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Julian Northbrook

Julian Northbrook
Northbrook Languages Ltd.

Doctor of Philosophy


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Julian Northbrook's research is focused on two key areas: the inclusion of formulaic sequences in teaching materials in order to facilitate their learning (and in turn help learners increase fluency and naturalness). The integration of English teaching methodology and applied psychology/ coaching practices.
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - April 2021
Julian Northbrook (Northbrook Languages Ltd.)
  • Senior Researcher
  • Julian Northbrook is an independent researcher and founder of "Doing English" – a support system for high-level ESL learners using English in work and business.
September 2013 - June 2020
University of Nottingham
Field of study
  • Applied and Psycholingustics
September 2011 - September 2012
University of Nottingham
Field of study
  • Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching


Publications (4)
The current study examines the perceived naturalness of lexical bundles learned from early-stage teaching materials in Japanese learners of English. Naturalness ratings of 24 native English speakers and 23 non-native speakers with Japanese as their first language were compared in relation to corpus derived frequencies from the British National Corp...
For second-language learners, the use of formulaic language can benefit processing. Previous studies have explored the development of a ‘processing advantage’ for lexical bundles and investigated whether learning materials can be optimized via repetition or enhancement in order to facilitate it. However, studies have tended to consider these factor...
In a communicative approach to language teaching, students are presented with “authentic” language, which is thought to allow them to produce it in a nativelike way. The current study explores whether the lexical bundles in communicative Japanese junior high school textbooks are representative of conversational English. To do this, we use a corpus-...
Usage-based approaches to second language acquisition put a premium on the linguistic input that learners receive and predict that any sequences of words that learners encounter frequently will experience a processing advantage. The current study explores the processing of high-frequency sequences of words known as ‘lexical bundles' in beginner lea...


Cited By


Project (1)
This project aims to assess the impact of teaching materials on formulaic language processing, naturalness intuitions and fluency in L2 speakers.