Julian F Thayer

Julian F Thayer
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Psychology

About

666
Publications
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39,286
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Publications

Publications (666)
Article
Full-text available
Stress-related exhaustion symptoms have a high prevalence which is only likely to increase further in the near future. Understanding the physiological underpinnings of exhaustion has important implications for accurate diagnosis and the development of effective prevention and intervention programs. Given its integrative role in stress-regulation, t...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that excessive negative self-related thought during mind wandering involves the default mode network (DMN) core subsystem and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, which involves slow paced breathing to increase HRV, is known to promote emotional well-being. However, it remains unclear...
Article
Full-text available
Background The study aimed to investigate the link between burnout symptoms and prosocial behaviour, as well as the role of acute stress and vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) on this association. Methods Seventy men were randomly assigned to either the stress or the control condition of the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract 1031: Background: In a previous exploratory study, there was evidence of differences in the reactivity of the trigeminocardial reflex between psychosomatic patients (PP) and healthy controls. This reflex can be elicited by cold stimulation of the trigeminal nerve on the forehead (so-called cold face test; CFT) and measured by heart rate va...
Preprint
Acute stress robustly activates the brain’s noradrenergic system, the hub of which is the locus coeruleus (LC). Recent studies have indicated that structural integrity of the LC, assessed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is associated with better cognitive outcomes in later life. However, no studies have examined whether MRI-assessed LC in...
Article
Full-text available
There is a continuing debate concerning “adjustments” to heart period variability [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV)] for the heart period [i.e., increases inter-beat-intervals (IBI)]. To date, such arguments have not seriously considered the impact a demographic variable, such as gender, can have on the association between HRV and the heart perio...
Article
Full-text available
The present study tested whether cardiac vagal activity—which is known to play a vital role in social cognition and engagement—predicted the impact of faces of other ethnicity on selective attention under load. Based on the neurovisceral integration theory, we hypothesized that participants with higher resting heart rate variability (HRV) would exh...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers generally agree that when up- and down-regulating emotion, control regions in the prefrontal cortex turn up or down activity in affect-generating brain areas. However, the 'affective dial hypothesis' that turning up and down emotions produces opposite effects in the same affect-generating regions is untested. We tested this hypothesis b...
Article
Full-text available
Higher vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), reflecting vagal activity as indexed by heart function and lower stress vulnerability, is associated with higher perceived social support. Seeking social support is an adaptive stress response, and evolutionary theories suggest that females use this strategy more than males. The current study...
Preprint
As an arousal hub region in the brain, the locus coeruleus (LC) has bidirectional connections with the autonomic nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of LC structural integrity have been linked to cognition and arousal, but less is known about factors that influence LC structure and function across time. Here, we tested t...
Article
Cardiac inter-beat intervals (IBIs) reflect autonomic functioning and self-regulatory abilities and are often investigated by traditional time- and frequency domain analyses. These analyses investigate IBI fluctuations across relatively long time series. The similarity graph algorithm is a nonlinear method that analyses segments of IBI time series...
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance: Vagus nerve stimulation via slow-paced breathing could serve as adjuvant therapeutic approach to reduce excessive inflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Objective: Does a slow-paced breathing technique increasing vagal activity reduce Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients hospitalized with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia...
Article
Elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been repeatedly identified in a subgroup of offenders that displays severe antisocial behavior; establishing physiological markers may help improve early identification and treatment efforts. This study examines to what extent baseline-resting heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) can be used...
Preprint
Full-text available
Heart rate variability is a robust biomarker of emotional well-being, consistent with the shared brain networks regulating emotion regulation and heart rate. While high heart rate oscillatory activity clearly indicates healthy regulatory brain systems, can increasing this oscillatory activity also enhance brain function? To test this possibility, w...
Preprint
Prior studies on emotion regulation identified a set of brain regions specialized for generating and controlling affect. Researchers generally agree that when up- and down-regulating emotion, control regions in the prefrontal cortex turn up or down activity in affect-generating areas. However, the assumption that turning up and down emotions produc...
Article
Full-text available
Future deep space astronauts must maintain adequate nutrition despite highly stressful, isolated, confined and dangerous environments. The present case-study investigated appetite regulating hormones, nutrition status, and physical and emotional stress in a space analog condition: an explorer conducting a 93-day unsupported solo crossing of Antarct...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A paradoxical profile of greater elevated sympathetic vasoconstriction (increased total peripheral resistance, TPR) and increased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) -the so-called Cardiovascular Conundrum- has been reported in African Americans (AAs) both at rest and in response to orthostasis. Whereas some authors have attri...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activ...
Article
Full-text available
Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), a measure of the parasympathetic nervous system’s control over the heart, is often negatively related to maladaptive emotional outcomes. Recent work suggests that quadratic relationships involving these factors may be present; however, research has not investigated gender differences in these nonline...
Article
During pregnancy, there are significant physiological changes to support a healthy fetus. Parasympathetic activity normatively decreases across pregnancy, and psychological stress can promote even further decreased heart rate variability (HRV). This study evaluated (1) changes in vagally-mediated HRV from pregnancy to postpartum, (2) changes in vag...
Article
Full-text available
Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is thought to index top–down control processes in emotion regulation. According to the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS), resting vmHRV indexes top–down resources that are needed to inhibit subcortical threat circuits, which is important for context‐appropriate affective responding. Althoug...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, impedance derived measures of cardiac autonomic balance (CAB) and regulation (CAR) are calculated using indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that primarily reflect parasympathetic nervous system activity (e.g., high-frequency HRV | HF-HRV) and pre-ejection period (PEP; a systolic time interval and measure of sympathetic activity)....
Article
African American (AA) individuals are at a greater risk for the development of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, compared to European Americans (EAs). Higher vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) is typically associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). However, research has yet to exami...
Article
Full-text available
Worry is a central process in a wide range of psychopathological and somatic conditions. Three studies (N = 856) were used to test whether a subscale composed of five items of the most commonly used trait anxiety questionnaire, Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version (STAI-T), is appropriate to measure worry. Results showed that t...
Article
Full-text available
The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) is a well-validated performance measure of trait emotional awareness (EA), which is associated with psychological and physical problems. EA is, however, expected to vary over time and we aimed to adapt the LEAS to permit the measurement of EA in daily life as a function of momentary state. Twenty-five...
Article
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Darwin emphasized the intimate relationship between the brain and the heart over 150 years ago. Healthy aging is associated with significant changes in both the brain and the heart. The changes between these, the two most important organs of the body, are linked via the vagus nerve. In this review we examine the normative changes with aging and the...
Article
Full-text available
New tools for non-specific primary prevention strategies covering somatic and mental health in occupational medicine are urgently needed. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the capacity of the body to adapt to environmental challenges and of the mind to regulate emotions. Hence, a 24 h-measurement of HRV offers a unique possibility to quantify t...
Article
Full-text available
Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) is at the heart of the opioid epidemic in the United States. Although chronic opioid use is commonly accompanied by deficits in social functioning, little is known about the impact of chronic NMPOU on social cognitive functions. Social neuroscience models suggest that empathy activates similar or even equ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Decreased vagally-mediated heart rate variability has previously been prospectively linked with increased blood pressure; however, to date, no such prospective data exist regarding this relationship among Blacks. Materials and methods: We examin...
Article
Full-text available
In recent clinical practice, a biomarker of vagal neuroimmunomodulation (NIM), namely the ratio of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and CRP, was proposed to index the functionality of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This study aims to transfer and extend the previous findings to two general population-based samples to expl...
Article
Psychophysiological research methods allow important insights into normative and pathological functioning of the human organism. This position paper briefly reviews existing studies, investigating the psychophysiological concomitants of personality pathology, with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Focussing on measures, indexing autonomic nervo...
Article
The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been implicated in the regulation of stress-related cognitive processes and physiological responses and is the principal target of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques applied to psychiatric conditions. However, existing studies are mostly correlational and causal evidence on the role of this...
Article
Background African Americans have the highest rates of hypertension-related disease of any ethnic group in the USA. Importantly, racism and discrimination have been linked to these higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Discrimination is deleterious not only to those that are the recipients of this unfair treatment but also to the partners and fa...
Article
Recent studies have shown higher resting-state vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) to be related to greater memory retrieval. Research has not yet linked resting vmHRV with memory encoding and retrieval, as both are thought to play an important role in correctly distinguishing between true and false memories. The current study investiga...
Article
Full-text available
Frequent or chronic reduction in heart rate variability (HRV) is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease, and psychological stress has been suggested to be a co-determinant of this reduction. Recently, we evaluated various methods to measure additional HRV reduction in everyday life and to relate these reductions to psychological stress. In...
Article
Background Women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) have poor cardiovagal modulation. It is unclear whether this finding reflects a broader abnormality across many systems such as gastro‐vagal modulation. Aim To determine if maladaptive cardiovagal activity in females with CPP is accompanied by maladaptive gastric myoelectric activity. Methods A tota...
Article
Full-text available
Paradoxically, some individuals who experience pathological worry also have good capacity for top-down control over their thoughts. Why such individuals would nevertheless worry excessively remains unclear. One explanation is suggested by research showing that those experiencing pathological worry are set apart from healthy controls by their belief...
Article
Several labels, such as neuroticism, negative emotionality, and dispositional negativity, indicate a broad dimension of psychopathology. However, largely separate, often disorder-specific research lines have developed that focus on different cognitive and affective characteristics that are associated with this dimension, such as perseverative cogni...
Article
Full-text available
The present study employed an ex-Gaussian model of response times (RTs) to elucidate the cognitive processes related to experimentally induced state anxiety (SA) and vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), an indicator of adaptive responses in both cognitive and affective domains. Participants (n = 110) completed a dual task composed of (i...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Physical activity has been associated with several individual dimensions of sleep. However, the association between physical activity and sleep health, a construct that emphasizes the multidimensional nature of sleep, has not been explored. This analysis examined the relationship between physical activity and a composite measure of sleep...
Article
Full-text available
Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve s...
Article
Significant health disparities exist between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA) in hypertension and hypertension‐related disorders. Evidence suggests that this is due to impaired vasodilation in AAs. Pregnancy is a potent systemic vasodilatory state. However, differences in vasodilation between AAs and EAs have not been investigated...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, partic...
Article
In recent years, increasing interest has been devoted to the physiological basis of self and other-oriented compassion. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents a promising candidate for such a role, given its association with soothing emotions and context appropriate prefrontal inhibitory control over threat-defensive responses. The aim of this stu...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Individuals with depression have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. While lower daytime HRV may be one mechanism of this association, it is less clear whether HRV during sleep (sHRV) differs between adults with and without depression. Examining sHRV is an important measure to test given evidence that nocturnal differences in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several labels such as neuroticism, negative emotionality and dispositional negativity indicate a broad dimension of psychopathology. However, largely separate research lines have developed, often disorder-specific, that focus on different cognitive and affective characteristics that are associated with this dimension, such as perseverative cogniti...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Decades of research suggest there may be important ethnic differences in the hemodynamic mechanisms that co-determine arterial blood pressure (BP), the primary diagnostic index of hypertension. In general, studies have observed that, compared to European Americans (EA), African Americans (AA) exhibit higher total peripheral resistance...
Article
Full-text available
Following the publication of our article [1], we have become aware of one error in the exclusion criteria, inconsistencies in Figure 1 and Figure 2, and a typo in the reference list.
Article
Background: Executive function and psychomotor speed are consistently impaired in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Persistent cognitive impairments after depression remission are thought to reflect "scarring" from the neurotoxic effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity during a depressive episode. As sleep also deterio...
Article
Full-text available
A recent meta-analysis revealed that cardiac vagal activity (mostly indicated by vagally-mediated heart rate variability; HRV) decreases significantly from the follicular to luteal menstrual cycle phase in naturally-cycling participants. However, the question remains as to whether cyclical changes in estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or both are r...
Article
Stressful experiences can be transmitted among individuals through social interactions. Like humans, rodents are social creatures whose behavior and physiology can be influenced by the emotional state of fellow rodents. This paper will review rodent studies which have explored two conditions of potential social stress contagion using the social def...
Article
Full-text available
Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension earlier in life, progress from prehypertension to hypertension at an accelerated rate, and exhibit greater hypertension-mediated organ damage (e.g., kidney disease, stroke). In this paper, we tested whether the longitudinal associations between elevated systolic blood pressure and disruption of brai...
Article
Full-text available
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with various diseases and reflects autonomic cardiac control sensitive to central nervous system function. Examples of the heart-brain interaction are illustrated by extreme clinical conditions such as brain death, orthotopic heart transplantation, weaning from respirator support, and brain maturatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Worry is a central process in a wide range of psychopathological and somatic conditions. Three studies (N = 856) were used to test whether a subscale composed of five items of the most commonly used trait anxiety questionnaire, Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version (STAI-T), is appropriate to measure worry. Results showed that t...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in cardiac vagal activity (CVA; e.g., parasympathetically-mediated heart rate variability) as a biomarker of physical and mental health has increased exponentially in recent years. However, the understanding of sources of within-person change (i.e., intra-individual variance) in CVA is lagging behind. This systematic review and meta-analys...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple studies have demonstrated low vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) being associated with a range of risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Yet, no cut point exists that indicates elevated risk. In the present study we sought to identify a cut point-value...
Article
Objective: Previous research indicates a link between burnout symptoms and reduced vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV); however, the directionality of this relationship, is still largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between HRV and burnout symptoms over one year, with a special...
Article
Reduced high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) is associated with a greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although African Americans (AA) are at greater risk for CVD, they show greater HF-HRV compared to European Americans (EA). Previous studies suggest that differences in the association between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF)...
Article
Several studies have highlighted the role of heart rate variability (HRV) in social engagement and social cognition. However, whether HRV is involved in the ability to remember faces associated with affectively salient behavioural information remains unexplored. The present study aims to close this gap by investigating long-term face-memory accurac...
Conference Paper
Background: Interest in cardiac vagal activity (CVA; e.g., parasympathetically-mediated heart rate variability) as a biological marker of psychological and psychiatric functioning has increased exponentially in recent years. However, the understanding of sources of within-person change in CVA is lagging behind. The speaker presents the first meta-a...
Article
Extinction of conditioned fear serves as a laboratory model for the mechanism of action underlying exposure treatment with patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Thus, an enhanced understanding of individual differences in extinction learning may help to improve exposure procedures by tailoring treatment plans to the specific needs of the patie...
Article
Introduction: Burnout symptomatology is associated with various negative health consequences; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. One potential pathway involves alterations in the acute stress response. The aims of the present study were to examine burnout-associated alterations in stress-reactivity patterns, duri...
Article
Full-text available
Background Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a frequent and severe anxiety disorder among older adults. GAD increases the risk of developing other disorders such as depression and coronary heart disease. Older adults with GAD exhibit a poorer response to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) compared to younger patients with GAD. The normal age-re...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Vagally mediated immunomodulatory effects play an important role in controlling proinflammatory cytokine production and inflammation. This cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is organized as a reflex arc and gained increasing interest as therapeutically target in clinical research. An index of vagal neuroimmunomodulation (NIM) is repo...