Julia Baker

Julia Baker
Wood Group

PhD

About

54
Publications
15,365
Reads
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685
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2016 - June 2016
Parsons Brinckerhoff
Position
  • Biodiversity Technical Specialist
March 2012 - present
Birkbeck, University of London
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Conservation management planning
January 2004 - December 2005
University of Kent
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
The upcoming Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting, and adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, represent an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, including mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in society. We present a framework that...
Preprint
The upcoming meeting of the Convention on Biological Diversity aims to agree a Global Biodiversity Framework, representing an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, but this will only succeed if biodiversity conservation can be mainstreamed throughout society....
Article
Achieving “No Net Loss” (NNL) of nature from a development typically requires projects to follow a ‘mitigation hierarchy’, by which biodiversity losses are first avoided wherever possible, then minimised or remediated, and finally any residual impacts offset by conservation activities elsewhere. Biodiversity NNL can significantly affect people, inc...
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife crime in protected areas remains a major challenge to conservation. However, little is known about the role of local communities in providing information on illegal activities to help improve law enforcement efforts in protected areas. As an initial exploration of this complex topic, we aimed to understand the perceptions of law enforcemen...
Article
Full-text available
Much research and policy effort is being expended on ways to conserve living nature while enabling the economic and social development needed to increase equity and end poverty. We propose this will only be possible if policy shifts away from conservation targets that focus on avoiding losses towards processes that consider net outcomes for biodive...
Preprint
Il est de plus en plus attendu des projets de développement qu’ils quantifient et atténuent pleinement leurs impacts sur la biodiversité avec pour objectif général « l’absence de perte nette » (no net loss) ou un « gain net » (net gain) de biodiversité. Or, chercher à atteindre ces objectifs en matière de biodiversité peut également affecter les po...
Article
Full-text available
Economic development projects are increasingly applying the mitigation hierarchy to achieve No Net Loss, or even a Net Gain, of biodiversity. Because people value biodiversity and ecosystem services, this can affect the well-being of local people; however, these types of social impacts from development receive limited consideration. We present ethi...
Article
Understanding people's preferences for biodiversity offsetting activities can help to design offsets that achieve ‘no net loss’ (NNL) of biodiversity while incorporating the use and cultural values associated with this biodiversity. We use a stated preference choice experiment to solicit preferences for different proposed biodiversity offsets, link...
Article
Full-text available
No net loss (NNL) biodiversity policies mandating the application of a mitigation hierarchy (avoid, minimize, remediate, offset) to the ecological impacts of built infrastructure are proliferating globally. However, little is known about their effectiveness at achieving NNL outcomes. We reviewed the English‐language peer‐reviewed literature (captur...
Article
In conservation, understanding the drivers of behavior and developing robust interventions to promote behavioral change is challenging and requires a multi‐faceted approach. This is particularly true for efforts to address illegal wildlife use, where pervasive ‐ and sometimes simplistic ‐ narratives often obscure complex realities. In this paper, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Development projects worldwide are increasingly required to quantify and fully mitigate their impacts on biodiversity, with an objective of achieving ‘no net loss’ or a ‘net gain’ (NNL/NG) of biodiversity overall. Seeking NNL/NG outcomes can affect people because society relies on, uses and values biodiversity. However these social impacts are ofte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Development projects worldwide are increasingly required to quantify and fully mitigate their impacts on biodiversity, with an objective of achieving ‘no net loss’ or a ‘net gain’ (NNL/NG) of biodiversity overall. Seeking NNL/NG outcomes can affect people because society relies on, uses and values biodiversity. However these social impacts are ofte...
Article
Full-text available
en Governments, businesses, and lenders worldwide are adopting an objective of no net loss (NNL) of biodiversity that is often partly achieved through biodiversity offsetting within a hierarchy of mitigation actions. Offsets aim to balance residual losses of biodiversity caused by development in one location with commensurate gains at another. Alth...
Research
Full-text available
Governments, businesses, and lenders worldwide are adopting an objective of no net loss (NNL) of biodiversity that is often partly achieved through biodiversity offsetting within a hierarchy of mitigation actions. Offsets aim to balance residual losses of biodiversity caused by development in one location with commensurate gains at another. Althoug...
Technical Report
Full-text available
For decades, decision-makers and commissioning authorities have struggled to square the circle of balancing economic growth with environmental sustainability. In many cases, they have been forced to make uncomfortable trade-offs between the two, either sacrificing the natural environment, or holding back growth in order to protect nature. The time...
Article
Full-text available
For years governments, investors and industry have struggled to balance economic growth with measures to protect nature. Today this challenge is as pressing as ever given the unprecedented investment in infrastructure and the increasing decline in biodiversity across the world. We must adopt a new approach that delivers the infrastructure the count...
Presentation
Full-text available
An IEMA hosted consultation webinar on the forthcoming practical guidance on Biodiversity Net Gain
Presentation
Full-text available
Achieving Net Positive Impacts for Biodiversity - presentation for the Net Positive Impact Conference, London
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wildlife crime has come under increasing international scrutiny in recent years, with ever more money being spent on activities to combat it. However, little is known about what drives local people to become involved in wildlife crime, or about which interventions are likely to be most effective in tackling it. This report outlines the findings of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wildlife scout programmes are being implemented across Africa to address human-wildlife conflict. These programmes enlist local community members as volunteers to guard crops and livestock or maintain barriers to prevent wildlife raids. Based on the results of a literature review and informant interviews, this study identifies key factors that help...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wildlife crime has come under increasing international scrutiny in recent years, with ever more money being spent on activities to combat it. However, little is known about what drives local people to become involved in wildlife crime, or about which interventions are likely to be most effective in tackling it. This report outlines the findings of...
Method
Full-text available
This is the overall research framework designed for the local economic development through pro-poor gorilla tourism in Uganda.
Presentation
Full-text available
Webinar presentation on draft good practice principles for biodiversity net gain, for the UK industry
Research
Full-text available
Equitable management of protected areas is more than a moral obligation. Recent research sheds new light on why equity is also vital for ensuring conservation works. So the question now is how do we actually ‘do’ equitable protected area conservation? The new toolkit ‘Fairer, Better’ sets out to bridge the gap between ‘knowing’ and ‘doing’. It part...
Research
Full-text available
CLICK TO ENLARGE Julia Baker This guide aims to support Uganda’s leading work on Integrated Conservation and Development (ICD) by turning research findings from Bwindi Impenetrable National Park into practical advice. It illustrates the complexities of poverty and the range of principles that define fair conservation; and provides a series of guid...
Article
Full-text available
High levels of illegal resource use in two of Uganda’s national parks show the need to rethink current approaches to combatting wildlife crime. Our research suggests that more than 40 per cent of households living adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth and Murchison Falls national parks have been involved in illegal hunting within the past year, mostly to...
Research
Full-text available
Biodiversity offsetting is controversial. People suspect developers of trying to buy their way out of conservation requirements by compensating for biodiversity losses somewhere else. But the framework for offsetting provides several advantages that current wildlife legalisation doesn't offer, and we desperately need these if we're to reach our UK...
Research
Full-text available
Presentation: An overview of Network Rail Infrastructure Project's approach to Biodiversity Net Positive including applying the good practice principles, stakeholder engagement and using Defra's biodiversity unit calculation
Research
Full-text available
A webinar on Network Rail Infrastructure Projects' commitment to net positive outcomes for biodiversity; 17th Nov 2015; full webinar is available at: http://bbop.forest-trends.org/pages/webinars
Data
Details of the survey methods, including how ethical issues were addressed, the UTC (Appendix S1), and of socioeconomic variables, UCT models, and saliences of all motivations and deterrents (Appendix S2) are available online. The authors are solely responsible for the content and functionality of these materials. Queries (other than absence of the...
Article
Full-text available
Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauth...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wildlife crime is an issue of considerable international concern. And with the recent increase in the illegal wildlife trade, and the increasing militarisation with which some kinds of wildlife crime are carried out, concern is growing. Poverty is often cited as a driver of wildlife crime, but wildlife crime, and responses to it, can also have nega...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, southwest Uganda, is home to around half the world’s population of critically endangered Mountain gorilla and is situated in one of the poorest and most densely populated regions of Africa. Integrated Conservation and Development (ICD) initiatives have been promoted as a way of protecting the park while also i...
Book
Full-text available
Biodiversity conservation that contributes towards poverty alleviation is a priority under the 2011–2020 Strategic Plan for the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). Protected areas are important for CBD signatories to deliver this objective and the 10th Conference of Parties encouraged members to ‘support initiatives on the role of protected...
Article
Full-text available
How numbers (not offsetting) can realise the ideal: development with net gain for biodiversity. An article on the use of numbers for biodiversity conservation within the development sector, No Net Loss and biodiversity offsetting.
Article
Full-text available
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-on (UK NEAFO) project built on the work and findings of the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA 2011a, b). The aim of the overall project was to deliver a world-leading, peer-reviewed, independently produced report with supporting materials which develop and communicate the work of the UK NEA and mak...
Presentation
Full-text available
A presentation on experiences gained from industry on implementing and delivering biodiversity net gain; http://www.cieem.net/data/files/Resource_Library/Conferences/2012_Spring_Planning/Conference_Spring_2012-10_Julia_Baker.pdf
Article
Conflicts between protected-area managers and local people are common, but the drivers of conflict are rarely analyzed. This limits opportunities to identify strategies that reduce conflict and the magnitude of resulting threats to conservation. Integrated conservation and development (ICD) was adopted at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, to redu...
Book
Full-text available
Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park are two afromontane forests considered as extremely important biodiversity areas, with global significance, due to their population of highly endangered Mountain Gorilla. Threats to the two parks include uncontrolled exploitation of forest resources as well as fire damage and the...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain gorillas Gorillaberingeiberingei are Critically Endangered, with just two small populations: in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in south-western Uganda and the nearby Virunga Volcanoes on the borders with Rwanda and Uganda. A survey of the Bwindi population was carried out in 2002 and results were compared with the previous census in 199...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
This project intends to contribute to CBD and CITES expressed concern for livelihoods by gathering empirical evidence that improves our understanding of the interactions between wildlife crime and poverty in Uganda. The ultimate project goal is to ensure policy makers have the tools and capacity to understand the interactions between wildlife crime, biodiversity and poverty so they are more able to target interventions that are pro-poor and accrue long-term benefits for rural communities. For more information see: http://www.iied.org/building-capacity-for-pro-poor-responses-wildlife-crime-uganda
Project
Gorilla-tracking tourist activities in Uganda's Bwindi national park generate critical revenue for conservation, but local benefits from tourism are limited and the illegal use of the park's resources continues. This project will develop and test new community-based tourism products and services that improve local skills and job opportunities, and the long-term prospects for the park. For more information see: http://www.iied.org/local-economic-development-through-gorilla-tourism
Project
Governments, financial institutions and businesses worldwide are adopting No Net Loss (NNL) targets for biodiversity, and using offsetting to achieve this. The technical challenges of NNL are widely explored from an ecological perspective within academic literature. However, while international good practice guidance calls for offsets not to make local people worse off, there is a fundamental lack of understanding of how to achieve NNL with regard to people’s use of, and cultural values for, biodiversity, and the social, economic and ecological trade-offs involved. Using the Bujagali and Isimba Hydropower Projects and the Kalagala Offset in Uganda, this work seeks to explore ways in which development and offset activities can result in no net loss of biodiversity while at the same time ensure that local people are no worse off. for more information see: http://www.iccs.org.uk/achieving-no-net-loss-for-communities-and-biodiversity-in-uganda/