Julia Parish-Morris

Julia Parish-Morris
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia | CHOP · Department of Pediatrics

About

74
Publications
28,728
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,430
Citations
Citations since 2016
48 Research Items
1241 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
Eye tracking has long been used to characterize differences in social attention between autistic and non-autistic children, but recent work has shown that these patterns may vary widely according to the biological sex of the participants and the social complexity and gender-typicality of the eye tracking stimuli (e.g., barbies vs. transformers). To...
Article
The objectives of this study were to (1) demonstrate the application of percentiles to advance the interpretation of patient-reported outcomes and (2) establish autism-specific percentiles for four Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures. PROMIS measures were completed by parents of autistic children and adolescen...
Article
Full-text available
The early emergence of social communication challenges and their impact on language in infants later diagnosed with autism has sparked many early intervention programs that target social communication skills. While research has consistently shown lower scores on social communication assessments in the first year of life, there is limited research a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined differences in linguistic features produced by autistic and neurotypical (NT) children during brief picture descriptions, and assessed feature stability over time. Weekly speech samples from well-characterized participants were collected using a telephony system designed to improve access for geographically isolated and historic...
Article
Full-text available
Background Canonical babbling—producing syllables with a mature consonant, full vowel, and smooth transition—is an important developmental milestone that typically occurs in the first year of life. Some studies indicate delayed or reduced canonical babbling in infants at high familial likelihood for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or who later recei...
Article
Background Sex differences in the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders are particularly evident in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Heterogeneous symptom presentation and the potential of measurement bias hinder early ASD detection in females, and may contribute to discrepant prevalence estimates. We examined trajectories of social communicati...
Poster
Full-text available
Girls are less likely to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than boys, and may be missed or misdiagnosed due to behavioral characteristics that differ from ASD boys. We investigated sex and diagnostic group differences in the prosodic characteristics of speeded tongue twisters. Sixty-five children with ASD and typically developing (TD...
Preprint
Full-text available
Environments with sparse rewards and long horizons pose a significant challenge for current reinforcement learning algorithms. A key feature enabling humans to learn challenging control tasks is that they often receive expert intervention that enables them to understand the high-level structure of the task before mastering low-level control actions...
Article
Successful social communication is complex; it relies on effectively deploying and continuously revising one's behavior to fit the needs of a given conversation, partner, and context. For example, a skilled conversationalist may instinctively become less talkative with a quiet partner and more talkative with a chattier one. Prior research suggests...
Article
Full-text available
Background Autistic individuals frequently experience social communication challenges. Girls are diagnosed with autism less often than boys even when their symptoms are equally severe, which may be due to insufficient understanding of the way autism manifests in girls. Differences in the behavioral presentation of autism, including how people talk...
Article
Full-text available
Discernment of possible sex-based variations in presentations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms is limited by smaller female samples with ASD and confounds with ASD ascertainment. A large national cohort of individuals with autism, SPARK, allowed parent report data to be leveraged to examine whether intrinsic child characteristics and extr...
Article
Full-text available
Infant vocalizations are early‐emerging communicative markers shown to be atypical in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but few longitudinal, prospective studies exist. In this study, 23,850 infant vocalizations from infants at low (LR)‐ and high (HR)‐risk for ASD (HR‐ASD = 23, female = 3; HR‐Neg = 35, female = 13; LR = 32, female = 10; 80% White; co...
Article
Objective To examine overlap and divergence of symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with and without co-occurring Attention/Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Anxiety Disorder by age and sex. Method Participants included 25,078 individuals registered in the SPARK cohort, age 6-18 years. SPARK participation includes online con...
Chapter
Social cognitive deficits are pervasive and well-studied in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but patterns of social cognition are rarely integrated with other seminal theories, such as the social motivation theory of autism. In this chapter, we first provide a brief review of research studies focused on social cognition, with special attention to th...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate an eye tracking task as a predictor and outcome measure of treatment response for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) social skills interventions, adolescents and young adults with ASD completed the eye tracking task before, immediately after, and two months after completing Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Autism (SCIT-A). The...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Girls with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are chronically underdiagnosed compared to boys, which may be due to poorly understood sex differences in a variety of domains, including social interest and motivation. In this study, we use natural language processing to identify objective markers of social phenotype that are easily obtained...
Article
Full-text available
Olfactory dysfunction is recognized in neurodevelopmental disorders and may serve as an early indicator of global dysfunction. The present meta-analysis measures olfaction effect sizes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Meta-analysis included 320 ADHD, 346 A...
Article
Low‐cost, wireless immersive virtual reality (VR) holds significant promise as a flexible and scalable intervention tool to help individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) learn and develop critical practical life skills, including interacting safely and effectively with police officers. Previous research suggests that VR is a motivating inter...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by social communication challenges and repetitive behaviors that may be quickly detected by experts (Autism Res 10:653-62, 2017; American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013). Recent research suggests that even naïve non-e...
Article
Full-text available
Autistic self-advocates, family members, and community organizations have called for greater emphasis on enhancing quality of life (QoL) for people with autism. To do this, it is critical to understand how QoL unfolds across the life course and to clarify whether gender affects QoL, health, and functioning for people with autism. The purpose of thi...
Article
Objective: The etiology of pediatric brain tumor survivor (PBTSs) social difficulties is not well understood. A model of social competence for youth with brain disorder and evidence from youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that diminished social attention may underlie social deficits in PBTSs. This study used eye tracking technology...
Article
Many children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who receive early intervention reap developmental benefits, but little is known about characteristics of early intervention placements in the community that optimize individual growth. The extent to which children hear and use language, in particular, may contribute significantly to developmenta...
Article
Emerging research suggests social attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) girls is enhanced relative to ASD boys but may also be affected by the type of social and nonsocial content presented. This study examined how biological sex and gender norms interact to influence visual attention in 79 school-aged children observing scenes that included...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review We review what is known about how pre-linguistic vocal differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) unfold across development and consider whether vocalization features can serve as useful diagnostic indicators. Recent Findings Differences in the frequency and acoustic quality of several vocalization types (e.g., babbles and cri...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The male bias in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses is well documented. As a result, less is known about the female ASD phenotype. Recent research suggests that conclusions drawn from predominantly male samples may not accurately capture female behavior. In this study, we explore potential sex differences in attention to social s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Learning through social observation (i.e., watching other people interact) lays the foundation for later social skills and social cognition. However, social situations are often complex, and humans are only capable of attending to one aspect of a scene at a time. How do people choose where to allocate their visual resources when viewing...
Article
SYNOPSIS It is natural to feel upset when two sets of responsibilities clash, and it is important to identify characteristics that predict parenting behaviors in the context of work-family conflict. Here, I examine the other side of the coin, reviewing inborn features of infants that likely impact parents’ feelings and behaviors. Some infants are l...
Article
Full-text available
While well-represented on clinical measures, co-speech gesture production has never been formally studied in autistic adults. Twenty-one verbally fluent autistic adults and 21 typically developing controls engaged in a controlled conversational task. Group differences were observed in both semantic/pragmatic and motoric features of spontaneously pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Narrative abilities are linked to social impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such that reductions in words about cognitive processes (e.g., think, know) are thought to reflect underlying deficits in social cognition, including Theory of Mind. However, research suggests that typically developing (TD) boys and girls tell narrativ...
Chapter
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition affecting a growing number of individuals across the lifespan. It is characterized by observable impairments in social communication, as well as repetitive behaviors and restricted patterns of interests. Early, intensive behavioral interventions improve long-term outcome...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Language delay is extremely common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet it is unclear whether measurable variation in early language is associated with genetic liability for ASD. Assessment of language development in unaffected siblings of children with ASD can inform whether decreased early language ability aggregates...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. Prior research suggests that restricted patterns of behavior in ASD may be cross-domain phenomena that are evident in a variety of modalities. Computational s...
Article
Lay summary: The goal of this study was to measure behaviors that contribute to social functioning difficulties in adults with ASD, with the ultimate goal of guiding treatment development. We found that motivation to interact with others was significantly related to social anxiety and social skill. Our results suggest that motivation may be import...
Article
Full-text available
Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected “camouflaging” in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on...
Article
Full-text available
Children's early language environments are related to later development. Little is known about this association in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often experience language delays or have ASD. Fifty-nine 9-month-old infants at high or low familial risk for ASD contributed full-day in-home language recordings. High-risk...
Article
Recognition of emotional facial expressions is a crucial skill for adaptive behavior that most often occurs in a multi-sensory context. Affective matching tasks have been used across development to investigate how people integrate facial information with other senses. Given the relative affective strength of olfaction and its relevance in mediating...
Article
Various theorists have argued for the importance of a developmental approach to studying typical development (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998; Lerner, 1996; Lerner & Hood, 1986; Masten & Cicchetti, 2010; Overton, 2014; Overton & Lerner, 2012, 2014), and there are reasons to believe that this issue is even more critical to the study of atypical development (T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The phenotypic complexity of Autism Spectrum Disorder motivates the application of modern computational methods to large collections of observational data, both for improved clinical diagnosis and for better scientific understanding. We have begun to create a corpus of annotated language samples relevant to this research, and we plan to join with o...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that would benefit from low-cost and reliable improvements to screening and diagnosis. Human language technologies (HLTs) provide one possible route to automating a series of subjective decisions that currently inform "Gold Standard" diagnosis based on clinical judgment. In th...
Article
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments that have been related to deficits in social attention, including diminished gaze to faces. Eye-tracking studies are commonly used to examine social attention and social motivation in ASD, but they vary in sensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that the ecological nature of...
Conference Paper
Background: As early as 6 months of age, children later diagnosed with ASD prioritize social information differently than typically developing children. Early atypical attention to people, in particular, is hypothesized to lead to downstream effects on social cognition that cause significant impairment in everyday social interaction. Visual attenti...
Poster
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and communication deficits, which we have hypothesized to be caused by atypicalities in the areas of social attention and responsiveness to social reward. Prior studies show that individuals with ASD attend to faces less than typically developing controls (TDCs), a pattern that...
Conference Paper
Background: Language delay is a primary concern for many toddlers with ASD (DeGiacomo & Fombonne, 1998), and the presence of language before age 5 in this population is a powerful predictor of functional outcome (Anderson et al., 2009). Research using parent-report measures suggests that vocabulary in ASD is delayed but not deviant in composition (...
Poster
Background: In the past decade, a number of studies have used eye tracking technology to quantify attention to social scenes. Taken together, these studies converge to demonstrate that individuals with ASD display increased attention to background objects and decreased attention to faces and people compared to controls (e.g., Bradshaw, Shic, & Chaw...
Conference Paper
Background: Typically developing infants interpret actions by assigning intentions and goals to human characters, but not to inanimate objects, such as grasping claws (Cannon & Woodward, 2011). Although some research suggests that children with ASD are able to recognize goals and intentions (Carpenter et al., 2001; Hamilton, 2009), other findings s...
Article
Full-text available
Diminished social motivation constitutes one of the core impairments of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is thought to have a strong impact on the way individuals with autism respond to the presence of others. In this study, we hypothesized that experimental contexts involving direct interaction with an experimenter might elicit different reactio...
Article
Full-text available
Broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a milder expression of the social and communication impairments seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While prior studies characterized the BAP in unaffected family members of probands with ASD, the relationship between parental BAP traits and proband symptomatology remains poorly understood. This study utilizes t...
Article
Early experiences with books predict later reading success, and an interactive shared reading style called “dialogic reading” is especially beneficial to emergent literacy. Electronic console (EC) books, CD-rom books, and e-book apps are designed to teach preschoolers preliteracy skills, but research has yet to systematically explore the impact of...
Article
Full-text available
Although the extant literature on face recognition skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) shows clear impairments compared to typically developing controls (TDC) at the group level, the distribution of scores within ASD is broad. In the present research, we take a dimensional approach and explore how differences in social attention during an eye...
Conference Paper
Background: Research suggests that verbs are harder for typically developing children (TD) to learn than nouns, perhaps because their referents are often less perceptually available than words for concrete objects (Gentner, 1982). One theory suggests that the reduced perceptual availability of verbs necessitates increased support from social and gr...
Conference Paper
Background: ADOS severity scores are designed to assess the extent to which children are impacted by the primary deficits of autism. Unlike previous ADOS scoring metrics, these severity scores are based on the revised algorithm (Gotham et al., 2007), including repetitive and restricted behaviors as well as impairments in social interaction and comm...
Conference Paper
Background: Previous research has shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have impaired facial identity recognition and emotion recognition and are less likely to attend to faces when compared to typically developing controls (TDCs). Facial recognition and processing are important tools utilized to engage in social behaviors, wh...
Conference Paper
Background: Prior research suggests that eye gaze patterns can be useful for quantifying social interest and motivation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurotypical controls (Jones et al., 2008), and to characterize phenotypic differences between these two groups (Klin et al., 2002; Nakano et al., 2010). Clinically, these fin...
Conference Paper
Background: Numerous studies have found that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have face processing impairments compared with typically developing controls (e.g. Wolf et al., 2008) yet, the precise etiology of these deficits remains unknown (Schultz 2005). Recent theories posit that early neurodevelopment is derailed due to diminished s...