Judith Rapoport

Judith Rapoport
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) | NIMH

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587
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Publications

Publications (587)
Article
Full-text available
Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare and severe form of schizophrenia defined as onset before age of 13. Here we report on two unrelated cases diagnosed with both COS and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and for whom two distinct pathogenic de novo variants were identified in the ATP1A3 gene. ATP1A3 encodes the α-subunit of a neu...
Article
Full-text available
The clinical severity, impact on development, and poor prognosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia may represent a more homogeneous group. Positive symptoms in children are necessary for the diagnosis, and hallucinations are more often multimodal. In healthy children and children with a variety of other psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations are not...
Article
Full-text available
We generated cortical interneurons (cINs) from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from 14 healthy controls and 14 subjects with schizophrenia. Both healthy control cINs and schizophrenia cINs were authentic, fired spontaneously, received functional excitatory inputs from host neurons, and induced GABA-mediated inhibition in host neurons in vivo...
Article
Childhood‐onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare and severe form of schizophrenia, defined as having an onset before the age of 13. The male COS cases have a slightly younger age of onset than female cases. They also present with a higher rate of comorbid developmental disorders. These sex differences are not explained by the frequency of chromosomal...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare, severe form of the adult-onset disorder (AOS). Our previous resting-state fMRI study identified attenuated functional connectivity in COS compared with controls. Here, we ask whether COS and AOS patients and their siblings exhibit similar abnormalities of functional connectivity. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
The power of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based studies to resolve the smaller effects of common variants within the size of cohorts that can be realistically assembled remains uncertain. We identified and accounted for a variety of technical and biological sources of variation in a large case/control schizophrenia (SZ) hiPSC-derived...
Article
Objective: Working memory (WM) deficits are consistently reported in schizophrenia and are related to poor functional outcomes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of adult-onset schizophrenia have reported decreased functional activations and connectivity in the WM network, but no prior functional magnetic resonance imaging study has ex...
Article
Objective: This study investigated symptom dimensions and subgroups in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) cohort and their similarities to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) literature. Method: Scores from the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS & SANS) from 125 COS patie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Whereas highly penetrant variants have proven well-suited to human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models, the power of hiPSC-based studies to resolve the much smaller effects of common variants within the size of cohorts that can be realistically assembled remains uncertain. In developing a large case/control schizophrenia (SZ) hiPSC-d...
Article
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was a rare diagnosis 30 years ago, but epidemiological studies in the 2000s estimated a prevalence between 2% and 5%.¹ More recent reports suggest there may be a rapid increase in new diagnoses, much as has been found for childhood ADHD.² Changes to diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 (compared with DS...
Article
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Objective Gender differences, including younger age of onset and greater premorbid deficits in men, have been reported in adult-onset schizophrenia. This study comprehensively evaluated gender differences in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare variant of the disorder. Method Demographic, premorbid, clinical, familial, and cognitive charact...
Article
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Converging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to disease risk for schizophrenia (SZ). We show that microRNA-9 (miR-9) is abundantly expressed in control neural progenitor cells (NPCs) but also significantly downregulated in a subset of SZ NPCs. We observed a strong correlation between miR-9 expression and miR-9 regulatory act...
Article
Full-text available
We report two cases of paternally inherited 15q13.3 duplications in carriers diagnosed with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder of proposed polygenic origin with onset in children before age 13. This study documents that the 15q13.3 deletion and duplication exhibit pathogenicity for COS, with both copy number var...
Article
Objective: Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the disorder, which is often treatment refractory. Short-term studies have indicated a greater differential efficacy, evident through effect sizes, favoring clozapine over other agents in alleviating negative symptoms in COS patients compared with adult-onset patients (AOS...
Article
Objective: This study investigated the relationship between regional cortical gray matter thinning and symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders (PDs) in siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). Method: A total of 66 siblings of patients with COS were assessed for symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum PDs (avoid...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), defined by the onset of illness before age 13 years, is a rare severe neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Recently, sequencing studies have identified rare, potentially causative de novo variants in sporadic cases of adult-onset schizophrenia and autism. In this study, we performed exome sequencing...
Article
Full-text available
Schizophrenia is increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with altered connectivity among brain networks. In the current study we examined large-scale network interactions in childhood-onset schizophrenia, a severe form of the disease with salient genetic and neurobiological abnormalities. Using a data-driven analysis of resting-sta...
Article
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite capable of establishing persistent infection within the brain. Serological studies in humans have linked exposure to Toxoplasma to neuropsychiatric disorders. However, serological studies have not elucidated the related molecular mechanisms within neuronal cells. To address this question, we used human indu...
Article
Copy number variants (CNVs) of a 600 kb region on 16p11.2 are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and changes in brain volume. The authors hypothesize that abnormal brain development associated with this CNV can be attributed to changes in transcriptional regulation. The authors determined the effects of 16p11.2 dosage on gene expression b...
Article
The novel technology of induced neuronal cells (iN cells) is promising for translational neuroscience, as it allows the conversion of human fibroblasts into cells with postmitotic neuronal traits. However, a major technical barrier is the low conversion rate. To overcome this problem, we optimized the conversion media. Using our improved formulatio...
Article
Abnormalities in structural brain connectivity have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Mapping these abnormalities longitudinally and understanding their genetic risk via sibship studies will provide crucial insight into progressive developmental changes associated with schizophrenia. To identify corticocortical connections exhibiting an...
Article
Full-text available
Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, are complex disorders with a high degree of heritability. Genetic studies have identified several candidate genes associated with these disorders, including contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2). Traditionally, in animal models or in vitro, CNTNAP2 has been s...
Article
Fixed hippocampal volume reductions and shape abnormalities are established findings in schizophrenia, but the relationship between hippocampal volume change and clinical outcome has been relatively unexplored in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. In light of recent findings correlating hippocampal volume change and clinical outcome in fi...
Article
Full-text available
Methodologies for generating functional neuronal cells directly from human fibroblasts [induced neuronal (iN) cells] have been recently developed, but the research so far has only focused on technical refinements or recapitulation of known pathological phenotypes. A critical question is whether this novel technology will contribute to elucidation o...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare and severe form of the disorder, with more striking abnormalities with respect to prepsychotic developmental disorders and abnormities in the brain development compared with later-onset schizophrenia. We previously documented that COS patients, compared with their healthy siblings and with adult-onset p...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with underlying brain anatomical and functional measures, as well as familial/genetic factors that are major foci of neuropsychiatric research. Advances in imaging technology have shown structural and functional brain differences between individuals with and wit...
Article
There are varying, often conflicting, reports with respect to altered striatal volume and morphometry in the major psychoses due to the influences of antipsychotic medications on striatal volume. Thus, disassociating disease effects from those of medication become exceedingly difficult. For the first time, using a longitudinally studied sample of s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diffusion tensor imaging is a neuroimaging method that quantifies white matter (WM) integrity and brain connectivity based on the diffusion of water in the brain. White matter has been hypothesized to be of great importance in the development of schizophrenia as part of the dysconnectivity model. Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), is...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of magnetic resonance imaging, which safely allows in vivo quantification of anatomical and physiologic features of the brain, has revolutionized pediatric neuroscience. Longitudinal studies are useful for the characterization of developmental trajectories (i.e. changes in imaging measures by age). Developmental trajectories (as opposed...
Article
Background Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain connectivity and altered neurodevelopmental processes. Cross-sectional case-control studies in different age groups have suggested that deficits in cortical thickness in childhood-onset schizophrenia may normalize over time, suggesting a disorder-related difference in cortical growth trajectories. Me...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Among children <13 years of age with persistent psychosis and contemporaneous decline in functioning, it is often difficult to determine if the diagnosis of childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is warranted. Despite decades of experience, we have up to a 44% false positive screening diagnosis rate among patients identified as having prob...
Article
Defects in brain development are believed to contribute toward the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, but identifying specific underlying mechanisms has proven difficult. Here, we took a multifaceted approach to investigate why 15q11.2 copy number variants are prominent risk factors for schizophrenia and autism. First, we show that human iPSC-der...
Article
Full-text available
Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the...
Article
Full-text available
Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the...
Article
The clinical severity, impact on development, and poor prognosis of childhood onset schizophrenia may represent a more homogeneous group. Positive symptoms in children are necessary for the diagnosis and hallucinations are more often multimodal. In healthy children and children with a variety of other psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations are not u...
Article
The insular cortex (insula), whose normal function involves delineating the boundary between self and non-self stimuli, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, including hallucinations and delusions. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS), that includes the onset of psychosis before age 13, is a severe and...
Article
This paper provides a selective overview of the past, present and future of pediatric psychopharmacology. The acceptance of medication use in child psychiatry was based on the results of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials documenting the efficacy of drug treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, enuresis, depression, anxiety dis...
Article
Copy number variants (CNVs) are risk factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia. Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset before the age of 13 years, is a rare and severe form of the disorder, with more striking array of prepsychotic developmental disorders and ab...
Article
The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in patients with...
Article
Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a chronic, severe form of schizophrenia, and is typically treatment resistant. Even after optimized pharmacotherapy, a majority (over 70%) of these pediatric patients present lasting psychotic symptoms and impaired cognition, necessitating the need for novel treatment modalities. Recent work in transcranial magnetic...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze rates of neutropenia and risk factors for neutropenia in hospitalized children and adolescents treated with clozapine. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients who received clozapine at any time during a hospitalization at the National Institute of Me...
Article
Neuroimaging studies have implicated the corpus callosum (CC) in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Putative dysfunctions in prefrontal cortical regions suggest anomalies in anterior segments of the CC. However, recent studies have also implicated the middle and posterior CC. The present study soughts to examine the CC usin...
Chapter
We present a review of neurodevelopmental factors implicated in hallucinations with a focus on pediatric populations. Epidemiological, neuroanatomical, and toxicological studies in pediatric populations experiencing both benign and clinical hallucinations are discussed. The literature on Childhood Onset Schizophrenia (COS) is considered in the cont...
Article
The corpus callosum (CC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and CC deficits have been reported in adults with schizophrenia. We explored the developmental trajectory of the corpus callosum in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) patients, their healthy siblings (SIB) and healthy volunteers. We obtained 235 anatomic brain magne...
Article
Full-text available
CONTEXT Nonpsychotic siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) share cortical gray matter abnormalities with their probands at an early age; these normalize by the time the siblings are aged 18 years, suggesting that the gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenia could be an age-specific endophenotype. Patients with COS also sho...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have implicated epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and DNA methylation in various human diseases.1, 2 Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) are hallmarks of gene activation and repression, respectively.³ These two histone methylations are now known to regulate gene...