Jüri Allik

Jüri Allik
University of Tartu · Institute of Psychology

PhD

About

290
Publications
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17,877
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Publications

Publications (290)
Article
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Little research has examined age differences by using more than one source of information. We compared age differences in Five-Factor Model (FFM) facets and nuances in self-reports and ratings by knowledgeable informants using samples from three countries (Estonia, Germany, and the Czech Republic; N=5,624). We hypothesized that age differences woul...
Article
The ability to evaluate the number of elements in a set—numerosity—without symbolic representation is a form of primitive perceptual intelligence. A simple binomial model was proposed to explain how observers discriminate the numerical proportion between two sets of elements distinct in color or orientation (Raidvee et al., 2017, Attention Percepti...
Article
Visual perception is capable of pooling multiple local orientation signals into a single more accurate summary orientation. However, there is still a lack of systematic inquiry into which summary statistics are implemented in that process. Here, the task was to recognize in which direction, clockwise or counter-clockwise, the mean orientation of a...
Article
There are considerable individual differences in remembering past episodes. The current study aimed to examine the link between episodic memory reliving and the Five-Factor Model personality traits. Altogether 422 participants (67% women) described an autobiographical episode and rated the vividness and clarity of that recollection. Next, they asse...
Article
This article presents an overview of the current state of knowledge in personality judgment research. We discuss accuracy and bias in personality judgments, including types of inter-rater agreement and elements of criteria used to determine levels of agreement and accuracy. We then address 1) the words and phrases that people use to describe one an...
Article
This study mapped the personality and genetics of risky excitement-seekers focusing on skydiving behavior. We compared 298 skydivers to 298 demographically matched controls across the NEO Personality Inventory-3 domains, facets, and 240 items. The most significant item-level effects were aggregated into a poly-item score of skydiving-associated per...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Diurnal preferences have been linked to personality but often with mixed results. The present study examines the relationships between sleep timing (chronotype), diurnal preferences and the Five‐Factor Model of personality traits at the phenotypic and genetic level. Methods Self‐ and informant‐reports of the NEO Personality Inventory‐...
Preprint
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Introduction: Diurnal preferences have been linked to personality but often with mixed results. The present study examines the relationships between sleep timing (chronotype), diurnal preferences and the Five-Factor Model of personality traits at the phenotypic and genetic level. Methods: Self- and informant-reports of the NEO Personality Inventory...
Preprint
This study mapped the personality and genetics of risky excitement-seekers focusing on skydiving behavior. We compared 298 skydivers to 298 demographically matched controls across the NEO Personality Inventory-3 domains, facets and 240 items. The most significant item-level effects were aggregated into a poly-item score of skydiving-associated pers...
Article
Full-text available
The occupancy model (OM) was proposed to explain how the spatial arrangement of dots in sparse random patterns affects their perceived numerosity. The model’s central thesis maintained that each dot seemingly fills or occupies its surrounding area within a fixed radius ro and the total area collectively occupied by all the dots determines their app...
Article
In ensemble displays, two principal factors determine the precision with which the mean value of some perceptual attribute, such as size and orientation, can be discriminated: inefficiency and representational noise of each element. Inefficiency is mainly caused by biased inference, or by inattentional (feature) blindness (i.e., some elements or th...
Article
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People differ in their sleep timings that are often referred to as a chronotype and can be operationalized as mid-sleep (midpoint between sleep onset and wake-up). The aims of the present studies were to examine intraindividual variability and longer-term temporal stability of mid-sleep on free and workdays, while also considering the effect of age...
Preprint
Age differences in personality traits can inform us on the magnitude and qualities of personality development and describing them accurately is therefore of utmost importance. Little research yet has examined age differences by combining more than one source of information, despite many psychologists knowing that any one assessment method is prone...
Article
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The disciplinary profiles of the mean citation rates across 22 research areas were analyzed for 107 countries/territories that published at least 3,000 papers that exceeded the entrance thresholds for the Essential Science Indicators (ESI; Clarivate Analytics) during the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2019. The matrix of pairwise diffe...
Article
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It has been repeatedly demonstrated that economic affluence is one of the main predictors of the scientific wealth of nations. Yet, the link is not as straightforward as is often presented. First, only a limited set of relatively affluent countries is usually studied. Second, there are differences between equally rich countries in their scientific...
Article
In this age of data visualization, it is important to understand our perception of the symbols that are used. For example, does the perceived size of a disc correspond most closely to its area, diameter, circumference, or some other measure? When multiple items are present, this becomes a question of ensemble perception. Here, we compare observers’...
Article
Full-text available
Personality researchers often supplement or substitute self-reports with ratings from knowledgeable informants, at least implicitly assuming that the same constructs are measured regardless of the source of ratings. However, measurement invariance (MI) of personality constructs across these rating types has rarely been empirically tested. Here, thi...
Article
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Objectives We tested predictions about the structure and magnitude of method biases in single‐source personality trait assessments. We expected a large number of distinct biases that would parallel the observed structure of traits, at both facet and item levels. Method We analyzed multi‐method ratings on the Estonian NEO Personality Inventory‐3 in...
Article
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Objective To examine the role of the Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits in reporting the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Centre, University of Tartu. Participants 814 women a...
Article
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Participants (N = 10,672 with the mean age of 20.7 years) of the Russian Character and Personality Survey (RCPS), involving 40 universities or colleges from across the Russian Federation, rated their happiness and satisfaction with life; the ratings were combined into an index of subjective well-being (SWB). Using the National Character Survey (NCS...
Article
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It is widely accepted that the Five Factor Model (FFM) is a satisfactory description of the pattern of covariations among personality traits, which supposedly fits, more or less adequately, every individual. As an amendment to the FFM, we propose that the customary five-factor structure is only a near-universal, because it does not fit all individu...
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The main aim of the current study was to examine the role of co-occurring emotions and their interactive effects with the Big Five personality traits in anger expression. Everyday anger expression (“anger-in” and “anger-out” behavior) was studied with the experience-sampling method in a group of 110 participants for 14 consecutive days on 7 random...
Article
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Only sufficient economic wealth can produce science with the highest quality. However, there is room for many intervening factors, which can moderate the process of how money invested into research transforms into a bibliometrically measurable outcome. In this paper, based on the latest update of the Essential Science Indicators (ESI), covering the...
Article
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Heritable variance in psychological traits may reflect genetic and biological processes that are not necessarily specific to these particular traits but pertain to a broader range of phenotypes. We tested the possibility that Five-Factor Model personality domains and their 30 facets, as rated by people themselves and their knowledgeable informants,...
Preprint
Personality researchers often supplement or substitute self-reports with ratings from knowledgeable informants, at least implicitly assuming that the same constructs are measured regardless of the source of ratings. However, measurement invariance (MI) of personality constructs across these rating types has rarely been empirically tested. Here, thi...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers seem to believe that accepting the reality of personality traits inevitably leads to a dogma about the incredible complexity of these traits and their judgment. This paper challenges this thesis and its assertion that the accuracy of personality judgment can only be achieved when a "good target" or a "good trait" is being judged using "...
Preprint
Full-text available
Heritable variance in psychological traits may reflect genetic and biological processes that are not necessarily specific to these particular traits but pertain to a broader range of phenotypes. We tested the possibility that Five-Factor Model personality domains and their 30 facets, as rated by people themselves and their knowledgeable informants,...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
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The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and its latest version, the NEO-PI-3, were designed to measure 30 distinctive personality traits, which are grouped into Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness domains. The mean self-rated NEO-PI-R scores for 30 subscales have been reported for 36 countries or cultu...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
Full-text available
According to a dominant view, Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) was the founder of modern psychiatry, but his contribution to the history of experimental psychology was insignificant. This interpretation contradicts Kraepelin’s own view during his stay in Tartu (1886–1891) because at that time he was more interested in psychology than in his not very sati...
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In order to commemorate Kraepelin’s 160th birthdate and the 130th year from his first professorship, a conference “Emil Kraepelin 160/130” was held in the same Aula of the University of Tartu where 130 years earlier Kraepelin expressed his views about the relationship between psychiatric illnesses and brain functions. This special issue is composed...
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Objective: Our study aims to estimate the proportion of the phenotypic variance of Neuroticism and its facet scales that can be attributed to common SNPs in two adult populations from Estonia (EGCUT; N = 3,292) and the Netherlands (Lifelines; N = 13,383). Method: Genomic-Relatedness-Matrix Restricted Maximum Likelihood (GREML) using Genome-wide...
Article
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The use of reliability estimates is increasingly scrutinized as scholars become more aware that test–retest stability and self–other agreement provide a better approximation of the theoretical and practical usefulness of an instrument than its internal reliability. In this study, we investigate item characteristics that potentially impact single-it...
Article
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Spearman’s hypothesis tested at the level of items states that differences between ethnic groups on the items of an IQ test are a function of the g loadings of these items, such that there are small differences between ethnic groups on items with low g loadings and large differences between ethnic groups on items with high g loadings; this has been...
Article
Observers discriminated the numerical proportion of two sets of elements (N = 9, 13, 33, and 65) that differed either by color or orientation. According to the standard Thurstonian approach, the accuracy of proportion discrimination is determined by irreducible noise in the nervous system that stochastically transforms the number of presented visua...
Article
Intraindividual variability, along with the more frequently studied between-person variability, has been argued to be one of the basic building blocks of emotional experience. The aim of the current study is to examine whether intraindividual variability in affect predicts tiredness in daily life. Intraindividual variability in affect was studied w...
Article
Spearman's hypothesis tested at the level of items states that differences between ethnic groups on the items of an IQ test are a function of the g loadings of these items, such that there are small differences between ethnic groups on items with low g loadings and large differences between ethnic groups on items with high g loadings, and it has be...
Article
Agreement between the self and other rated personality profiles was studied in two samples involving 11,096 speakers of two languages, Dutch and Estonian, who completed two different personality questionnaires, the NEO-PI-3 and HEXACO-PI-R. An outstanding agreement was achieved in the most occasions: in only 4-6% of dyadic pairs was the correlation...
Article
The aim of this paper is three-fold. First, we identified self- and informant-rated Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality domains and facets associated with diabetes diagnosis. Second, we tested whether the associations were independent of the rater method-specific variance. Lastly, we examined whether the observed associations were mediated by BMI,...
Article
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Remembering the emotions we have experienced in the past is the core of one's unique life-experience. However, there are many factors, both at the state and trait level that can affect the way past feelings are seen. The main aim of the current study was to examine the impact of individual differences on systematic biases in retrospective ratings c...
Chapter
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and Keywords Personality psychologists—perhaps even more than in some other disciplines—are deeply interested in what is common to personality descriptions in all cultures and societies. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the potential universality of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality structure. The chapter begins with a dis...
Article
The current study examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and physician-confirmed peptic ulcer disease (PUD) diagnosis in a large population-based adult sample, controlling for the relevant behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Personality traits were assessed by participants themselves and by knowledgeable inf...
Article
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Extraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to relatively small sample sizes of those studies. Here, we report...
Article
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In personality research, trait–outcome associations are often studied by correlating scale sum scores with an outcome. For example, an association between the NEO Impulsiveness scale and body mass index (BMI) is often interpreted to pertain to underlying trait Impulsiveness. We propose that this expectation can be corroborated by testing for Spearm...
Article
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It is argued that if we compute self-other agreement on some personality traits then we possess no or very little information about the individuals who are the targets of this judgment. This idea is largely based on two separate ways of computing self-other agreement: trait agreement (rT) and profile agreement (rP), which are typically associated w...
Article
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Neuroticism is a pervasive risk factor for psychiatric conditions. It genetically overlaps with major depressive disorder (MDD) and is therefore an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in more than 63 000 participants (i...
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The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for fac...
Article
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Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-...
Article
Full-text available
Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-...