies to alleviate exercise-induced breast pain for women who want to participate in physical activity in comfort.
Article
Although half the world's population will develop breasts, there is limited research documenting breast structure or motion. Understanding breast structure and motion, however, is imperative for numerous applications, such as breast reconstruction, breast modeling to better diagnose and treat breast pathologies, and designing effective sports bras....
Article
Objectives Female contact football players sustain contact breast injuries that can negatively affect their sporting performance. This study investigated what female contact football players wear on their breasts during training and competition, and their perceptions on the protection provided by these garments against contact breast injury. Desig...
Article
Objective: To evaluate whether a simple 4-factor model using self-reported data could be used to predict exercise-induced breast pain in elite female athletes. Design: Survey study. Setting: Online or hard-copy surveys completed at sporting competitions and training facilities around Australia. Participants: Four hundred ninety female athlet...
Article
Although breast pain is problematic for many active women, no published research has investigated breast pain experienced by elite female athletes. This study aimed to examine the extent that mastalgia and exercise-induced breast pain affected the sporting performance of elite female athletes during training and competition. A custom-designed onlin...
Article
Background: A common complaint of women who wear external breast prostheses following mastectomy is that they are too heavy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of external breast prosthesis mass on bra strap loading, discomfort and perceived pressure in women with a unilateral mastectomy. Methods: Pressures exerted at the bra strap-shoul...
Article
Full-text available
Although the 11+ programme has been shown to reduce injuries in sub‐elite football, programme compliance is typically poor, suggesting that strategies to optimize delivery are necessary. This study investigated the effect of rescheduling Part 2 of the three‐part 11+ programme on programme effectiveness. Twenty‐five semi‐professional football clubs...
Article
Design features of safety work boots have the potential to influence how underground coal miners' feet interact with the challenging surfaces they walk on and, in turn, their risk of slipping. Despite the importance of work boot design in reducing the risk of miners slipping, limited research has investigated how boot design features, such as shaft...
Article
Forsyth, JR, Riddiford-Harland, DL, Whitting, JW, Sheppard, JM, and Steele, JR. Essential skills for superior wave-riding performance: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-To successfully and safely perform surfing maneuvers, surfers and their coaches need to know how to perform each maneuver correctly. Although some compon...
Article
Introduction: Female athletes involved in contact sports are sustaining injuries to their breasts. Limited research, however, has characterised breast injuries reported by female contact football players. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence, causes and perceived performance effects of contact breast injuries reported by females participa...
Article
Introduction: Although female breasts are vulnerable to direct blows or frictional injuries during many sports, very little research has investigated breast injuries experienced by female athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence, causes and perceived performance effects of breast injuries in elite female athletes across a...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate breast pain and sports bra usage reported by Chinese women and to analyse whether they were affected by age, education, occupation, income or breast size. Four hundred and four Chinese women completed a questionnaire to determine their breast pain and its frequency as well as sports bra usage. Although more than 60% of...
Poster
Full-text available
Previous research has suggested that several critical features are associated with the ability of surfers to successfully land two aerial variations, the Frontside Air (FA) and Frontside Air Reverse (FAR). We aimed to investigate whether surf-like simulated aerial landings replicated the key critical features of these two aerial variations. Based o...
Article
Female breasts are vulnerable to direct blows or frictional injuries during sport; however, little research has investigated breast injuries experienced by female athletes. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence, causes and perceived performance effects of breast injuries in elite female athletes across a wide range of sports. A custom-desi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of obesity on breast size, thoracic spine structure and function, upper torso musculoskeletal pain and physical activity participation in women living independently in the community. Methods: A total of 378 women were divided into 3 groups (Not Overweight: body mass index (BMI) = 22.5 ± 0.2 kg/m2 (mea...
Article
Background: Research has shown that women with large and hypertrophic breast sizes report an increased prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in the upper torso. Despite this evidence, factors contributing to the development of musculoskeletal pain among these women are poorly understood, and the threshold at which breast size becomes pro...
Article
Full-text available
Background Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a lower leg injury with a reported incidence rate of up to 35% in active individuals. Although numerous prospective studies have tried to identify risk factors for developing MTSS, managing the syndrome remains difficult. One risk factor yet to be extensively explored in MTSS development is reduced...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on plantar pressures when participants walked across a simulated underground coal mine surface. In-shoe plantar pressures were recorded as 20 male participants walked at a self-selected pace across a hard dirt surfac...
Article
Objectives: Research has shown that women with large breasts experience increased breast motion, which can act as a barrier to participating in physical activity. Despite this evidence, limited research has investigated the effect of breast size on physical activity participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: 355 Australian women (a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction During surfing competitions, aerial manoeuvres have been shown to significantly increase a surfer’s single-wave score, with the frontside air and frontside air reverse being performed successfully most frequently [1]. Performing aerial manoeuvres, however, has been associated with acute lower limb injuries, which are thought to be due...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although the most supportive sports bras can control breast motion and associated breast pain, they are frequently deemed uncomfortable to wear and, as a result, many women report exercise bra discomfort. Given that exercise bra discomfort is associated with decreased levels of physical activity, there is a pertinent need to develop in...
Article
Full-text available
Acceptable footwear fit, particularly width, is subjective and vaguely quantified. Proper shoe fit is important because it affects both comfort and the potential to prevent injury. Although mismatches between the feet of underground coal miners and their internal boot dimensions are known, no research has been undertaken to determine the impact of...
Article
Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristic...
Article
Full-text available
The cover image, by J. R. Forsyth et al., is based on the Original Article Understanding successful and unsuccessful landings of aerial maneuver variations in professional surfing, DOI: 10.1111/sms.13055. Photo Credit: James Robert Forsyth, Biomechanics Research Laboratory, University of Wollongong.
Article
Background: Several studies have associated a large breast size with an increased prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain, particularly pain in the upper torso. Despite this evidence, no research has explored whether breast size or related characteristics are risk factors for upper torso musculoskeletal pain. Methods: A backward multiple...
Article
Although performing aerial manoeuvres can increase wave score and winning potential in competitive surfing, the critical features underlying successful aerial performance have not been systematically investigated. This study aimed to analyse highly skilled aerial manoeuvre performance and identify the critical features associated with successful or...
Article
Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study ai...
Article
Background: Women with large breasts frequently experience upper torso pain secondary to their breast size. Evidence is lacking on the underlying causes of this pain. This study investigated whether upper torso pain and musculoskeletal structure and function differed between women with large breasts and women with small breasts. Methods: A linea...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different components of encapsulation-style bras contribute to incorrect bra fit among women and whether this was influenced by breast size. The fit of five key bra components of 309 women’s own encapsulation bras was assessed using professional bra fit criteria among four breast size categories....
Article
Full-text available
Mining work boots provide an interface between the foot and the ground, protecting and supportingminers' feet during lengthy coal mining shifts. Although underground coal miners report the fit of their work boots as reasonable to good, theyfrequently rate their boots as uncomfortable, suggesting that there is a mismatch between the shape of their f...
Article
This study investigated differences in standard measurements used to determine bra size, under-bust chest circumference (UBCC) and over-bust chest circumference (OBCC), measured from a three-dimensional scan (hand-held scanner) compared to the direct measurement in 111 women (age 21-56 years; right breast volume 57-1672 mL; bra size 10A-18G). Bland...
Article
Background: This study aimed to establish normative breast volume data for women of varying ages, body masses and breast sizes, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on breast volume. Methods: The breast volume of 356 women (age range: 18.1-83.7 years; BMI range: 18.4-54.5 kg/m²) was measured using three-dimensional scanni...
Article
Safety boots are compulsory in many occupations to protect the feet of workers from undesirable external stimuli, particularly in harsh work environments. The unique environmental conditions and varying tasks performed in different occupations necessitate a variety of boot designs to match each worker's occupational safety and functional requiremen...
Article
Lower limb injuries are highly prevalent in underground coal mining. Wearing gumboots with inadequate ankle support was thought to contribute to these injuries. Despite the uptake of leather lace-up boots, which provide more ankle support, no recent research could be found investigating the effect of this alternative work boot in underground coal m...
Article
Purpose: Our primary aim was to investigate the influence of turns, tube rides and aerial manoeuvres on the scores awarded in elite male professional surfing competitions. We also investigated the successful completion rate and scores associated with different aerial variations. Methods: Video recordings from all 11 events of the 2015 Men's Worl...
Article
Full-text available
We demonstrate that Additive Manufacturing (3D printing) is a viable approach to rapidly prototype personalised fins for surfboards. Surfing is an iconic sport that is extremely popular in coastal regions around the world. We use computer aided design and 3D printing of a wide range of composite materials to print fins for surfboards, e.g. ABS, car...
Article
Background/purpose: The skin overlying a woman's breast acts as an anatomical support structure to the breast. Although aging is known to affect the thickness and elasticity of human skin, limited research has examined age-related changes to skin covering the breast or related these changes to breast support requirements. The purpose of this study...
Article
Background: Reduced toe flexor strength is an independent predictor of falls in older people. However it is unknown whether strengthening programs can restore toe flexor strength in older individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a progressive resistance training program, focused specifically on the foot muscles, could improve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although aerials are an effective way for a competitive surfer to increase their score during surfing competitions, less than half of aerial attempts are landed successfully during competition. This study aimed to identify which characteristics of performing an aerial during competition were associated with either a successful or unsuccessful landi...
Article
This study aimed to explore how asymptomatic athletes with a patellar tendon abnormality (PTA), who are at high risk of developing patellar tendinopathy, alter their landing technique and net patellar tendon loads generated in response to fatigue. Seven asymptomatic players with a PTA performed five successful vertical stop-jump trials before and a...