Judy Sheard

Judy Sheard
Monash University (Australia) · Caulfield School of Information Technology

About

115
Publications
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2,319
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Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Use of theory within a field of research provides the foundation for designing effective research programs and establishing a deeper understanding of the results obtained. This, together with the emergence of domain-specific theory, is often taken as an indicator of the maturity of any research area. This paper explores the development and subseque...
Article
The use of established and discipline specific theories within research and practice is an indication of the maturity of a discipline. With computing education research as a relatively young discipline, there has been recent interest in investigating theories that may prove foundational to work in this area, with discipline specific theories and ma...
Conference Paper
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Computing education and outreach in the K--12 school sector have shown significant growth over recent decades, resulting in a large body of literature focused on the teaching and learning of computing. Despite this extensive literature, we are not aware of global overviews on teaching and learning programming as opposed to computing or computationa...
Conference Paper
The goal of most computing education research is to effect positive change in how computing is taught and learned. Statistical techniques are one important way of supporting the evidence of these results. In this paper, we report on an analysis of ICER papers that use inferential statistics. We examine how statistics are reported in general, presen...
Conference Paper
In order to mature as a research field, computing education research (CER) seeks to build a better theoretical understanding of how students learn computing concepts and processes. Progress in this area depends on the development of computing-specific theories of learning to complement the general theoretical understanding of learning processes. In...
Conference Paper
Computing education research is built on the use of suitable methods within appropriate theoretical frameworks to provide guidance and solutions for our discipline, in a way that is rigorous and repeatable. However, the scale of theory covered extends well beyond the CS discipline and includes educational theory, behavioural psychology, statistics,...
Conference Paper
We present an analysis of the visual portrayals of data (including results) in the full papers and working group reports of ITiCSEfrom 2013 to 2018. We find that tables are the most common visual portrayal of data in these publications, but that there are a number of graphical forms that are widely used. We examine the quality of the data portrayal...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Computing Education Research - edited by Sally A. Fincher February 2019
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Cambridge Core - Education, History, Theory - The Cambridge Handbook of Computing Education Research - edited by Sally A. Fincher
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As computing becomes a mainstream discipline embedded in the school curriculum and acts as an enabler for an increasing range of academic disciplines in higher education, the literature on introductory programming is growing. Although there have been several reviews that focus on specific aspects of introductory programming,there has been no broad...
Article
In 1996, recognizing a growing worldwide interest in community education, SIGCSE started a new conference in Europe - now known as the Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education conference (ITiCSE). Following the success of the first ITiCSE, it has been held annually, typically in Europe, ever since. ITiCSE has developed its own specia...
Conference Paper
Conferences such as ITiCSE have recently seen an increase in the number of papers presenting empirical research in computing education. While empirical research need not be quantitative, there has been a corresponding increase in the number of papers that present some level of statistical analysis to support their arguments. This poster introduces...
Conference Paper
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A broad review of research on the teaching and learning of programming was conducted by Robins et al. in 2003. Since this work there have been several reviews of research concerned with the teaching and learning of programming, in particular introductory programming. However, these reviews have focused on highly specific aspects, such as student mi...
Conference Paper
Educational environments in higher education Information Technology (IT) courses typically involve the use of multiple technologies. Such technology-rich learning and teaching environments (TRLTEs) can enhance a student’s learning experiences and support learning in different settings (e.g., in-class and out-of-class, individual and group learning)...
Conference Paper
In recent years academic integrity has come to be seen as a major concern across the full educational spectrum. The case has been made that in certain ways academic integrity is not the same in computing education as in education more generally, and that as a consequence it is the responsibility of computing educators to explicitly advise their stu...
Conference Paper
Safeguarding academic integrity is an issue of concern to all computing academics due to high and rising levels of plagiarism and other cheating in computing courses. There have been many studies of the cheating and plagiarism practices of computing students and the factors that can influence these practices, and a variety of strategies for reducin...
Conference Paper
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Transforming a face-to-face curriculum to a blended one is not an easy task. When transforming their courses, academics face two key design challenges: (i) deciding the proportion of online to face-to-face components to be incorporated into the new course; and (ii) selecting the most appropriate delivery methods to achieve the learning outcomes. Th...
Conference Paper
The programming education literature includes many observations that pass rates are low in introductory programming courses, but few or no comparisons of student performance across courses. This paper addresses that shortcoming. Having included a small set of identical questions in the final examinations of a number of introductory programming cour...
Conference Paper
Ten selected questions have been included in 13 introductory programming exams at seven institutions in five countries. The students' results on these questions, and on the exams as a whole, lead to the development of a benchmark against which the exams in other introductory programming courses can be assessed. We illustrate some potential benefits...
Conference Paper
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The computing education literature shows some recent interest in summative assessment in introductory programming, with papers analysing final examinations and other papers proposing small sets of examination questions that might be used in multiple institutions as part of a benchmarking exercise. This paper reports on a project to expand the set o...
Article
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p class="Abstracttext">Blended learning has been growing in popularity as it has proved to be an effective approach for accommodating an increasingly diverse student population whilst adding value to the learning environment through incorporation of online teaching resources. Despite this growing interest, there is ongoing debate about the definiti...
Article
Student perceptions of academic integrity have been extensively researched in relation to text-based assessments, but there is rather less research relating to non-text-based assessments such as computer programs, databases, and spreadsheets. This paper reports the findings from a survey of computing students and academics to investigate perception...
Article
This paper presents findings from an empirical study of key aspects of the teaching and research priorities, beliefs and behaviours of 72 professorial and associate professorial academics in Science, Information Technology and Engineering across four faculties in three Australian universities. The academics ranked 16 research activities and 16 matc...
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This paper reports on research that used focus groups and a national online survey of computing students at Australian universities to investigate perceptions of acceptable academic practices in writing program code for assessment. The results indicate that computing students lack a comprehensive understanding of what constitutes acceptable academi...
Conference Paper
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The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and their increasing use in higher education have provided opportunities for building collaborative learning environments for students. Collaborative experiences are particularly beneficial for preparing students for their future workplace environments. Moreover, the creation and sharing of resources and inform...
Article
Previous studies of assessment of programming via written examination have focused on analysis of the examination papers and the questions they contain. This paper reports the results of a study that investigated how these final exam papers are developed, how students are prepared for these exams, and what pedagogical foundations underlie the exams...
Conference Paper
Technology empowers students but can also entice them to plagiarise. To tackle this problem, plagiarism detection tools are especially useful, not only in popular thinking as a deterrent for students, but also as an educational tool to raise students' awareness of the offence and to improve their academic skills. Commercial text matching tools (e.g...
Conference Paper
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Student performance on examinations is influenced by the level of difficulty of the questions. It seems reasonable to propose therefore that assessment of the difficulty of exam questions could be used to gauge the level of skills and knowledge expected at the end of a course. This paper reports the results of a study investigating the difficulty o...
Article
This paper reports the results of a study investigating how accurately programming teachers can judge the level of difficulty of questions in introductory programming examinations. Having compiled a set of 45 questions that had been used in introductory programming exams, we took three measures of difficulty for the questions: the expectations of t...
Conference Paper
This report develops and analyses the reliability and validity of a Swedish translation of the Trigwell and Prosser Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) using data collected from academics in the Faculty of Technology and Natural Sciences at Uppsala University Sweden. The first part of the report describes the development and validation of a Swed...
Conference Paper
The problem of cheating at university is a widespread and long-standing issue. There are a variety of strategies that are used to address the problem which broadly fall into the areas of education, prevention, detection and consequence. An important consideration when deciding to tackle the problem of cheating is that the effectiveness of methods f...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents factors that influence and shape tertiary IT educators underpinning teaching philosophy. This work is the first part of a larger project investigating ways tertiary IT educators think about their teaching and develop their practice focusing on experiences and influences of technology, and the emergence of digitally based pedagog...
Conference Paper
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Communication between students and their instructors in the lab is a limited commodity. With limited access to the tutor, students can sometimes spend a long time trying to fix simple errors, continually revisiting and repeating the same errors. Instructors, on the other hand, find themselves explaining the same mistakes over and over again. It is...
Article
This is the project report of a leadership project undertaken jointly by the Queensland University of Technology, University of Technology Sydney, and Monash University. Specific project objectives were to: -To build leadership capacity in teaching and learning, and to improve teaching quality in ICT and Engineering disciplines at three leading Aus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of a classification scheme that can be used to investigate the characteristics of introductory programming examinations. We describe the process of developing the scheme, explain its categories, and present a taste of the results of a pilot analysis of a set of CS1 exam papers. This study is part of a project th...
Conference Paper
Cheating in undergraduate computing courses is an ongoing and widespread concern. In this paper we report an investigation of changes over the last decade in computing students' attitudes towards cheating practices, the extent of cheating behavior, and factors which influence cheating at an Australian university. A comparative analysis of data from...
Article
This article reports on a study of student engagement in the first year of their undergraduate information and communication technology (ICT) degree at an Australian university. The study was conducted at Monash University in the four undergraduate ICT degrees of the Faculty of Information Technology. The study draws on data collected from staff an...
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In this paper, we report the results of a survey of the study habits of CS1 students. In this survey, students were asked how much time they spent on course-related activities such as reading the textbook, working on problems outside class, using online learning tools, and consulting with their instructor. We identified factors that influenced stud...
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An online survey of recent ICT graduates in the workplace was carried out as part of a recent project funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council. The survey was concerned with the ICT curriculum in relation to workplace job requirements and university preparation for these requirements. The survey contained quantitative and qualitative...
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A national Discipline-Based Initiative (DBI) project for Information and Communications Technology (ICT), funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council, has sought the opinions of recent graduates of ICT in the workplace to help inform the curriculum. An online survey was devised to question graduates on workplace requirements and universi...
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The 157 computing education papers from the past eight NACCQ conferences are categorised and summarised by a group of researchers from multiple institutions, with steps taken to measure and improve the consistency of classification. The papers are set predominantly in programming subjects, hardware/architecture/systems/ network subjects, and capsto...
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Past papers of the BRACElet project have described an approach to teaching and assessing students where the students are presented with short pieces of code, and are instructed to explain, in plain English, what the code does. The student responses to these types of questions can be analysed according to the SOLO taxonomy. Some students display an...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the programming knowledge of novices using Biggs’ SOLO taxonomy. It builds on previous work of Lister et al. (2006) and addresses some of the criticisms of that work. The research was conducted by studying the exam scripts for 120 introductory programming students, in which three specific questions were analyzed using the SOLO t...
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We have applied Simon's system for classifying computing education publications to all three years of papers from ICER. We describe the process of assessing the inter-rater reliability of the system and fine-tuning it along the way. Our analysis of the ICER papers confirms that ICER is a research-intensive conference. It also indicates that the res...
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1 In 2006 the Computing Education Research Group from Monash University conducted a study that explored the perceptions students bring into ICT degrees and the perceptions that staff have of student expectations. Students and staff from first year undergraduate ICT degrees on the five Victorian campuses of Monash University participated in a series...
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A national Discipline-Based Initiative project for ICT, funded by the ALTC, has sought to identify the issues and challenges facing the sector. The crisis in ICT education spans high schools, universities and industry. The demand for skilled ICT graduates is increasing yet enrolments are declining. Several factors contribute to this decline includi...
Article
In the globalized e-learning environment, students coming from different cultures and countries have different characteristics and require different support designed for their approaches to study and learning styles. This paper explores the ways in which cultural background influences students' approaches to study and learning styles. Participants...
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This paper reports on the efforts of an ITiCSE 2007 working group with the aim of producing a publicly available, searchable, tagable, Web 2.0-style repository of short debugging videos. This repository may be accessed from http://debug.csi.muohio.edu/. The videos are aimed at novice Java programmers who may need help debugging when none is availab...
Conference Paper
This paper reports on the efforts of an ITiCSE 2007 working group with the aim of producing a publicly available, searchable, tagable, Web 2.0-style repository of short debugging videos. This repository may be accessed from http://debug.csi.muohio.edu/. The videos are aimed at novice Java programmers who may need help debugging when none is availab...
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Full-text available
Over the last two decades there have been fundamental shifts in the way teaching and learning are perceived and conducted within the tertiary education sector. One is a move from teacher-centred to student-centred education, and another is a move from the traditional to the virtual classroom. However, there are indications that academics and studen...
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Web-based learning environments are now extensively used as integral components of course delivery in tertiary education. To provide an effective learning environment, it is important that educators understand how these environments are used by their students. This paper describes an approach to analysing website interactions data captured on log f...
Article
This chapter adopts a four-aspect model to address cheating and plagiarism in universities: education, prevention, detection, and consequence. The research focussed on the two aspects of education and prevention as the authors feel that this area has not been considered in detail by the research. Building on past research, a series of eight focus g...
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1 Raymond Lister: the Chair's Introduction Most Information Technology academics lead double lives. In our research lives, we are involved in a community that exists primarily beyond our own university. We read the literature, we attend conferences, we work within well defined theoretical or empirical frameworks, we publish, and the cycle repeats,...
Article
With the widespread use of web‐based learning environments in the tertiary sector it is important to establish the usability of such environments for the target audience and their effectiveness in terms of meeting the educational objectives. However, a search of the literature has shown a scarcity of systematic evaluative studies of web‐based learn...
Conference Paper
Selection of an appropriate assessment method has become a crucial issue in computer programming courses as many feel the traditional paper-based examinations are not delivering the desired results for either students or educators. The poor performance of students in written exams and their lack of real-world programming skills have encouraged educ...
Conference Paper
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Students working in an online environment are isolated from their educators and other learners. Asynchronous discussion forums are often used to provide the learner with assistance, support and the social structures more readily available in the face-to-face environment. A further benefit of online discussion forums is the enabling of the developme...
Conference Paper
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The advent of Web technology has enabled new ways in which groups of people may interact, leading to the development of online communities. In an academic environment these virtual communities can facilitate collaboration and provide new ways for educators to communicate and disseminate their ideas and practices. A website designed to support a com...
Chapter
A complex multi-user web site was designed to support industrial experience projects for final year computing students at Monash University. The site was accessed by students, clients, supervisors and subject coordinators. A consistent interface was provided to aid site navigation and ease cognitive overhead, with a fixed navigation bar on all page...
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Increased class sizes are forcing academics to reconsider approaches to setting and marking assessments for their students. Distributed and distance learning are creating some of the biggest changes. Some educators are embracing new technologies but others are more wary of what they do not know. In order to address this issue it is first necessary...
Article
Critical to understanding how an electronic learning community can be established and sustained is understanding how learners and educators interact within the community. The study reported in this paper found that the development of an electronic learning community is a complex process that relies on the willingness of the learners to adopt a coll...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents an analysis of results of a survey of graduate students in IT courses that aimed to gain an understanding of their views of cheating and knowledge of their cheating practice. The survey was part of an investigation into the cheating behaviour of IT students within the Faculty of Information Technology of Monash University. Using...
Article
With the widespread adoption of the Web in tertiary education, students often work in electronic environments away from the direct observation of their educators. It is therefore of critical importance to develop techniques that will inform educators about how their students are using these new environments. A useful metric for gaining an understan...
Conference Paper
Web-based discussion forums are used in a range of undergraduate and graduate courses in the School of Computer Science and Software Engineering at Monash University. The enthusiastic adoption of these facilities by students has impacted upon staff worklods and recently concerns have been raised by staff about the time and effort required to manage...
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Full-text available
Within the School of Computer Science and Software Engineering of Monash University concerns have been raised about the prevalence of cheating amongst the IT students. Many isolated reports from staff of different cheating incidents collectively present a view of a problem that is widespread and multifaceted. Although indications are that these pra...
Article
There is a large body of research that indicates the practice of cheating amongst students in the tertiary sector is widespread. Various studies have also attempted to determine reasons why students decide to cheat, or not to cheat. Although some common factors have been identified, there are indications that the level of cheating varies across dis...
Article
Full-text available
Web-based learning environments are now used extensively as integral components of course delivery in tertiary education. To provide an effective learning environment, it is important that educators understand how these environments are used by their students. In conventional teaching environments educators are able to obtain feedback on student le...
Conference Paper
Web-based discussion forums are used in a range of undergraduate and graduate courses in the School of Computer Science and Software Engineering at Monash University. The enthusiastic adoption of these facilities by students has impacted upon staff worklods and recently concerns have been raised by staff about the time and effort required to manage...