Jürgen Kriwet

Jürgen Kriwet
University of Vienna | UniWien · Institut für Paläontologie

Prof. Dr. rer. nat.

About

389
Publications
138,440
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3,364
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Introduction
Research in the Evolutionary Morphology Research Group is at the interface between palaeobiology and evolutionary developmental biology of vertebrates. For this we integrate living and fossil organisms, knowledge of their evolutionary relationships and past diversity patterns, and developmental biology, to provide a holistic understanding of their evolutionary history. The focus is on the evolutionary history and diversity and disparity patterns of vertebrates through time.
Additional affiliations
October 2008 - August 2010
State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
Position
  • Curator of Cenozoic Amphibians and Reptiles
November 2005 - September 2008
November 2005 - September 2008
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Position
  • Curator Fossil Fishes

Publications

Publications (389)
Article
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Background The onset of morphological differences between related groups can be tracked at early stages during embryological development. This is expressed in functional traits that start with minor variations, but eventually diverge to defined specific morphologies. Several processes during this period, like proliferation, remodelling, and apoptos...
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The lifelong tooth replacement in elasmobranch fishes (sharks, rays and skates) has led to the assemblage of a great number of teeth from fossil and extant species, rendering tooth morphology an important character for taxonomic descriptions, analysing phylogenetic interrelationships and deciphering their evolutionary history (e.g. origination, div...
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Elasmobranchs, comprising sharks, skates, and rays, have a long evolutionary history extending back into the Palaeozoic. They are characterized by various unique traits including a predominantly cartilaginous skeleton, superficial prismatic phosphatic layer, and permanent tooth replacement. Moreover, they exhibit a more or less marked sexual dimorp...
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Elasmobranchii are relatively well-studied. However, numerous phylogenetic uncertainties about their relationships remain. Here, we revisit the phylogenetic evidence based on a detailed morphological re-evaluation of all the major extant batomorph clades (skates and rays), including several holomorphic fossil taxa from the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and...
Article
Eurhinodelphinids are a family of extremely long-snouted dolphins that once was widespread across the North Atlantic realm, but so far has not been recorded from the epicontinental Paratethys Sea. Here, we describe a new specimen of Xiphiacetus cristatus, including the cranium, left ear bones and a partial mandible, from the Middle Miocene (Badenia...
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Two newly discovered specimens of passerine birds-an isolated sternum and an associated skeleton-from the upper Middle Miocene (ca. 12 Ma) are the oldest representatives of Passeriformes from Austria. Although the condition of the specimens prevents their accurate identification, they provide further clues on the morphological diversity of the avif...
Conference Paper
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The Cretaceous was an important period in the evolution of vertebrates, both on land and in the oceans. Reconfiguration of landscapes by the Pangaean break-up and subsequent oceanic phase that opened new seaways enabled the establishment of new migration routes and also created wide, shallow epicontinental seas that are considered to boost diversit...
Conference Paper
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Extant billfishes represent some of the largest fishes in the open ocean in tropical to subtropical latitudes. They are at the top of oceanic food webs and contribute to their functioning and stability. Their distribution, population genomics and phylogeny have been extensively studied because of their ecological and fishery importance. Conversely,...
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Here, we provide a detailed taxonomic reassessment of a historically collected chondrichthyan dental assemblage from the lower Kimmeridgian of Czarnogłowy in north-western Poland and discuss its significance for better understanding hybodontiform diversity patterns prior to their post-Jurassic decline in fully marine environments. In spite of its l...
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The first articulated dentition of †Ptychodus from Africa is described herein. The specimen, likely coming from the Turonian of the Asfla area (Goulmima region, southeastern Morocco), exhibits a well-preserved lower dental plate of a second-level predator. A new species, †P. maghrebianus sp. nov., is erected herein based on this durophagous dentiti...
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Nodosauridae is a group of thyreophoran dinosaurs characterized by a collar of prominent osteoderms. In comparison to its sister group, the often club-tailed ankylosaurids, a different lifestyle of nodosaurids could be assumed based on their neuroanatomy and weaponry, e.g., regarding applied defensive strategies. The holotype of the nodosaurid Stru...
Article
Every night the greatest migration on Earth starts in the deep pelagic oceans where organisms move up to the meso-and epipelagic to find food and return to the deeper zones during the day. One of the dominant fish taxa undertaking vertical migrations are the dragonfishes (Stomiiformes). However, the functional aspects of locomotion and the architec...
Article
Sibert and Rubin (Reports, 4 June 2021, p. 1105) claim to have identified a previously unidentified, major extinction event of open-ocean sharks in the early Miocene. We argue that their interpretations are based on an experimental design that does not account for a considerable rise in the sedimentation rate coinciding with the proposed event, nor...
Conference Paper
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The Late Jurassic marks a crucial time interval in the history of life leading to dramatic episodes of global environmental perturbation at the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary, which significantly changed the faunal composition of many vertebrate communities in both the terrestrial and marine realms. Among marine vertebrates, hybodontiform shark-like...
Conference Paper
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Nodosaurids are thyreophoran dinosaurs displaying extensive body armor composed of closely arranged bony osteoderms, which are partly modified into prominent spikes around their neck and shoulders. Struthiosaurus is a European Late Cretaceous representative of this spiky group of herbivorous quadrupeds. Numerous cranial and postcranial remains were...
Article
The Carboniferous is characterized by drastic climatic and environmental fluctuations, which include multiple phases of glaciation resulting in an icehouse climate. Additionally, dynamic continental reconfigurations forced the contraction of the Rheic Ocean resulting in the closure of the Rheic–Tethyan Gateway, which precluded further faunal exchan...
Conference Paper
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The fossil record of Chondrichthyes, or cartilaginous fishes, is strongly biased throughout the Palaeozoic in Austria. However, three exceptionally well-preserved teeth from the Carboniferous succession of Nötsch were found and recently donated to the Natural History Museum Vienna and the Landesmuseum Klagenfurt in Carinthia. While one tooth, Clado...
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Despite being one of the richest Neogene deposits of marine fossil vertebrates along the Pacific coast of South America, no detailed study of bony fishes from the Bahía Inglesa Formation has been carried out. Through the revision of historical collections of the Caldera Paleontological Museum, we describe 27 fossil remains of bony fishes. Fossils d...
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We here re-evaluate the skeletal anatomy and the systematic position of the two Eocene guitarfish species represented by almost complete and articulated material from the Konservat-Lagerstätten of Bolca in Italy. The analyses of morphometric, skeletal and dental features of 'Rhinobatos' dezignii and 'R.' primaevus allow them to be excluded from the...
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Over the last few years, the morphology, taxonomy and systematics of the cartilaginous fish taxa of the two main sites of the Bolca Lagerstätte, Italy, (Pesciara and Monte Postale sites) have been extensively discussed in a series of papers, resulting in a complete revision of this neglected component of the Eocene Tethyan ichthyofauna. Here, we pr...
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Asteracanthus was one of the most common Mesozoic hybodontiform chondrichthyans, given that remains traditionally referred to this genus have been reported almost worldwide from Middle Triassic to Late Cretaceous strata so far. Asteracanthus was erected by Louis Agassiz for Late Juras-sic fin spines with stellate tubercles. Later, Arthur Smith Wood...
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The presence of the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Mediterranean Sea is well documented, but encounters with this species are rare and all assumptions about its spatial and temporal distribution are heavily relying on anecdotal observations. To date, only one record off the Libyan coast has been reported, raising the question if...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the last few years, the anatomy, taxonomy and relationships of the cartilaginous fish taxa of the two main fossiliferous deposits of the Bolca Lagerstätte, the Pesciara and Monte Postale sites, have been extensively discussed in a series of papers, resulting in a complete systematic revision of this neglected component of the Eocene Tethyan icht...
Article
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A partial skeleton of a hybodontiform shark-like chondrichthyan from the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Dorset, England, is described and designated as a new genus and species, Durnonovariaodus maiseyi gen. et sp. nov. The holotype and only known specimen, which is represented by disarticulated splanchnocranial elements with associated...
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We present the first fossil record of the sawshark genus Pliotrema from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean. The examined material was obtained from a little-known fossil locality named “Arenas de Caldera” in the Atacama region of Chile. The fossiliferous deposits belong to the Bahía Inglesa Formation, which is most likely middle Miocene–early Pliocene...
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A new fossil mackerel shark, Pseudocorax kindlimanni sp. nov. (Lamniformes, Pseudocoracidae), is described from the Cenomanian Konservat-Lagerstätte of Haqel, Lebanon. The new species is based on the most complete fossil of this group to date, which comprises an associated tooth set of 70 teeth, six articulated vertebral centra, numerous placoid sc...
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Sharks have a long and rich fossil record that consists predominantly of isolated teeth due to the poorly mineralized cartilaginous skeleton. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo), which represent apex predators in modern oceans, have a known fossil record extending back into the early Eocene (ca. 56 Ma) and comprise 22 recognized extinct and one extant specie...
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The Mediterranean Sea is an extinction hotspot for sharks, skates, and rays, with at least half of all species being threatened. The sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus is among the most threatened species and is declared endangered (EN) in the Medi-terranean according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Adriatic Sea was previously prop...
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Pycnodontiformes was a successful lineage of primarily marine fishes that broadly diversified during the Mesozoic. They possessed a wide variety of body shapes and were adapted to a broad range of food sources. Two other neopterygian clades possessing similar ecological adaptations in both body morphology (†Dapediiformes) and dentition (Ginglymodi)...
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We present the first known cranial remains of the fossil batoid †Onchopristis numidus. Based on two exceptionally well-preserved specimens collected from the ‘Kem Kem Beds’ (Albian–Cenomanian), south-east Morocco, an almost complete description of the rostral and cranial portions of the genus †Onchopristis is provided, together with new observation...
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Many explanations for Eocene climate change focus on the Southern Ocean – where tectonics influenced oceanic gateways, ocean circulation reduced heat transport, and greenhouse gas declines prompted glaciation. To date, few studies focus on marine vertebrates at high latitudes to discern paleoecological and paleoenvironmental impacts of this climate...
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Alteration of organic remains during the transition from the bio- to lithosphere is afected strongly by biotic processes of microbes infuencing the potential of dead matter to become fossilized or vanish ultimately. If fossilized, bones, cartilage, and tooth dentine often display traces of bioerosion caused by destructive microbes. The causal agent...
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Alteration of organic remains during the transition from the bio-to lithosphere is affected strongly by biotic processes of microbes influencing the potential of dead matter to become fossilized or vanish ultimately. If fossilized, bones, cartilage, and tooth dentine often display traces of bioerosion caused by destructive microbes. The causal agen...
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Associated and isolated teeth of the extinct elasmobranch Ptychodus latissimus Agassiz, 1835 from the Upper Cretaceous Scaglia Rossa pelagic limestone of northern Italy are described and discussed here in detail for the first time. The dentition of this widely distributed species consists of low-crowned molariform teeth that exhibit marked and stro...
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During the last years, feeding mechanisms of sharks have been documented mainly based on their stomach contents supplemented by video footages of feeding behaviours in some species. Rare kinematic analyses of shark jaws contributed additionally to our knowledge. However, not all structures important to prey capture in sharks have been investigated...
Article
In April 2020, three citizen scientists reported the stranding of an adult female bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus (TL 445cm) on the coast of Libya. The shark had a deep penetrating trauma on the dorsal surface, between head and first dorsal fin, with the distal segment of a swordfish rostrum embedded in it. The swordfish involved in thi...
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In this paper we re-examine the taxonomy and systematic position of the Eocene stingrays from Bolca Lagerstätte which are traditionally assigned to Urolophus crassicaudatus (Blainville). The analysis of their tooth morphology supports an assignment to the Eocene stingray genus Arechia Cappetta, a taxon known from isolated teeth from the Ypresian-Lu...
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The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) has recently circulated a letter, dated 21st April, 2020, to more than 300 palaeontological journals, signed by the President, Vice President and a former President of the society (Rayfield et al. 2020). In this letter, significant changes to the common practices in palaeontology are requested. In our pr...
Article
Full-text available
The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) has recently circulated a letter, dated 21st April, 2020, to more than 300 palaeontological journals, signed by the President, Vice President and a former President of the society (Rayfield et al. 2020). In this letter, significant changes to the common practices in palaeontology are requested. In our pr...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) has sent around a letter, dated 21st April, 2020 to more than 300 palaeontological journals, signed by the President, Vice President and a former President of the society (Rayfield et al. 2020). The signatories of this letter request significant changes to the common practices in palaeontology....
Article
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A new pycnodont taxon, Njoerdichthys dyckerhoffi gen. et sp. nov., from the Turonian of the Lower Saxony Basin of Germany is described and its systematic positions is established based on phylogenetic analyses of three specimens using slightly altered data matrices. All analyses display some differences to previous analyses but show very similar re...
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elasmobranchii (i.e., sharks, skates, and rays) forms one of the most diverse groups of marine predators. With a fossil record extending back into the Devonian, several modifications in their body plan illustrate their body shape diversity through time. the angel sharks, whose fossil record dates back to the Late Jurassic, some 160 Ma, have a dorso...
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Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Garman 1884, commonly called the frilled shark, is a deep sea shark species occurring up to depths of 1300 m. It is assumed to represent an ancient morphotype of sharks (e.g., terminal mouth opening, more than five gill slits) and thus is often considered to represent plesiomorphic traits for sharks. Therefore, its early...
Article
Cladodontomorphii represents an archaic clade of chondrichthyan fishes characterised by distinct tooth morphologies referred to as the cladodont type. This group of cartilaginous fishes first occurred during the early Palaeozoic Era as revealed from the fossil record and were long thought to have gone extinct at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction...
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The fossil-Lagerstatte of Bolca (Italy) is well known for the diversity and exquisite preservation of its bony and cartilaginous fishes documenting tropical shallow-water marine environments associated with coral reefs in the western Tethys during the early Eocene. In this study, the taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic position of two batoid spe...
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Elasmobranch remains are quite common in Miocene deposits and were the subject of numerous studies since the middle of the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the taxonomic diversity of the Marine Molasse sharks, rays and skates is still largely unknown. Here, we describe 37 taxa from the lower Miocene of the Molasse Basin: 21 taxa could be identifie...
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Shark nurseries are essential habitats for shark survival. Notwithstanding the rich fossil record of the modern great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, GWS), its use of nursery areas in the fossil record has never been assessed before. Here, we analysed the fossil record of the GWS from three South American Pliocene localities, assessed body siz...
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Due to their cartilaginous endoskeleton and the continuous tooth replacement, the chon-drichthyan fossil record predominantly consists of isolated teeth, which offer diagnostic features for taxonomic identifications, but only provide very limited information of an organism's life history. In contrast, the calcified vertebral centra of elasmobranchs...
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During their evolutionary history, modern sharks developed different tooth mineralization patterns that resulted in very distinct histological patterns of the tooth crown (histotypes). To date, three different tooth histotypes have been distinguished: (i) orthodont teeth, which have a central hollow pulp cavity in the crown, encapsulated by a promi...
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The origin of turtles is one of the most long-lasting debates in evolutionary research. During their evolution, a series of modifications changed their relatively kinetic and anapsid skull into an elongated akinetic structure with a unique pulley system redirecting jaw adductor musculature. These modifications were thought to be strongly correlated...
Article
Dental and skeletal remains of Ptychodus mediterraneus from the Upper Cretaceous Scaglia Rossa Formation of northeastern Italy are described and discussed herein, together with isolated teeth of P. latissimus and P. polygyrus from the English Chalk of Sussex, southern England. The redescription of the holotype of Ptychodus mediterraneus and lectoty...