Jürgen Margraf

Jürgen Margraf
Ruhr-Universität Bochum | RUB · Mental Health Research and Treatment Center

Prof.Dr.

About

723
Publications
8,913,575
Reads
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14,534
Citations
Introduction
Studied psychology (Brussels, Kiel, Tübingen 1976-1983)), research scholar (Stanford University 1983-1986), PhD (Tübingen 1986), professor in Berlin, Dresden, Basel and Bochum (1992-present). Alexander von Humboldt-Professorship, Germany´s most highly endowed scientific award (2009), past president (EABCT, German Society of Psychology). Research on interplay between psychological, biological and social factors in mental health, combining etiological, epidemiological and intervention strategies.
Additional affiliations
April 2013 - present
Hebei Union University
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Honorary position awarded in the context of an ongoing research cooperation about predictor of positive mental health
March 2010 - present
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • The department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology is part of the Mental Health Research and Treatment Center (German name: Forschungs- und Behandlungszentrum für psychische Gesundheit) at Ruhr-University Bochum.
March 2010 - present
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Position
  • Head of Department
Description
  • The department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy is part of the Mental Health Research and Treatment Center of Ruhr-University Bochum which I co-direct together with professor Silvia Schneider
Education
October 1975 - February 1983
Universities of Munich, Brussels, Kiel, Tübingen
Field of study
  • Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Physiology

Publications

Publications (723)
Article
After decades of proclaimed therapeutic breakthroughs, neither neurobiology nor neuroscience have led to better long-term outcomes for any of the major mental disorders. This contrasts with the long-term efficacy of psychosocial interventions and points to the necessity to focus on sustained success, broaden our concept of mental health problems an...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Psychische Störungen können über die ganze Lebensspanne auftreten. Strukturierte klinische Interviews sind zentrale Hilfsmittel für ihre rasche, zuverlässige und umfassende Diagnostik. Im deutschsprachigen Raum stehen mit den Verfahren der DIPS-Familie Interviews zur Diagnostik psychischer Störungen über die gesamte Lebensspanne zu...
Article
Background: Methodological problems of existing research, such as the application of unstandardized treatments in heterogeneous samples, has hampered clear conclusions about the extent and direction to which allelic variation of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5- HTTLPR) is associated with a differential response to psych...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness-based interventions are effective at improving symptoms of sexual dysfunction in women. The mechanisms by which mindfulness improves sexual function are less clear. The main objective of our study was to investigate the impact of a mindfulness task on sexual response in women. Forty-one women (mean age = 27.2, SD = 5.6) participated in...
Article
Full-text available
The Scrambled Sentences Task (SST) is a robust measure of interpretational processes in psychopathology. However, there is little evidence of its utility in measuring dysfunctional appraisals (DAs) of potentially traumatic events. We developed a novel SST for trauma-related DAs and examined its psychometric properties including convergent validity...
Preprint
It is hypothesized that the ability to discriminate between threat and safety is impaired in individuals with high dispositional negativity, resulting in maladaptive behavior. A large body of research investigated differential learning during fear conditioning and extinction protocols depending on individual differences in intolerance of uncertaint...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The COVID-19 outbreak has severely impacted people’s mental health. The present experimental study investigated how to reduce this negative effect by a combination of two interventions. Subject and methods Participants ( N total = 642) were users of social media in Germany. For two weeks, the social media group ( N = 162) reduced its social me...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide belongs to the leading causes of death worldwide. The present longitudinal study investigated physical activity (for example jogging, cycling) and positive mental health (PMH) as potential factors that can reduce the risk of suicide ideation and suicidal behavior. Data of 223 participants (79.4% women; M age (SD age) = 22.85 (4.05)) were as...
Article
Full-text available
Work overload is highly related to mental health issues. Online social media are often used to escape the feelings of overload. In the current study, 291 employees from various job sectors completed an online survey related to work overload, addictive social media use (SMU), and mental health (i.e., depression symptoms, life satisfaction). Work ove...
Article
It is hypothesized that the ability to discriminate between threat and safety is impaired in individuals with high dispositional negativity, resulting in maladaptive behavior. A large body of research investigated differential learning during fear conditioning and extinction protocols depending on individual differences in intolerance of uncertaint...
Article
Full-text available
Background The investigation of patient-reported outcomes and psycho-oncological interventions mainly focuses on psychological distress or psychopathology. However, the recognition of the equal importance of positive mental health (PMH) has increased lately. The PMH-scale is a brief questionnaire allowing to assess well-being in individuals in the...
Poster
Full-text available
In this study, we aimed to induce involuntary mental imagery in the laboratory and to investigate subsequent effects of the imagery on mood and cognition.
Preprint
Full-text available
Individual responses to behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders vary considerably, calling for better understanding of underlying processes. This study examined the violation and change of threat beliefs during exposure. From 8484 standardized exposure records of 605 patients with different anxiety disorders, learning indicators were derived: Exp...
Article
Background : The present study investigated the link of active and passive Facebook use, Facebook flow and depression symptoms with Facebook Addiction (FA). Methods : Data of 127 German Facebook users (Mage (SDage) = 25.10 (7.03), range: 18–58) were assessed at two measurement time points over a period of three months (first measurement = T1, seco...
Article
Full-text available
The number of studies on fear conditioning in children and adolescents has increased in recent years. Most of these studies exclusively focus on data of completers while dropout rates, reasons for dropout, and specific characteristics of non-completers are underreported. This study systematically investigated data of 283 children and adolescents be...
Article
Full-text available
Eine Leitlinie soll Fachpersonen, Betroffenen und der gesamten Bevölkerung evidenzbasierte Empfehlungen auf Basis des aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisstands zu Diagnostik- und Behandlungsmöglichkeiten geben. Der 3. Entwurf zur Nationalen Versorgungsleitlinie (NVL) Depression wird aktuell zur Diskussion gestellt. Gerade die Diskussionsvorlage...
Preprint
Objective: The scale of the global mental health burden indicates the inadequacy not only of current treatment options, but also the pace of the standard treatment development process. The ‘leapfrog’ trial design is a newly-developed simple Bayesian adaptive trial design with potential to accelerate treatment development. A first leapfrog trial was...
Article
Full-text available
Since the Covid-19 outbreak, addictive social media use increased in many countries. To better understand this development, a universal instrument for the assessment of addictive social media use is required. Against this background, we examined the psychometric properties of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) in representative populat...
Book
Der Ratgeber wurde auf Basis des aktuellen Forschungsstands zu phobischen Ängsten und deren Behandlung entwickelt. Er informiert über Kernmerkmale, Entstehungsfaktoren und Behandlungsmöglichkeiten unterschiedlicher phobischer Störungen und bietet zahlreiche Tipps und Anregungen zur Selbsthilfe. Anhand anschaulicher Fallbeispiele wird illustriert, w...
Article
Since the COVID-19 outbreak, digital gaming has become a welcome pastime and distraction for many people. However, this phenomenon can have severe consequences; intensive digital gaming can foster the Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and negatively affect mental health. The present experimental longitudinal study investigated the consequences of a co...
Article
The present experimental study compared the impact of a total abstinence from smartphone use and of a reduction of daily smartphone use by 1 hr on well-being and healthy lifestyle. Participants (Ntotal = 619) were smartphone users in Germany. The first experimental group (N = 200) waived smartphone use for 7 days, the second experimental group (N =...
Article
Full-text available
Adjustment disorder is among the most diagnosed mental disorders worldwide. However, until recently adjustment disorder was largely neglected in mental health research. Therefore, factors associated with adjustment disorder are highly understudied. The current study aimed to reveal the role of positive mental health (PMH) as a protective factor in...
Article
Introduction Students worldwide are at marked risk of suicidal ideation/behavior, depression, and low positive mental health (PMH). Medical students are suspected to be a particularly burdened group. On this background, the aim of the present study was to determine prevalence rates of suicidal ideation/behavior, depression and PMH, among Chinese me...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral (CBT) and mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) are among the most researched types of psychological interventions for low sexual desire in women. While both have been found effective in improving women's sexual desire, little is known about how women personally experience these treatments. To closely examine both approaches from a p...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Modern conceptualizations suggest the independence of positive and negative mental health constructs. Research of positive constructs in psychotherapy is scarce. This study analyzed the development of patients' strengths during psychotherapy and whether pre-therapy strengths incrementally predict treatment outcome. Methods: Two hundre...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Suicide ideation has increased since the outbreak of Covid-19 in many countries. The present longitudinal study investigated potential predictors of suicide ideation. Subject and methods Data of 406 participants from Germany (age M = 27.69, SD = 6.88) were assessed via online surveys in spring 2020 (baseline, BL) and in spring 2021 (follow-up,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dysfunctional appraisals are a key mechanism in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Experimental manipulations of appraisals via Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training targeting cognitions related to the ‘self’ has shown to affect analog trauma symptoms. The present study aimed to conceptually replicate and extend pre...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to an increase of mental health problems like depression, anxiety, stress symptoms, and Internet-based addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigated whether physical activity might prevent addictive social media use (SMU) and thus foster positive mental health (PMH) and de...
Article
Full-text available
Background The adherence to anti-Covid-19 rules is important to slow down the pandemic spread. The present study investigated potential predictors of the adherence. Methods Data of 1.247 participants from Germany (age: M(SD)=22.99(6.18)) were assessed via online surveys in autumn and winter 2020. The focus of the data collection was on adherence t...
Article
The Scrambled Sentences Task (SST) is frequently used to assess interpretation biases (IBs). However, neither the range of its applications nor the quality of the empirical evidence it provides has been systematically examined. This systematic review investigates the types of samples and disorders in which the SST has been applied and evaluates its...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The investigation of patient-reported outcomes and psycho-oncological interventions mainly focuses on psychological distress or psychopathology. However, the recognition of the equal importance of positive mental health (PMH) has increased lately. The PMH-scale is a brief questionnaire allowing to assess well-being in individuals in the...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Recently, experimental paradigms have been developed to strengthen automatic avoidance or inhibitory responses for smoking cues. However, these procedures have not yet been directly compared regarding their effectiveness and mechanisms of action. Objective This study compared the effects of avoidance vs. inhibitory training as an add-on...
Article
Full-text available
Since the outbreak of Covid-19, the use of digital devices, especially smartphones, remarkably increased. Smartphone use belongs to one’s daily routine, but can negatively impact physical and mental health, performance, and relationships if used excessively. The present study aimed to investigate potential correlates of problematic smartphone use (...
Preprint
The administration of glucocorticoids (GC) as an adjunct to exposure might represent a promising strategy to improve exposure therapy outcome in anxiety disorders (AD). The beneficial effects, however, might be sex-dependent and/or further modulated by hormonal factors (e.g., contraceptive usage in women). In the present study, we investigated whet...
Article
Full-text available
Researcher teams around the globe including the “Project Lightspeed” are intensively working on vaccines to fight the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the availability of effective vaccines does not guarantee the vaccination willingness among the population. In spring 2021, we investigated the vaccination willingness and its potential predictors in repr...
Article
Introduction: Adherence to Covid-19 safety measures reduces the spread of the pathogen and lowers mortality rates. The present study examines microlevel (including sociodemographics, health risk factors, and mental health) and perceived macrolevel variables (including freedom, justice, and wealth) concerning self-perceived and self-reported Covid-1...
Article
Positive mental health (PMH), defined as the presence of general emotional, psychological, and social well-being is an important factor of general mental health. To allow for valid comparisons of PMH across different groups of interest, measurement invariant instruments are needed. The present study tested the measurement invariance of the nine-ite...
Article
Full-text available
Convergent evidence supports a crucial role for dysfunctional appraisals in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, most research in this area has used self-report measures, assessing only explicit forms of such negative cognitions; the relevance of their more automatically-activated counterparts, as assum...
Article
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Background: The need to optimize exposure treatments for anxiety disorders may be addressed by temporally intensified exposure sessions. Effects on symptom reduction and public health benefits should be examined across different anxiety disorders with comorbid conditions. Methods: This multicenter randomized controlled trial compared two variant...
Article
Full-text available
Background Positive affect and anhedonia are important but challenging targets for mental health treatments. Previous research indicates the potential of a computerised cognitive training paradigm involving generation of positive mental imagery, termed positive mental imagery training (PMIT), to increase positive affect and reduce anhedonia. Aims...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19-related burden has a significant impact on mental health and has led to an increase of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Physical activity has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and to foster mental health. The present study aimed to investigate, whether sense of control might mediate the supposed benef...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are disproportionally affected by depressive disorders which are among the main causes for loss in healthy life years in adults worldwide. The main objective of the research presented here was to identify a psychological mindset of individuals with low SES and to investigate whether this mindset media...
Article
Full-text available
Contrary to the well-documented link between parental and offspring clinical anxiety, little is known about the relationship between parental everyday-life anxieties (e.g., concerning family, finances, health) and offspring anxieties. To close this gap, we assessed the frequency of parental symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and everyday-life anx...
Article
This cross-national study investigated the extent of social media use (SMU) as a source of information about COVID-19, and its relationship with the experienced burden caused by the pandemic. Representative data from eight countries (France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, the UK, the USA) were collected online (end of May to the beginning...
Article
Full-text available
Many people experience high burden by the outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its consequences for health and everyday life. The present cross-national study investigated potential factors that can reduce the burden by COVID-19 in China and Germany. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (China: N = 474, baseline, BL: 2015, follow-up, FU:...
Article
The current two-wave longitudinal study aimed to investigate changes in stress, anxiety, depression, and positive mental health (PMH) during the first COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in the sample of emerging adults. Data were collected before the COVID-19 and within the first month of the outbreak. The study sample consisted of 775 university students...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction An increase of suicidal thinking within the COVID-19 pandemic has been postulated. Yet, direct comparisons with pre-COVID-19 rates are missing. Methods The present study investigated whether levels and rates of suicidal ideation have changed between 2016 and 2020. Data of N=664 university students (five cohorts: 2016: n=105, 2017: n=1...
Preprint
Objective: Mental health problems amongst university students pose a major public health challenge, and is particularly the case in Pakistan. Alongside broader societal and cultural pressures, cognitive factors likely also play a role in the development of and resilience to mental health problems and may provide a feasible target for interventions....
Article
Full-text available
In Western cultural context, grandiose (overt) narcissism has been shown to be either unrelated or negatively related to negative mental health (depression, suicide ideation). Grandiose narcissism may be differently related to depression and suicide ideation variables in Eastern cultural contexts. The current study therefore aims to investigate ass...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical models emphasize the role of both automatic appraisals (i.e., associations) and conscious appraisals (i.e., interpretations) for sexual desire. Studies on sexuality-related appraisals have not combined self-report measures and experimental paradigms in order to compare the relevance of associations or interpretations. The aim of this st...
Preprint
The Scrambled Sentences Task (SST) is a robust measure of interpretational processes in psychopathology. However, there is little evidence of its utility as a measure of dysfunctional appraisals (DAs) in relation to traumatic or negative life events. We therefore developed a novel SST in the context of trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD...
Article
We aimed to identify patterns of changes in suicidal ideation among university students six months after the COVID-19 outbreak, in comparison to the pre-pandemic suicidal ideation. Furthermore, we explored the links among these patterns and mental health indicators. 474 university students participated in the study in October-December 2019 and Octo...
Article
Background Euthymia has been described as a transdiagnostic construct characterized by the absence of mood disturbances and the presence of an integration of psychic forces, such as coping strategy and well-being. A multidimensional measure, the Euthymia Scale (ES), has been proposed to assess it. We investigated construct and concurrent validity o...
Article
This study examined the consequences of media exposure to thin ideals compared to pictures of landscapes in healthy young women and women with eating and mixed mental disorders and investigated whether appearance-related cognitive factors and cognitive distortions moderate the effects. Two hundred seventy-five women in a multisite laboratory trial...
Article
Full-text available
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) and addictive Facebook use have been shown to be associated with suicide ideation and suicidal behavior. The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate whether the association between addictive Facebook use and suicide-related outcomes is mediated by RNT. Data of 191 German Facebook users ( M age = 26.17, SD...
Article
Attention to sexual stimuli is a prerequisite to process such stimuli as sexually-meaningful and is an important means to facilitate sexual arousal. Attending to sexual cues is crucial for healthy sexual functioning. Studies suggest that sexual dysfunction is associated with less attention towards sexual stimuli. The goal of this study was to use a...
Article
Full-text available
Background To slow down the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments of many countries introduced various behavioral measures starting March 2020. The measures included domestic quarantine (not leaving home) for infected or potentially infected people. Due to the need for social distancing, online activity increased in spring 2020. This could f...
Article
Full-text available
The outbreak of COVID-19 and national restrictions to slow down its spread have significantly changed people’s everyday lives. Many people engage in intensive social media use (SMU) to stay up-to-date about the pandemic. The present study investigated the extent of SMU as source of COVID-19 information, and its relationship with anxiety and the exp...
Article
Objectives Evidence for a genetic influence on psychological treatment outcome so far has been inconsistent, likely due to the focus on candidate genes and the heterogeneity of the disorders treated. Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) in homogenous patient samples may increase the chance of detecting genetic influences. Methods A sample of 342 phob...
Article
Full-text available
Adapting threat-related memories towards changing environments is a fundamental ability of organisms. One central process of fear reduction is suggested to be extinction learning, experimentally modeled by extinction training that is repeated exposure to a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) without providing the expected negative consequence (unc...
Preprint
The Scrambled Sentences Task (SST) is frequently used to assess interpretation biases (IBs). However, neither the range of its applications nor the quality of the empirical evidence it provides has been systematically examined. This systematic review investigates the types of samples and disorders in which the SST has been applied and evaluates its...