Juha Aalto

Juha Aalto
University of Helsinki | HY · Department of Geosciences and Geography

PhD

About

96
Publications
63,372
Reads
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3,120
Citations
Citations since 2017
78 Research Items
2797 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
University of Helsinki
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2012 - January 2015
University of Helsinki
Position
  • PhD Student
May 2011 - present
Finnish Meteorological Institute
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Full-text available
The Finnish Meteorological Institute has calculated statistics for the new reference period of 1981– 2010. During this project, the grid size has been reduced from 10 to 1 km, the evaluation of the interpolation has been improved, and comparisons between different methods has been performed. The climate variables of interest were monthly mean tempe...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme temperatures are key drivers controlling both biotic and abiotic processes, and may be strongly modified by topography and land cover. We modelled mean and extreme temperatures in northern Fennoscandia by combining digital elevation and land cover data with climate observations from northern Finland, Norway and Sweden. Multivariate partitio...
Article
Shifts in precipitation regimes are an inherent component of climate change, but in low energy systems are often assumed to be less important than changes in temperature. Because soil moisture is the hydrological variable most proximally linked to plant performance during the growing season in arctic-alpine habitats, it may offer the most useful pe...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is the region on Earth that is warming at the fastest rate. In addition to rising means of temperature-related variables, Arctic ecosystems are affected by increasingly frequent extreme weather events causing disturbance to Arctic ecosystems. Here, we introduce a new dataset of bioclimatic indices relevant for investigating the changes o...
Article
Full-text available
Protected areas (PAs) offer safe havens for threatened species, but their effectiveness is jeopardised due to climate change and habitat fragmentation in their surroundings. Species are forced into the unhospitable matrix in search of more favourable areas as climate conditions change, leading to negative effects on biodiversity. For red-listed for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ground ice content of the Arctic soils largely dictates the effects of climate change-induced permafrost degradation and top ground destabilization. The current circumarctic information on ground ice content is overly coarse for many key applications, including assessments of hazards to Arctic infrastructure, while detailed data are restricted to v...
Article
Climate velocity is an increasingly used metric to detect habitats, locations and regions which are exposed to high rates of climate change and displacement. In general, velocities are measured based on the assumption that future climatically similar locations can occur anywhere in the study landscape. However, this assumption can provide a biased...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ticks are responsible for transmitting several notable pathogens worldwide. Finland lies in a zone where two human-biting tick species co-occur: Ixodesricinus and Ixodespersulcatus. Tick densities have increased in boreal regions worldwide during past decades, and tick-borne pathogens have been identified as one of the major threats to p...
Article
Microclimate varies greatly over short horizontal and vertical distances, and timescales. This multi-level heterogeneity influences terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystem functions by determining the ambient environment where organisms live in. Fine-scale heterogeneity in microclimate temperatures is driven by local topography, land and water cover...
Preprint
The anthropogenic climate change threatens northern permafrost environments. This compromises the existence of permafrost landforms, such as palsas and peat plateaus, which have been assessed to be critically endangered habitats. In this study, for the first time we integrated geospatial datasets and statistical methods, to model the distribution o...
Article
Permafrost degradation poses serious threats to both natural and human systems through its influence on ecological–hydrological processes, infrastructure stability, and the climate system. The Arctic and the Third Pole (Tibetan Plateau, TP hereafter) are the two northern regions on Earth with the most extensive permafrost areas. However, there is a...
Article
Geomorphological processes profoundly affect plant establishment and distributions, but their influence on functional traits is insufficiently understood. Here, we unveil trait–geomorphology relationships in Arctic plant communities. High‐Arctic Svalbard, low‐Arctic Greenland and sub‐Arctic Fennoscandia. 2011–2018. Vascular plants. We collected fie...
Article
Full-text available
Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we...
Article
Full-text available
Strong historical and predicted future warming over high-latitudes prompt significant effects on agricultural and forest ecosystems. Thus, there is an urgent need for spatially-detailed information of current thermal growing season (GS) conditions and their past changes. Here, we deployed a large network of weather stations, high-resolution geospat...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring the thermal state of permafrost (TSP) is important in many environmental science and engineering applications. However, such data are generally unavailable, mainly due to the lack of ground observations and the uncertainty of traditional physical models. This study produces novel permafrost datasets for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), incl...
Article
1. Cold subarctic pond ecosystems will be threatened due to the increase in global temperatures. Therefore, it is important to gain more knowledge on how their biota may respond to global warming. The aim of this research was to illustrate the variability in diatom species richness and community composition along environmental gradients in northern...
Article
Soil moisture has a fundamental influence on the processes and functions of tundra ecosystems. Yet, the local dynamics of soil moisture are often ignored, due to the lack of fine resolution, spatially extensive data. In this study, we modelled soil moisture with two mechanistic models, SpaFHy (a catchment-scale hydrological model) and JSBACH (a glo...
Article
Forest canopies buffer macroclimatic temperature fluctuations. However, we do not know if and how the capacity of canopies to buffer understorey temperature will change with accelerating climate change. Here we map the difference (offset) between temperatures inside and outside forests in the recent past and project these into the future in boreal,...
Article
Full-text available
Tundra ecosystems have experienced changes in vegetation composition, distribution, and productivity over the past century due to climate warming. However, the increase in above-ground biomass may be constrained by cryogenic land surface processes that cause topsoil disturbance and variable microsite conditions. These effects have remained unaccoun...
Article
Ecological research heavily relies on coarse-­gridded climate data based on standardized temperature measurements recorded at 2 m height in open landscapes. However, many organisms experience environmental conditions that differ substantially from those captured by these macroclimatic (i.e. free air) temperature grids. In forests, the tree canopy f...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the pan-Arctic region has experienced increasingly extreme fire seasons. Fires in the northern high latitudes are driven by current and future climate change, lightning, fuel conditions, and human activity. In this context, conceptualizing and parameterizing current and future Arctic fire regimes will be important for fire and land...
Article
Full-text available
In the tundra, woody plants are dispersing towards higher latitudes and altitudes due to increasingly favourable climatic conditions. The coverage and height of woody plants are increasing, which may influence the soils of the tundra ecosystem. Here, we use structural equation modelling to analyse 171 study plots and to examine if the coverage and...
Article
Full-text available
The Habitats Directive of the European Union is a key legislative instrument in Europe, supporting the conservation of rare, threatened or endemic species. It aims at ensuring that the species listed in the Annexes of the Habitats Directive show a favourable conservation status, i.e., that they are able to maintain viable populations and that their...
Article
Full-text available
Pogosta disease is a mosquito-borne infection, caused by Sindbis virus (SINV), which causes epidemics of febrile rash and arthritis in Northern Europe and South Africa. Resident grouse and migratory birds play a significant role as amplifying hosts and various mosquito species, including Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Cx. torrentium and Culiseta mo...
Article
Full-text available
Periglacial environments are characterized by highly dynamic landscapes. Freezing and thawing lead to ground movement, associated with cryoturbation and solifluction. These processes are sensitive to climate change and variably distributed depending on multiple environmental factors. In this study, we used multi-geometry Sentinel-1 Synthetic Apertu...
Article
The regional variability in tundra and boreal carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes can be high, complicating efforts to quantify sink‐source patterns across the entire region. Statistical models are increasingly used to predict (i.e., upscale) CO2 fluxes across large spatial domains, but the reliability of different modeling techniques, each with different...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental assumption in trait-based ecology is that relationships between traits and environmental conditions are globally consistent. We use field-quantified microclimate and soil data to explore if trait–environment relationships are generalizable across plant communities and spatial scales. We collected data from 6,720 plots and 217 species...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research in environmental science relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature at around 2 meter above ground1-3. These climatic grids however fail to reflect conditions near and below the soil surface, where critical ecosystem functions such as soil carbon storage are controlled and most biodiversity resides4-8...
Article
Full-text available
Coupling of soil–air temperature is fundamentally relevant to various biophysical and biogeochemical functions near the land surface. However, coupling at an interannual scale is less addressed than at finer timescales, such as diurnal and seasonal scales. Here, we show that interannual variability of soil–air temperature coupling decreased signifi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Monitoring of the thermal state of permafrost is important in environmental science and engineering applications. However, such data are generally unavailable mainly due to the lack of ground observations and the uncertainty of traditional physical models. This study produces novel permafrost datasets for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), including pre...
Article
Full-text available
Forest microclimates contrast strongly with the climate outside forests. To fully understand and better predict how forests' biodiversity and functions relate to climate and climate change, microclimates need to be integrated into ecological research. Despite the potentially broad impact of microclimates on the response of forest ecosystems to glob...
Article
Full-text available
The difference between soil and air temperatures (ΔT) in a specified time is dependent on meteorological conditions, properties of soil and land covers. Understanding ΔT is critical in assessing land–atmosphere thermal interactions in changing environment. However, systematic knowledge of interannual variations and responses of ΔT to the environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the soil temperature in cold environment is key to understanding the effects of climate change on land–atmosphere feedback and ecosystem functions. Here, we quantify the recent thermal status and trends in shallow ground using the most up-to-date data set of over 457 sites in Russia. The data set consists...
Article
Full-text available
Harsh winters are a characteristic element of Arctic ecosystems, yet the importance of winter conditions for Arctic plant communities is still underrepresented in climate change impact studies. Here, we use fine-scale microclimate data with plot-scale records of vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes from three Arctic areas, and show that topograp...
Article
Full-text available
Current analyses and predictions of spatially‐explicit patterns and processes in ecology most often rely on climate data interpolated from standardized weather stations. This interpolated climate data represents long‐term average thermal conditions at coarse spatial resolutions only. Hence, many climate‐forcing factors that operate at fine spatiote...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of ground ice in Arctic soils exerts a major effect on permafrost hydrology and ecology, and factors prominently into geomorphic landform development. As most ground ice has accumulated in near-surface permafrost, it is sensitive to variations in atmospheric conditions. Typical and regionally widespread permafrost landforms such as pin...
Conference Paper
Ground thermal regime in cold environments is key to understanding the effects of climate change on surface-atmosphere feedbacks. The northern Eurasia, covering over half of terrestrial areas north of 40°N, is sensitive to the ongoing climate change due to underlain permafrost and seasonal frost. Here, we quantify the recent ground thermal dynamics...
Article
Full-text available
Current analyses and predictions of spatially‐explicit patterns and processes in ecology most often rely on climate data interpolated from standardized weather stations. This interpolated climate data represents long‐term average thermal conditions at coarse spatial resolutions only. Hence, many climate‐forcing factors that operate at fine spatiote...
Book
Full-text available
Ilmastoviisaan luonnonsuojelusuunnittelun perustana on tieto siitä, millä alueilla ilmasto muuttuu voimakkaimmin, mitkä suojelualueet, lajit ja lajipopulaatiot sekä luontotyypit ovat kaikkein alttiimpia muutokselle ja miten muutokseen sopeudutaan. SUMI-hankkeessa selvitettiin lämpösumman, tammikuun keskilämpötilan ja vuosittaisen vesitaseen muutosn...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change velocity is an increasingly used metric to assess the broad-scale climatic exposure and climate change induced risks to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, the utility of this metric in conservation planning can be enhanced by determining the velocities of multiple climatic drivers in real protected area (PA) networks on ecol...
Article
Full-text available
Increased attention is being paid to the ecological drivers and conservation measures which could mitigate climate change-induced pressures for species survival, potentially helping populations to remain in their present-day locations longer. One important buffering mechanism against climate change may be provided by the heterogeneity in topography...
Article
Full-text available
The functional composition of plant communities is a critical modulator of climate change impacts on ecosystems, but it is not a simple function of regional climate. In the Arctic tundra, where climate change is proceeding the most rapidly, communities have not shifted their trait composition as predicted by spatial temperature–trait relationships....
Preprint
Full-text available
In tundra, woody plants are expanding towards higher latitudes and altitudes due to increasingly favourable climatic conditions. Their expansion may also occur through increases in the coverage and height of the plants. These shifts may cascade further across the ecosystem, such as in the foundations of tundra: that is, in the soils. Yet, little is...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: While species distribution models (SDMs) traditionally link species occurrences to free-air temperature data at coarse spatiotemporal resolution, the distribution of organisms might rather be driven by temperatures more proximal to their habitats. Several solutions are currently available, such as downscaled or interpolated coarse-grained free...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Species’ biogeographical patterns are already being altered by climate change. Here, we provide predictions of the impacts of a changing climate on species’ geographical ranges within high‐latitude mountain flora on a sub‐continental scale. We then examined the forecasted changes in relation to species’ biogeographic histories. Location: Fe...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing climate change is causing fundamental changes in the Arctic, some of which can be hazardous to nature and human activity. In the context of Earth surface systems, warming climate may lead to rising ground temperatures and thaw of permafrost. This Data Descriptor presents circumpolar permafrost maps and geohazard indices depicting zones of v...
Preprint
Full-text available
The functional composition of plant communities is a critical modulator of climate change impacts on ecosystems, but it is not a simple function of regional climate. In the Arctic tundra, where climate change is proceeding the most rapidly, communities have not shifted their trait composition as predicted by spatial temperature-trait relationships....
Article
Full-text available
The thermal state of permafrost affects Earth surface systems and human activity in the Arctic and has implications for global climate. Improved understanding of the local-scale variability in the global ground thermal regime is required to account for its sensitivity to changing climatic and geoecological conditions. Here, we statistically related...
Article
Full-text available
Snow conditions in high‐latitude regions are changing in response to climate warming, and these changes are likely to accelerate as the warming proceeds. Here, we analyse daily gridded snow depth, temperature and precipitation data from Finland over the period 1961‐2014 to discover the ongoing changes in monthly average snow depths (SN) and several...
Article
Water is crucial for plant productivity and survival as a fundamental resource, but water conditions can also cause physiological stress and mechanical disturbance to vegetation. However, these different influences of water on vegetation patterns have not been evaluated simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate the importance of three water aspects (spa...
Article
Full-text available
Degradation of near-surface permafrost can pose a serious threat to the utilization of natural resources, and to the sustainable development of Arctic communities. Here we identify at unprecedentedly high spatial resolution infrastructure hazard areas in the Northern Hemi- sphere’s permafrost regions under projected climatic changes and quantify fu...
Poster
Full-text available
Key results of the INFRAHAZARD project
Article
Full-text available
The thermal dynamics of permafrost shape Earth surface systems and human activity in the Arctic and have implications to global climate. Improved understanding of the fine-scale variability in the circumpolar ground thermal regime is required to account for its sensitivity to changing climatic and geoecological conditions. Here, we statistically re...