Julia Korkman

Julia Korkman
Åbo Akademi University · Psychology

PhD
Working at the European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control (HEUNI) and doing research at Åbo Akademi University.

About

57
Publications
18,429
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618
Citations

Publications

Publications (57)
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has indicated that asylum interviewers—contrary to recommendations—use more closed than open questions to elicit information. In the current study, we investigated how information is elicited in asylum interviews by analysing question‐answer pairs in 105 official Finnish asylum interview transcripts. We developed a new coding fram...
Preprint
Victims of rape must decide whether to file a police report, and many victims decide not to report the rape to the police. The literature on the associations between demographic and individual factors and reporting rape to the police is limited. Here, we investigated the associations between demographic and individual factors (education, socioecono...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research has indicated that asylum interviewers—contrary to recommendations—use more closed than open questions to elicit information. In the current study, we investigated how information is elicited in asylum interviews by analysing question-answer pairs in 105 official Finnish asylum interview transcripts. We developed a new coding fram...
Preprint
Full-text available
The number of people seeking asylum based on their sexual orientation is expected to continue increasing. Assessing the credibility of such claims to determine whether asylum-seekers meet the criteria for refugee status is a complex task for asylum officials. These assessments involve several psychological aspects, affecting applicants’ disclosure...
Article
Descriptions of perpetrators given by eyewitnesses are important in criminal cases, but the accuracy of eyewitnesses is often low. Research suggests that increased distance lowers accuracy of some descriptions and children and older adults tend to be the least accurate. To investigate the effects of distance and age on descriptive accuracy simultan...
Article
Full-text available
Information on the degree to which individuals can make accurate estimations of someone’s age can be of importance in legal contexts, such as child sexual abuse cases in which the victim is an adolescent. There is, however, a scarcity of studies concerning age estimations conducted with young target persons. Using facial photos of target persons ag...
Preprint
Information on the degree to which individuals can make accurate estimations of someone’s age can be of importance in legal contexts, such as child sexual abuse cases in which the victim is an adolescent. There is, however, a scarcity of studies concerning age estimations conducted with young target persons. Using facial photos of target persons ag...
Preprint
Current best-practice guidelines for credibility assessments in asylum procedures have been criticized for their susceptibility to subjectivity and bias. The current study investigated assumptions underlying credibility assessments in Finnish first-instance asylum procedures and how these assumptions fit with widely accepted psychological science....
Article
Full-text available
Although drawing is frequently used during investigative interviews, few studies have explored the effectiveness of draw‐and‐talk techniques with very young children. In this article, we examined the effects of drawing on preschoolers' (3–6 years old) reports of self‐experienced and non‐experienced events. In Study I, we interviewed 83 preschoolers...
Article
Purpose. The current study aimed to examine a Norwegian technique for conducting investigative interviews with preschoolers: the Sequential Interview (SI). The SI advocates for increased initial rapport building and includes a predetermined break before the substantive phase. To explore the potential benefits and risks of the SI, the technique was...
Article
Full-text available
In eyewitness research the frequent use of video playback presented on a computer screen (i.e., 2D videos) in laboratory-based research is problematic due to the low realism of this method when presenting, for example, threatening (and non-threatening) first-person (and third-person) scenarios. However, in contrast to 2D videos, 360-degree videos p...
Article
Full-text available
Interviews with asylum seekers are an important part of investigating the applicant's need of international protection. Few studies have examined if the questions used in interviews allow detailed and accurate narratives. In the current study, we analysed question style, question type, and question order from interviews of 80 official asylum cases...
Article
Few studies have explored the disclosure of child physical abuse although child sexual abuse disclosure has been widely studied and debated for years. The present study explores the characteristics of child physical abuse disclosures and compares them to previously published findings on child sexual abuse disclosure from the same data. The data con...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that children and older adults produce more false alarms in target absent line-ups and that weaker facial encoding increases choosing bias. However, there has been no investigation of how age or facial encoding strength impacts line-up position selections in either sequential or simultaneous line-ups. In the present study, we presented...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the recidivism rates of Finnish child sex offenders convicted in 2010 (n = 361) over a follow-up period of seven years. The results indicate that while reoffending for other types of offences was common (34%), offenders had very low sexual crime recidivism rates (1%). In terms of more persistent criminal careers, less than a qua...
Article
Full-text available
Increased distance between an eyewitness and a culprit decreases the accuracy of eyewitness identifications, but the maximum distance at which reliable observations can still be made is unknown. Our aim was to identify this threshold. We hypothesized that increased distance would decrease identification, rejection accuracy, confidence and would inc...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research shows that increased distance and decreased light result in less correct eyewitness identifications, yet their combined effect is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to establish the maximum distance in low lux (lx) where an eyewitness’s later identification in target present (TP) line-ups is no longer reliable. We...
Preprint
Prior research shows that increased distance and decreased light result in less correct eyewitness identifications, yet their combined effect is unknown. The aim of the present study was to establish the maximum distance in low lux (lx) where an eyewitness’s later identification in target present (TP) line-ups is no longer reliable. We randomized p...
Preprint
Increased distance between an eyewitness and a culprit decreases the accuracy of eyewitness identifications, but the maximum distance at which reliable observations can still be made is unknown. Our aim was to identify this threshold. We hypothesized that increased distance would decrease identification and rejection accuracy, confidence, and incre...
Article
Scholars and investigators of child sexual abuse (CSA) have long pointed out that some CSA allegations may be unfounded. However, no population-based estimates of the occurrence of false allegations has previously been undertaken. The present study presents the first population-based prevalence estimates of unfounded allegations of CSA. We analyzed...
Preprint
Scholars and investigators of child sexual abuse (CSA) have long pointed out that some CSA allegations may be unfounded. However, no population-based estimates of the occurrence of false allegations has previously been undertaken. The present study presents the first population-based prevalence estimates of unfounded allegations of CSA. We analyzed...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this study were twofold: First, to describe a comprehensive assessment model utilized in a center specializing in child sexual abuse (CSA) investigations, and second, to describe the nature and characteristics of the families and allegations assessed, and analyze how case characteristics are related to the assessment outcomes of the CSA...
Article
Abstract Most previous studies on disclosing child sexual abuse (CSA) have either been retrospective or focused on children who already have disclosed. The present study aimed to explore the overall CSA disclosure rate and factors associated with disclosing to adults in a large population-based sample. A representative sample of 11,364 sixth and ni...
Chapter
Full-text available
In Finland, specialised university hospital units have been set up to ensure a child-friendly and expert setting for investigating suspected crimes against children. The units conduct investigative interviews especially in cases involving young children or particularly vulnerable child victims, and provide expert assistance when requested by the po...
Article
Abstract This study explored the effect of training on investigative interviewers’ attitudes and beliefs related to child sexual abuse (CSA). The one-year training provided knowledge about the influence of attitudes and beliefs when investigating alleged crimes against children, guidance for using an interview protocol developed by National Institu...
Chapter
The consensus between psychological and linguistic perspectives on child interviewing provides a basis for best practice that is effective and useful to researchers and practitioners. This chapter brings multidisciplinary findings together in a practice-based discussion of the common features of child interviewing. Points of consensus are identifie...
Article
Upon a raised suspicion of child sexual abuse, time must be taken to control and calm down tne situation. It is important for those working with children to take actions without causing problems to the course of the possible criminal process. Advance issue with treatment guidelines is a good way to confirm adequate basic information about the pheno...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review an evidence-based tool for training child forensic interviewers called the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Protocol (NICHD Protocol), with a specific focus on how the Protocol is being adapted in various countries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors include internation...
Article
Full-text available
Often cases of suspected child sexual abuse (CSA) come forward through children’s accounts to their parents and the parents’ subsequent reporting thereof. In this study (N = 22), randomly assigned parents listened to a mother-daughter conversation concerning suspected CSA. When freely reporting “what the child told,” participants assessed most of t...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review an evidence-based tool for training child forensic interviewers called the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Protocol (NICHD Protocol), with a specific focus on how the Protocol is being adapted in various countries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors include internation...
Article
Full-text available
Within investigations of suspected child abuse, the child's account is often at the core of the judicial process. When analysing the child's account, it is therefore important to consider how parents may have discussed the suspected abuse prior to the official investigation. However, no studies up to the present time have investigated discussions i...
Article
Full-text available
We examined how judges evaluate four characteristics when choosing an expert witness for a forensic psychological or psychiatric case. We asked 87 judges to read short descriptions of legal cases and asked them to choose the best expert witness from a pool of experts who differed based on the following four criteria: the expert could be a psycholog...
Article
Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding thei...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article was to explore whether psychologists, lawyers, and psychology students would be able to predict how children behave in memory and suggestibility experiments and if this ability is associated with different measures of experience. The participants (N = 63) were to predict the results of a series of published research studies...
Article
According to Finnish Child Welfare Law, the authorities are obligated to report suspicions of child sexual abuse immediately to the police and to social services to ensure the well being of the child. The investigating police may request assistance for forensic interviews and medical assessments from specialized units. The child's disclosure is oft...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Forensic Psychiatry Centre for children and adolescents at the Helsinki University Hospital conducts assessments of allegations of child sexual abuse at the request of the Police. In Finland, the Police investigate most such allegations. However, in cases where the children are pre-school age; or the allegation is particularly complicated and t...
Article
The phenomenon of extra tuition is witnessed in many countries and some educationalists have described it as a parallel education system. However, the incidence and impact of extra tuition have often not been studied systematically, especially in Africa. In this article cross-national data for six African education systems (Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have found that legal interviews with children often are conducted in a language that exceeds the cognitive level of the interviewed children. In the present study, investigative interviews with 3Á8-year-old children (n043) in cases of suspected child sexual abuse (CSA) were analysed. Interviewers were mental health professionals w...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of a representative sample of 43 forensic interviews with alleged victims (aged 3 – 8 years) of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Finland was investigated. Interviews were coded for type of interviewer utterance, type of child response, details in the child response and number of words in each utterance. Option-posing, specific suggestive and...
Article
A number (n = 27) of investigative interviews with children were analyzed with a view to explore the verbal dynamics between interviewer and child. Different types of interviewer utterances and child responses were defined, and the interrelationships between these were explored. The effectiveness of different interviewer utterances in eliciting inf...
Article
Full-text available
A non-representative sample of 27 investigative interviews with suspected victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Finland were analysed. Aspects such as the effects of interview phase, repeated interviewing, another (related) person attending the interview, as well as the use of anatomically detailed (AD) dolls were considered. The number of new det...

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Cited By

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
The aim of the project is to examine associated factors to child sexual and physical abuse and disclosure using nationally representative data.
Project
We investigate the psychological aspects of asylum determinations, drawing on research from legal, cross-cultural, social, and cognitive psychology. The aim is to improve current practices to protect the integrity of the asylum system. In particular, we focus on the interview with the asylum seeker and the biases and beliefs that affect decision-making.
Project
Our goals are to 1) improve the methods and practices of forensic investigations of alleged child sexual abuse, 2) to understand the sequelae of abuse, and 3) to understand risk factors in victims and abusers. Our methods include experiments, statistical modelling, and meta-analytical procedures.