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Julie Morin-Rivat

Julie Morin-Rivat

PhD Archeobotany - archaeology - forest science

About

84
Publications
22,038
Reads
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375
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
304 Citations
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Introduction
Archaeologist, anthracologist, wood anatomist, science-fiction writer. Among my challenges: to develop innovative methods to study human interactions with his environment and to share my research with a wide public audience.
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - August 2020
Université du Québec à Rimouski UQAR
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Écologie végétale & sylviculture (Plant ecology & sylviculture), graduate students
May 2018 - August 2020
Université du Québec à Rimouski UQAR
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Étude rétrospective plurimillénaire des processus écologiques ayant permis le maintien d’une espèce à sa marge chaude (A multi-millennial retrospective study of the ecological processes that made it possible to maintain a species at its warm margin)
May 2018 - November 2018
Université du Québec à Rimouski UQAR
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
October 2011 - September 2017
University of Liège
Field of study
  • archaeology, anthropogenic impacts, forest ecology, fire ecology
October 2010 - June 2011
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes
Field of study
  • paleoecology, anthropogenic impacts, anthracology
October 2009 - June 2010
Université de Rennes 1
Field of study
  • soil sciences, GIS, phytosociology, agriculture, ecology

Publications

Publications (84)
Chapter
Full-text available
Known as anthracology, the study and identification of buried wood charcoal helps to reconstruct past environments and landscapes, as well as wood and land uses. The chronology of fires and human activities can be assessed by radiocarbon dating of charcoal pieces. Born in Europe, anthracology has been increasingly used in the tropics for the last t...
Poster
Full-text available
Le projet vise à évaluer l’existence d’une association spatiale entre les forêts rares et favorisées par les feux (p. ex. pinèdes) de la région et les activités historiques autochtones. À l’heure actuelle, nous cherchons à savoir si les activités précoloniales ont laissé une empreinte persistante et identifiable dans le paysage actuel. Pour cela, n...
Article
Full-text available
What role played historical anthropogenic disturbances in modifying the natural fire regime? To which extent have they shaped current forest? Do those have lingering impacts in present‐day landscape? Are certain tree species related to former land‐use? Eastern Québec, Canada. Spatial data on landscape structure, burnt areas, settlements, and forest...
Article
Full-text available
Many societal and environmental changes occurred between the 2nd millennium BC and the middle of the 2nd millennium AD in western Africa. Key amongst these were changes in land use due to the spread and development of agricultural strategies, which may have had widespread consequences for the climate, hydrology, biodiversity, and ecosystem services...
Presentation
Full-text available
Plusieurs méthodes sont communément utilisées pour reconstituer les environnements anciens, basées soit sur l’analyse d’éléments chimiques (ex. isotopes), soit sur celle d’éléments biologiques (ex. pollen). Parmi ces méthodes, l’analyse macrofossile des charbons de bois du sol est une approche émergente qui permet de déterminer le régime des feux e...
Presentation
Full-text available
Au 18e siècle, le mathématicien Bayes a développé une branche particulière des statistiques probabilistes. L’application archéologique des statistiques bayésiennes a permis de mieux répondre aux questions soulevées par les archéologues : 1) en combinant les âges provenant de différentes méthodes (p. ex. radiométriques et par thermoluminescence), et...
Poster
Full-text available
Plusieurs méthodes sont utilisées pour reconstituer les environnements anciens, basées soit sur l'analyse d'éléments chimiques (ex. isotopes), soit sur celle d'éléments biologiques (ex. pollen). Parmi ces méthodes, l'analyse macrofossile des charbons de bois du sol est une approche émergente qui permet de déterminer le régime des feux et la composi...
Preprint
Many societal and environmental changes occurred from the 2nd millennium BC to the middle of the 2nd millennium AD in western Africa. Key amongst these were changes in land use due to the spread and development of agricultural strategies, which may have had widespread consequences for the climate, hydrology, biodiversity, and ecosystem services of...
Article
Full-text available
Cette étude évalue l’abondance des graines d’Erythrophleum suaveolens dans la banque de semences du sol des forêts denses humides d’Afrique centrale. Les travaux ont été menés au Nord-Congo dans deux types forestiers : la forêt à Celtis sur des sols argilo-sableux à sablo-argileux et la forêt à Manilkara sur des sols sableux. Les tiges d’E. suaveol...
Presentation
Full-text available
Présentation graphique d'une étude portant sur l'origine et la dynamique du pin gris (Pinus banksiana) au Bas-Saint-Laurent, Québec, Canada.
Presentation
Full-text available
En Afrique centrale, l’histoire de la végétation est documentée par les études paléoécologiques (pollens, principalement), lesquelles s’intéressent surtout au façonnage des paysages forestiers par le climat. Le rôle de l’Homme sur ces forêts fait l’objet d’un vif débat, bien qu’il reste peu étudié jusqu’à présent. Dans le cadre de mon doctorat, j’a...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the palaeoecology of central Africa have traditionally documented the evolution of vegetation and particularly the role of climate in shaping tropical forest landscapes. These studies are few in number due to access difficulties for fieldwork and the great diversity of the plant species concerned. Moreover, the relationship between human...
Data
Age estimations of the trees at the mode of the diameter distribution for the four genera that are monospecific in the SRI. The mode of the diameter distribution across the SRI, information on growth data, including number of trees (n), the diameter (dbh) range and the mean and standard error of the annual diameter increment (SE), and age estimatio...
Data
Age data for the four study species based on published tree-ring data. Mean ages and corresponding estimated dates are shown in Figure 2 (Main Text). C = Cameroon; RC = Republic of the Congo; CAR = Central African Republic; n = number of stem discs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20343.010
Data
Relative performance of commonly used growth models for the four genera that are monospecific in the SRI. Growth model functions used to analyze the variation in tree growth (MAId, in cm.yr−1) with tree size (DBH, in cm) are detailed below. For the biological interpretation of parameters, Max is the maximum growth or growth optimum (in cm.yr−1), Do...
Data
Data documenting paleoenvironmental changes (Figures 1 and 3, Main Text) during the last 1000 years in the SRI. C = Cameroon; RC = Republic of the Congo; CAR = Central African Republic; W Africa = West Africa. Numbers refer to the map (Figure 1 Main Text). References are indicated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20343.012
Data
Chronology of the historical events from the beginning of the 15th century to the present occurring or influencing human populations in the SRI. Precise dates or time spans are related to local or more general events. References are indicated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20343.015
Data
Trait information and characteristics of the diameter distribution for the 176 study genera across the SRI. Botanical family was extracted from the African Plant Database of the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria (http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/recherche...
Data
Synthesis of the 63 AMS radiocarbon and the two OSL dates documenting human activities (Figure 3 Main Text) during the last 1000 years in the SRI. C = Cameroon; RC = Republic of the Congo; CAR = Central African Republic; AA = AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona (USA); Beta = Beta Analytic (USA); Erl = Erlangen AMS Facility (Germany); Gif = Gif-su...
Data
SQL codes for the Bayesian analysis of the radiocarbon dates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20343.014
Article
Full-text available
The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial adminis...
Article
Full-text available
Species distribution within plant communities results from the influence of deterministic processes, related to environmental conditions, but also from neutral processes related to dispersal limitation and stochastic events, the relative importance of each factor depending on the observation scale. 2. Assessing the relative contribution of environm...
Article
Full-text available
Palaeoecological and archaeological studies have demonstrated that human populations have long inhabited the moist forests of central Africa. However, spatial and temporal patterns of human activities have hardly been investigated with satisfactory accuracy. In this study, we propose to characterize past human activities at local scale by using a s...
Presentation
Full-text available
Review of the events that happened in the northern Congo basin during the last 1,000 yr. Positive impact of human disturbances on the regeneration of light-demanding trees. Negative impact of the European colonization and following events on human populations and tree regeneration.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
archaeology ; wood anatomy ; charcoal analysis ; wood identification ; Africa ; Europe ; tropical forests ; forestry ; forest ecology ; dendrochronology ; tree ring analysis
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tropical forests of Central Africa constitute the second most important block of moist forest of the world. Little is known, however, about past vegetation in this region that remains underexplored (Vleminckx et al. 2014; Morin-Rivat et al. 2014). Determining the past specific composition of these forests could allow bringing insights into their ev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Palaeoecological and archaeological studies have demonstrated that human populations have long inhabited the moist forests of central Africa. However, spatial and temporal patterns of human activities have hardly been investigated with satisfactory accuracy. In this study, we propose to characterize past human activities at local scale by using a s...
Poster
Full-text available
Central African rainforests shelter a high number of woody species that are anatomically very different. Knowledge of taxon-specific wood anatomical features has proven indispensable for scientific and non-scientific applications. The field of wood anatomy and identification has been drastically revolutionized by the development of internationally...
Poster
Full-text available
Investigate the influence of fiber thickness and vessel diameter on the wood density in 110 rainforest tree species, and the relationships between wood density, wood water content and shrinking ratio.
Poster
Full-text available
We aim to improve our knowledge of the dynamic of the vegetation in Central Africa during the last 5 kyrs and to discuss the main hypothesis described in the literature - humans versus climatic impacts - both suggested as responsible of the Congo basin rainforest decline observed between 3 and 2.5 kyrs. We use the carbon isotopic composition of wel...
Poster
Full-text available
The canopy of central African moist forests is dominated by light-demanding trees. Most of these species show a distribution of diameters that indicates a regeneration shortage. Here we show through the combined analysis of botanical, palaeoecological, archaeological and historical data that most of these trees are not older than ca. 180 years. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they were progressively concentrated in villages along roads, leaving large areas of forest derelict. In south-western Cameroon, and elsewhere in Central...
Poster
Full-text available
In palaeoenvironmental studies, charred botanical remains have rarely been identified to the species level before being sent to radiocarbon dating. Moreover, the age of most tropical spp. and thereby the age of the carbon sequestered during plant growth is not known. Dating unidentified charred wood in the tropics should be thus treated with cautio...
Article
Full-text available
While most past studies have emphasized the relationships between specific forest stands and edaphic factors, recent observations in Central African moist forests suggested that an increase of slash-and-burn agriculture since 3000-2000 BP (Before Present) could be the main driver of the persistence of light-demanding tree species. In order to exami...
Poster
Full-text available
The tropical moist forest is a biome with a high number of species that are functionally different. The question arises whether there are patterns in the spectra of wood anatomical features according to functional types. Here we propose to present the main anatomical characteristics of 600 tropical species from the Guineo-Congolian domain in relati...
Poster
Full-text available
Wood charcoals are often uncovered in the soils of the tropical regions. They remain little studied, however, and this observation is even truer for charcoals coming from the dense humid forests of Central Africa. Here we aim at showing the interest of the analysis of soil charcoals in this region so as to understand the dynamics of past forest env...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their...
Poster
Full-text available
Nous avons besoin de collaborations avec des anatomistes pour travailler avec nous sur des méthodes d’identification des bois si possible sans ou avec le minimum de prélèvement. Notre microscope in situ facilite l’étude des collections. En cherchant à caractériser les essences de bois utilisées pour la fabrication d’instruments de musique tradition...
Poster
Full-text available
Des études paléoécologiques et archéologiques ont démontré que les populations humaines ont de longue date investi les forêts humides d’Afrique Centrale. Les occupations humaines ont toutefois été peu documentées en raison de difficultés relatives à l’accès au terrain. Nous présentons ici une méthodologie systématique basée sur la quantification et...
Poster
Full-text available
Tropical forests of Central Africa constitute the second most important block of moist forest of the world. However little is known about their past evolution. Indeed, determining the past specific composition of these forests could allow modeling their evolution over time and providing data about their resilience capacity facing global change. To...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conférence grand public sur les indicateurs de perturbations climatiques et anthropiques dans les forêts d'Afrique centrale.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recently, several authors gathered data about the presence of past human populations in tropical regions covered by dense forest nowadays. In central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic coast, but very little information is available further inland. In this perspective, soil records seem to be t...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction. Past disturbances have modified the structure and the floristic composition of Central African rainforests. These perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they are presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. Fire is a prominent forest disturbance, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In comparison with the wood charcoals uncovered in the soils of the temperate regions, charcoals from the tropical regions remain little studied yet, in particular those from the dense humid forests of Central Africa. Here we aim at showing the interest of the analysis of soil charcoals so as to understand the current environments through some exam...
Poster
Full-text available
Nous présentons ici différents aspects de l’étude des charbons de bois à travers l’exemple de l’Afrique tropicale
Poster
Full-text available
Identifier les indices d’activités humaines anciennes et les mettre en relation avec la composition floristique actuelle grâce à une approche multidisciplinaire.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tropical forests are not believed as pristine anymore. Their structure and specific composition are induced by past climatic and human disturbances over years. In the African moist forests, the emergent trees are mainly light-demanding. These trees are considered to derive from the recent disturbances of the last centuries. Most of them are exploit...
Data
Our research shows that tropical forests of Central Africa are highly diverse: some are very dynamic and more or less disturbed, others are less so; some have a great diversity of trees, others very little. This variety is the wealth of the second largest rainforest in the world and explains its potential to react differently to different anthropog...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is an introduction about wood charcoal properties, collection and taxonomical identification in the framework of palaeoecological studies in Central Africa through examples of possible applications.
Poster
Full-text available
So as to document the past history of tropical forests, several palaeoenvironmental proxies have been used. For instance, charcoals from soil deposits provide a local signal of the evolution of the vegetation together with snapshots of human interactions with the environment. As charcoal analyses are rare in tropical contexts, here we aim at presen...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, the myth of the pristine tropical forest has been seriously challenged. In central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic forests, but very little information is available about human activities further inland. In this study, we aimed at determining the temporal and spatial patt...
Poster
Full-text available
Les différences anatomiques observées dans le bois ont souvent été mises en relation avec des adaptations évolutives et environnementales. Toutefois, les liens entre structure du bois et contraintes écologiques restent peu connus. En effet, peu d’études ont combiné les approches anatomique et fonctionnelle. De plus, nos connaissances sont très limi...
Poster
Full-text available
La forêt tropicale africaine a longtemps été considérée comme vierge du passage de l’homme. Cependant, plusieurs études récentes en paléoécologie et archéologie ont démontré la présence d’activités humaines anciennes à partir d’indices paléoenvironnementaux (i.e. pollens de plantes anthropophiles) et d’artefacts (i.e. tessons de céramique). Ces étu...
Poster
Full-text available
Many evidence have been found for intensive past Human presence in the forests of Central Africa, notably widespread charcoal occurrence in the soil. Forest clearing for slash-and-burn agriculture may have favored the competitiveness of light-demanding species (LD) to the detriment of shade-bearer species (SB). Hypothesis: Positive correlation betw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For conservation biology and sustainable management, the natural character of tropical forest is a crucial issue. Its assessment is usually based on ecological proxies such as forest composition and structure. However the estimation made on this basis only considers short term processes at a local scale. In contrast the long term processes are appr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Studies conducted in the Congo Basin forests concluded that soil parameters and large disturbances induced by human activities since 3000–2000 BP could be the main driver for the persistence of long lived light-demanding tall tree species. Today most of the timber species belong to this group, among them Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae). Like many other...
Poster
Full-text available
Non-random spatial distribution of trees is the result of both neutral and deterministic factors. Neutral models suggest that species within a community are equally competitive, with spatial structures mainly due to dispersal limitation. Deterministic (or non-neutral) models consider species assemblages as the result of what we name “induced spatia...
Poster
Full-text available
In the context of global change understanding the interactions between plant ecology and plant physiology remains a crucial issue. In this study we aimed at analyzing the vascular characteristics involved in the ecological traits of woody species from the northern Congo Basin. We crosschecked three databases: the botanical inventories (857 spp.) an...
Article
Full-text available
Tracing human history in west central Africa suffers from a scarcity of historical data and archaeological remains. In order to provide new insight into this problem, we reviewed 733 radiocarbon dates of archaeological sites from the end of the Late Stone Age, Neolithic Stage, and Early and Late Iron Age in Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study we aimed at identifying the anatomical characters expressing life history traits of woody species from the northern Congo Basin. We crosschecked three databases: the botanical inventories produced during the CoForChange project (857 spp.), the database of life history traits established by the CIRAD (France) and GxABT (Belgium) (464 s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Les forêts du bassin du Congo ont longtemps été considérées comme des massifs historiquement épargnés par l'action de l'homme. Des résultats plus ou moins récents de recherches scientifiques remettent en question cette vision des forêt denses humides africaines.
Article
Full-text available
Tracing human history in west central Africa suffers from a scarcity of historical data and archaeological remains. In order to provide new insight into this problem, we reviewed 733 radiocarbon dates of archaeological sites from the end of the Late Stone Age, Neolithic Stage, and Early and Late Iron Age in Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction: Understanding current Central Africa vegetation patterns faces the scarcity of data about their past evolution. However, a growing hypothesis suggests that past human activities could have had a substantial influence on vegetation (Van Gemerden et al. 2003, Brncic et al. 2009). Indeed, by creating large openings (fig. 1), they might h...