Julia P. G. Jones

Julia P. G. Jones
Bangor University · School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography

Natural Science Cambridge

About

171
Publications
109,332
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Introduction
I am a conservation scientist interested in conservation impact evaluation (using quasi-experimental approaches, experimental approaches and participatory impact evaluation), the impacts of conservation interventions (including community forest management, protected areas and biodiversity offsets) on local wellbeing, and the links between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the context of conservation. I am leading a large espa-funded project called P4GES: Can Payments 4 Global Ecosystrem Services reduce poverty? (www.p4ges.org) My University website is available here https://www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy/staff/jjones.php.en I interested in taking on new PhD students (in relevant areas) but have no funding currently.
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - December 2012
Imperial College London
January 2008 - present
Bangor University

Publications

Publications (171)
Article
Full-text available
Conservation practitioners are increasingly interested in the lessons gained through failure. While other sectors have made significant progress in learning from failure, there is currently limited consensus on how a similar transition could best be achieved in conservation, and what is required to facilitate this. One of the key enabling condition...
Article
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) projects aim to contribute to climate change mitigation by protecting and enhancing carbon stocks in tropical forests, but there are no systematic global evaluations of their impact. Using a new data set for tropical humid forests, we used a standardised evaluation approach to qua...
Article
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International policy is focused on increasing the proportion of the Earth’s surface that is protected for nature1,2. Although studies show that protected areas prevent habitat loss3–6, there is a lack of evidence for their effect on species’ populations: existing studies are at local scale or use simple designs that lack appropriate controls7–13. H...
Article
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There is little robust, quantitative information on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the extinction crisis. Focusing on Madagascar, one of the world’s most threatened biodiversity hotspots, we explore whether the cessation of on-site protected-area management activities due to the pandemic were associated with increased burning inside protec...
Article
Full-text available
Meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals requires reconciling development with biodiversity conservation. Governments and lenders increasingly call for major industrial developments to offset unavoidable biodiversity loss but there are few robust evaluations of whether offset interventions ensure no net loss of biodiversity. We focus on the bio...
Article
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Conservation increasingly seeks knowledge of human behaviour. However, securing reliable data can be challenging, particularly if the behaviour is illegal or otherwise sensitive. Specialised questioning methods such as Randomised Response Techniques (RRTs) are increasingly used in conservation to provide greater anonymity, increase response rates,...
Article
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Conservation is predominantly an exercise in trying to change human behaviour – whether that of consumers whose choices drive unsustainable resource use, of land managers clearing natural habitats, or of policymakers failing to deliver on environmental commitments. Yet conservation research and practice have made only limited use of recent advances...
Article
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Human activities are degrading ecosystems worldwide, posing existential threats for biodiversity and humankind. Slowing and reversing this degradation will require profound and widespread changes to human behaviour. Behavioural scientists are therefore well placed to contribute intellectual leadership in this area. This Perspective aims to stimulat...
Article
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1. To be effective, the next generation of conservation practitioners and managers need to be critical thinkers with a deep understanding of how to make evidence-based decisions and of the value of evidence synthesis. 2. If, as educators, we do not make these priorities a core part of what we teach, we are failing to prepare our students to make an...
Preprint
To be published in the upcoming book The New Natural History of Madagascar, edited by S. M. Goodman, published by Princeton University Press.At this critical time for the future of Madagascar’s biodiversity, we first review the past: touching upon conservation from pre- to post-colonial periods before focusing on the period which most dramatically...
Article
Full-text available
1. To be effective, the next generation of conservation practitioners and managers need to be critical thinkers with a deep understanding of how to make evidence‐based decisions and of the value of evidence synthesis. 2. If, as educators, we do not make these priorities a core part of what we teach, we are failing to prepare our students to make an...
Article
Full-text available
Governments are increasingly committing to significant forest restoration. While carbon sequestration is a major objective, the case for restoration often includes benefits to local communities. However, the impacts of forest restoration on local hydrological services (e.g. flood and erosion risk, stream flow during dry periods) are surprisingly po...
Article
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Humanity’s impact on the environment is increasing, as are strategies to conserve biodiversity, but a lack of understanding about how interventions affect ecological and conservation outcomes hampers decision-making. Time series are often used to assess impacts, but ecologists tend to compare average values from before to after an impact; overlooki...
Article
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Many nations use ecological compensation policies to address negative impacts of development projects and achieve No Net Loss (NNL) of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Yet, failures are widely reported. We use spatial simulation models to quantify potential net impacts of alternative compensation policies on biodiversity (indicated by native ve...
Article
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Conservation science needs more high-quality impact evaluations, especially ones that explore mechanisms of success or failure. Randomized control trials (RCTs) provide particularly robust evidence of the effectiveness of interventions (although they have been criticized as reductionist and unable to provide insights into mechanisms), but there hav...
Article
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A global goal of no net loss of natural ecosystems or better has recently been proposed, but such a goal would require equitable translation to country-level contributions. Given the wide variation in ecosystem depletion, these could vary from net gain (for countries where restoration is needed), to managed net loss (in rare circumstances where nat...
Article
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There is growing use of economic incentives such as Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) to encourage sustainable land management. An important critique is that such approaches may unintentionally disrupt environmental and social values, ‘crowding out’ pre-existing motivations to conserve. Some scholars suggest that the use of in-kind payments and...
Article
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Loss of habitats or ecosystems arising from development projects (e.g., infrastructure, resource extraction, urban expansion) are frequently addressed through biodiversity offsetting. As currently implemented, offsetting typically requires an outcome of “no net loss” of biodiversity, but only relative to a baseline trajectory of biodiversity declin...
Article
Full-text available
The awareness of the need for robust impact evaluations in conservation is growing and statistical matching techniques are increasingly being used to assess the impacts of conservation interventions. Used appropriately matching approaches are powerful tools, but they also pose potential pitfalls. We outlined important considerations and best practi...
Preprint
Il est de plus en plus attendu des projets de développement qu’ils quantifient et atténuent pleinement leurs impacts sur la biodiversité avec pour objectif général « l’absence de perte nette » (no net loss) ou un « gain net » (net gain) de biodiversité. Or, chercher à atteindre ces objectifs en matière de biodiversité peut également affecter les po...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of many widely used conservation interventions is poorly understood because of a lack of high-quality impact evaluations. Randomized control trials (RCTs), in which experimental units are randomly allocated to treatment or control groups, offer an intuitive way to calculate the impact of an intervention by establishing a reliable...
Article
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1. Netflix recently launched its high-profile nature documentary Our Planet. Voiced by Sir David Attenborough in English (with Salma Hayek, Penelope Cruz and other Hollywood actors voicing versions simultaneously released in 10 other languages), Netflix are making a clear play for core BBC territory. However, they claim that this is a nature docume...
Article
Fisheries bycatch is a primary driver of cetacean declines, especially for threatened freshwater cetaceans. However, information on the factors influencing cetacean susceptibility to bycatch in small‐scale fisheries is limited, impeding development of evidence‐based conservation strategies. We conducted 663 interviews with fishers from southern Ban...
Article
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A survey of more than 9,000 conservationists in 149 countries reveals that, despite broad diversity in people and ideas, the global conversation community is not divided. Conservation policy will benefit from drawing on this diversity as international negotiations around the post-2020 agenda for conservation proceed.
Preprint
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) for supporting populations of wildlife. While there are a number of association studies showing a relationship between protected areas and abundance or trends in wild species, studies with an appropriate counterfactual (what would have happened in the absence of protection)...
Article
Neoclassical economic interpretations of Payment for Environmental Services (PES), which assume that participants weigh up costs and benefits, are making room for more complex analyses. However, there is still little evidence of how PES programmes interact with existing motivations to conserve, the extent to which funded conservation is additional,...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) for supporting populations of wildlife. While there are a number of association studies showing a relationship between protected areas and abundance or trends in wild species, studies with an appropriate counterfactual (what would have happened in the absence of protection)...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) for supporting populations of wildlife. While there are a number of association studies showing a relationship between protected areas and abundance or trends in wild species, studies with an appropriate counterfactual (what would have happened in the absence of protection)...
Article
Full-text available
Madagascar’s recently elected president ran on a platform of improving the economy and raising people out of poverty. We suggest that addressing the precipitous decline of biodiversity will help to deliver this commitment, and we lay out ways in which President Rajoelina could firmly put the country on a trajectory towards sustainable growth.
Article
Full-text available
Despite calls for greater use of randomized control trials (RCTs) to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions; such experimental evaluations remain extremely rare. Payments for environmental services (PES) are widely used to slow tropical deforestation but there is widespread recognition of the need for better evidence of effectiveness. A...
Article
Full-text available
Despite calls for greater use of randomized control trials (RCTs) to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions; such experimental evaluations remain extremely rare. Payments for environmental services (PES) are widely used to slow tropical deforestation but there is widespread recognition of the need for better evidence of effectiveness. A...
Article
Full-text available
Decision-makers need readily accessible tools to understand the potential impacts of alternative policies on forest cover and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to develop effective policies to meet national and international targets for biodiversity conservation, sustainable development and climate change mitigation. Land change modelling can supp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Development projects worldwide are increasingly required to quantify and fully mitigate their impacts on biodiversity, with an objective of achieving ‘no net loss’ or a ‘net gain’ (NNL/NG) of biodiversity overall. Seeking NNL/NG outcomes can affect people because society relies on, uses and values biodiversity. However these social impacts are ofte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Development projects worldwide are increasingly required to quantify and fully mitigate their impacts on biodiversity, with an objective of achieving ‘no net loss’ or a ‘net gain’ (NNL/NG) of biodiversity overall. Seeking NNL/NG outcomes can affect people because society relies on, uses and values biodiversity. However these social impacts are ofte...
Article
Full-text available
Background Randomised Control Trials (RCTs) are used in impact evaluation in a range of fields. However, despite calls for their greater use in environmental management, their use to evaluate landscape scale interventions remains rare. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) incentivise land users to manage land to provide environmental benefits. We...
Article
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The Government of Madagascar is trying to reduce deforestation and conserve biodiversity through creating new protected areas in the eastern rainforests. While this has many benefits, forest use restriction may bring costs to farmers at the forest frontier. We explored this through a series of surveys in five sites around the Corridor Ankeniheny Za...
Article
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Biodiversity offsets seek to counterbalance loss of biodiversity due to major developments by generating equivalent biodiversity benefits elsewhere, resulting, at least in theory, in ‘no net loss’ (or even a ‘net positive gain’) in biodiversity. While local costs of major developments themselves receive significant attention, the local costs of ass...
Article
Full-text available
Background While the importance of conserving ecosystems for sustainable development is widely recognized, it is increasingly evident that despite delivering global benefits, conservation often comes at local cost. Protected areas funded by multilateral lenders have explicit commitments to ensure that those negatively affected are adequately compen...
Data
Fig. S4. Population distribution within a 2 km buffer of CAZ. Established protected areas managed by Madagascar National Parks (with 2 Km buffer around them) have been excluded as different compensation right exist there. The population model is based on Landscan 2007 data distributed with the EcoEngine algorithm in WaterWorld.
Data
Fig. S1. How households gain access to land in the study sites. Y-axis shows the overall percentage of plots in each site being accessed through one of the five ways listed–total adding up to 100% for each site. Error bars show 95% confidence intervals.
Data
Fig. S3. Pictures showing the context of the field work presented in this paper. a), b) The biodiversity of the CAZ is world-renowned. c), d) 10s of 1000s of people live around the CAZ new protected area, traditionally most people depend economically on clearing land for agriculture in a swidden system known locally as ‘tavy.’ e) The CAZ protected...
Data
Table S1. Attributes and levels of the choice experiment (reference levels in bold).
Data
Survey instruments for phase three of field work. Contingent valuation of the compensation recieved by housholds (in English and Malagasy).
Data
Fig. S2. The value of the compensation projects as a percentage of household opportunity cost. Data is for 62 recipients of compensation (all from site 1), 2 years after compensation was received. The value of compensation is estimated from our contingent valuation while the opportunity cost of conservation is estimated from the choice experiment.
Data
Survey instruments for phase one of field work. (household survey and choice experiment in English and Malagasy).
Data
Fig. S5. Examining goodness of fit of the modelled population from existing sources with our population data collected from the study areas. Our field data shows the primary census data collected in each fokontany during 2014/2015 (population data from p4ges field sites) plotted against the population estimates for those sites from LandScan 2007 (L...
Data
Table S2. The coefficients from the choice experiment. Lower and upper bounds are 95% confidence intervals.
Data
Survey instruments for phase two of field work. (Agricultural survey in English and Malagasy).
Data
Fig. S6. Example choice card of the Discrete Choice Experiment used to estimate opportunity costs.
Data
Table S3. The annualised opportunity costs of conservation per household (USD).
Preprint
There is general agreement that conservation decision-making should be evidence-informed, but many evaluations of intervention effectiveness do not attempt to account for confounding variables and so provide weak evidence. Randomised Control Trials (RCTs), in which experimental units are randomly allocated to treatment or control groups, offer an i...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is general agreement that conservation decision-making should be evidence-informed, but many evaluations of intervention effectiveness do not attempt to account for confounding variables and so provide weak evidence. Randomised Control Trials (RCTs), in which experimental units are randomly allocated to treatment or control groups, offer an i...
Article
Full-text available
Human migration is often considered an important driver of land use change and a threat to protected area integrity, but the reasons for in-migration, the effectiveness of conservation restrictions at stemming migration, and the extent to which migrants disproportionately contribute to land use change has been poorly studied, especially at fine spa...
Article
Full-text available
There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of...
Data
Excel file containing metadata, summary, variable names, results and the survey code for android phones. (XLSX)
Data
Oral consent script and attribute explanation. (DOCX)