Judith Peters

Judith Peters
Institut Laue-Langevin · Spectroscopy group

Professor

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149
Publications
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Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Modern phospholipid membranes are known to be in a functional, physiological state, corresponding to the liquid crystalline phase, only under very precise external conditions. The phase is characterised by specific lipid motions, which seem mandatory to permit sufficient flexibility and stability for the membrane. It can be assumed that similar pri...
Article
In accompanying papers [Bicout et al., BioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.09.21.461198 (2021); Cissé et al., BioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.03.30.486370 (2022)], a new model called Matryoshka model has been proposed to describe the geometry of atomic motions in phospholipid molecules in bilayers and multilamellar vesicles based on their qua...
Article
Biological membranes are generally formed by lipids and proteins. Often, the membrane properties are studied through model membranes formed by phospholipids only. They are molecules composed by a hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic tails, which can present a panoply of various motions, including small localized movements of a few atoms up to the...
Article
Fluid lipid bilayers are the building blocks of biological membranes. Although there is a large amount of experimental data using incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) techniques to study membranes, very little theoretical works have been developed to study the local dynamics of membranes. The main objective of this work is to build a...
Preprint
Life is thought to have appeared in the depth of the sea, under high hydrostatic pressure. Nowadays, it is known that the deep biosphere hosts a myriad of life forms thriving under high pressure conditions. However, the evolutionary mechanisms leading to their adaptation are still not known. Here we show the molecular bases of these mechanisms thro...
Preprint
Modern phospholipid membranes are known to be in a functional, physiological state, corresponding to the liquid crystalline phase, only under very precise external conditions. The phase is characterised by specific lipid motions, which seem mandatory to permit sufficient flexibility and stability for the membrane. It can be assumed that similar pri...
Preprint
In accompanying papers [Bicout et al., BBA Biomembr. Submitted ; Cisse et al., BBA Biomembr. Submitted], a new model called Matryoshka model has been proposed to describe the geometry of atomic motions in phospholipid molecules in bilayers and multilamellar vesicles based on their quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra. Here, in order to ch...
Preprint
Biological membranes are generally formed by lipids and proteins. Often, the membrane properties are studied through model membranes formed by phospholipids only. They are molecules composed by a hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic tails, which can present a panoply of various motions, including small localized movements of a few atoms up to the...
Article
Full-text available
One of the first steps in the origin of life was the formation of a membrane, a physical boundary that allowed the retention of molecules in concentrated solutions. The proto-membrane was likely formed by self-assembly of simple readily available amphiphiles, such as short-chain fatty acids and alcohols. In the commonly accepted scenario that life...
Article
Full-text available
Lysozyme amyloidosis is a hereditary disease, which is characterized by the deposition of lysozyme amyloid fibrils in various internal organs. It is known that lysozyme fibrils show polymorphism and that polymorphs formed at near-neutral pH have the ability to promote more monomer binding than those formed at acidic pH, indicating that only specifi...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature variations are often used to investigate molecular dynamics through neutron scattering in biosystems, as the required techniques are well-known. Hydrostatic pressure is much less applied due to technological difficulties. However, within the last decade, a reliable and suitable equipment has been developed at the Institut Laue Langevin,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fluid lipid bilayers are the building blocks of biological membranes. Although there is a large amount of experimental data using inconsistent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) techniques to study membranes, very little theoretical works have been developed to study the local dynamics of membranes. The main objective of this work is to build...
Article
Full-text available
The modification of archaeal lipid bilayer properties by the insertion of apolar molecules in the lipid bilayer midplane has been proposed to support cell membrane adaptation to extreme environmental conditions of temperature and hydrostatic pressure. In this work, we characterize the insertion effects of the apolar polyisoprenoid squalane on the p...
Article
Full-text available
It has been proposed that adaptation to high temperature involved the synthesis of monolayer-forming ether phospholipids. Recently, a novel membrane architecture was proposed to explain the membrane stability in polyextremophiles unable to synthesize such lipids, in which apolar polyisoprenoids populate the bilayer midplane and modify its physico-c...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial life appeared on our planet within a time window of [4.4–3.5] billion years ago. During that time, it is suggested that the first proto-cellular forms developed in the surrounding of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, oceanic crust fractures that are still present nowadays. However, these environments are characterized by extreme temperature...
Article
Full-text available
The enzyme model, mouse acetylcholinesterase, which exhibits its active site at the bottom of a narrow gorge, was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of sucrose to shed light on the protein and water dynamics in cholinesterases. The study was conducted by incoherent neutron scattering, giving access to molecular dynamics within...
Article
Origin of life scenarios generally assume an onset of cell formation in terrestrial hot springs or in the deep oceans close to hot vents, where energy was available for non-enzymatic reactions. Membranes of the protocells had therefore to withstand extreme conditions different from what is found on the Earth surface today. We present here an exhaus...
Article
Full-text available
Archaea are known to inhabit some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability of archaea possessing membrane bilayers to adapt to high temperature (>85°C) and high pressure (>1,000 bar) environments is proposed to be due to the presence of apolar polyisoprenoids at the midplane of the bilayer. In this work, we study the response of this...
Article
Archaea synthesize methyl-branched, ether phospholipids, which confer the archaeal membrane exceptional physico-chemical properties. A novel membrane organization has been proposed recently to explain the thermal and high pressure tolerance of the polyextremophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus. According to this theoretical model, apolar molecu...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial spores are among the most resistant forms of life on Earth. Their exceptional resistance properties rely on various strategies, among them the core singular structure, organization and hydration. By using elastic incoherent neutron scattering, we probed the dynamics of Bacillus subtilis spores to determine whether core macromolecular moti...
Article
Full-text available
Herein, we describe an open-source, Python-based, script to treat the output of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, called pyDSC, available free of charge for download at https://github.com/leonardo-chiappisi/pyDSC under a GNU General Public License v3.0. The main aim of this program is to provide the community with a simple progra...
Article
Full-text available
We present a study comparing atomic motional amplitudes in calcium rich and depleted alpha-lactalbumin. The investigations were performed by elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the variations were expected to be very small, three different hydration levels and timescales (instrumental resolutions...
Article
Full-text available
Archaea, the most extremophilic domain of life, contain ether and branched lipids which provide extraordinary bilayer properties. We determined the structural characteristics of diether archaeal-like phospholipids as functions of hydration and temperature by neutron diffraction. Hydration and temperature are both crucial parameters for the self-ass...
Chapter
During the last decades, high pressure has gained in importance as physical parameter, not only to study biomolecules, but also for its biotechnological applications. High pressure affects organism’s ability to survive by altering most of cell’s macromolecules. These effects can be used, for example, to inactivate microorganisms, enhance enzymatic...
Article
It is now well established that cell membranes are much more than a barrier that separate the cytoplasm from the outside world. Regarding membrane's lipids and their self-assembling, the system is highly complex, for example, the cell membrane needs to adopt different curvatures to be functional. This is possible thanks to the presence of non-lamel...
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Full-text available
Combined neutron scattering and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance experiments have been used to reveal significant interregional asymmetries (lateralization) in bovine brain hemispheres in terms of myelin arrangement and water dynamics at micron to atomic scales. Thicker myelin sheaths were found in the left hemisphere using neutron diffraction....
Article
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This article reports on a frequency domain analysis of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from free and Huperzine-A-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase, extending a recent time domain analysis of the same experimental data [M. Saouessi et al., J. Chem. Phys. 150, 161104 (2019)]. An important technical point here is the construction of a semia...
Article
The hyperthermophilic piezophile Thermococcus barophilus displays a strong stress response characterized by the accumulation of the organic osmolyte mannosylglycerate during growth under sub-optimal pressure conditions (0.1 MPa). Taking advantage of this known effect, the impact of osmolytes in piezophiles in an otherwise identical cellular context...
Article
Water diffusion is an optimal tool for investigating the architecture of brain tissue on which modern medical diagnostic imaging techniques rely. However, intrinsic tissue heterogeneity causes systematic deviations from pure free-water diffusion behaviour. To date, numerous theoretical and empirical approaches have been proposed to explain the non-...
Article
We present a study of the combined effects of natural cosolvents (TMAO, glycine, urea) and pressure on the activity of the tetrameric enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To this end, high-pressure stopped-flow methodology in concert with fast UV/Vis spectroscopic detection of product formation was applied. To reveal possible pressure effects on the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we show that subtle changes in the internal dynamics of human acetylcholinesterase upon ligand binding can be extracted from quasielastic neutron scattering data by employing a nonexponential relaxation model for the intermediate scattering function. The relaxation is here described by a stretched Mittag-Leffler function, which exhib...
Article
We used elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) to find out if structural changes accompanying local hydrogen bond rupture are also reflected in global dynamical response of the protein complex. Chromatophore membranes from LH2-only strains of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, with spheroidenone or neurosporene as the major...
Article
This work addresses the use of the Gaussian approximation as a common tool to extract atomic motions in proteins from elastic incoherent neutron scattering and whether improvements in data analysis and additional information can be obtained when going beyond that. We measured alpha-lactalbumin with different levels of hydration on three neutron bac...
Article
Full-text available
The scattering of neutrons can be used to provide information on the structure and dynamics of biological systems on multiple length and time scales. Pursuant to a National Science Foundation-funded workshop in February 2018, recent developments in this field are reviewed here, as well as future prospects that can be expected given recent advances...
Article
Human butyrylcholinesterase is a nonspecific enzyme of clinical, pharmacological and toxicological significance. Although the enzyme is relatively stable, its activity is affected by numerous factors, including pressure. In this work, hydrostatic pressure dependence of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence in native and salted human butyrylcholines...
Article
The enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is essential in human and animals since it catalyzes the breakdown of nerve signaling substance acetylcholine. Small molecules that inhibit the function of AChE are important for their use as drugs in, e.g., symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. New and improved inhibitors are warranted, mainly due to...
Article
In live cells, high concentrations up to 300 – 400 mg/ml as in Eschericia coli ¹ are achieved which have effects on their proper functioning. However, in many experiments only individual parts of the cells as proteins or membranes are studied in order to get insight into these specific components and to avoid the high complexity of whole cells, neg...
Article
We discuss the proposed upgrade of the IN13 neutron backscattering spectrometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) and the resulting changes in instrument performance. The effect of using a temperature gradient monochromator on instrument flux and resolution is presented and reproduced using a multi-layer monochromator model for the M...
Article
Low‐density lipoproteins (LDL) are natural lipid transporter in human plasma whose chemically modified forms contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases accounting for a vast majority of deaths in westernized civilizations. For the development of new treatment strategies, it is important to have a detailed picture o...
Article
In reply to the increasing request of structural and molecular dynamics data taken on biological samples at both high temperature and high pressure by neutron scattering techniques, we have developed a new generation of high pressure cells with the following characteristics: (1) a flat geometry to better exploit the neutron beam's cross section, (2...
Chapter
Biological cells are fascinating systems of inconceivable complexity, which fulfil various functions. Among others, cells are able to execute motions, to produce heat, to breathe, to subsist, to grow wand proliferate and to die. Science aims at deciphering the different functionalities and activities of, and inside, the cells and how their differen...
Article
Full-text available
Protein dynamics is characterized by fluctuations among different conformational substates, i.e. the different minima of their energy landscape. At temperatures above ~200 K, these fluctuations lead to a steep increase in the thermal dependence of all dynamical properties, phenomenon known as Protein Dynamical Transition. In spite of the intense st...
Article
Pure phospholipids and membrane fragments from bacterial cells living under various conditions were studied against the influence of the surrounding acidity on the internal dynamics. For that we compared mean square displacements extracted from elastic incoherent neutron scattering data, measured both at low and at neutral pH, of the phospholipids...
Article
Calmodulin (CaM) is a Ca²⁺ sensor and mediates Ca²⁺ signaling through binding of numerous target ligands. The binding of ligands by Ca²⁺-saturated CaM (holo-CaM) is governed by attractive hydrophobic and by electrostatic interactions that are weakened under high pressure in aqueous solution. Moreover, the potential formation of void volumes upon li...
Article
Full-text available
We compared the effect of cholesterol at different concentration on the phase behaviour of DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) multilamellar vesicles. We used pressure perturbation differential scanning calorimetry (PPC) that studies a system on the whole by giving access to relevant thermodynamic quantities, and elastic incoherent n...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we report on the design, manufacture and testing of a high-pressure cell for doing simultaneous dielectric and neutron spectroscopy. This cell is a unique tool for studying dynamics on different timescales, from kilo- to picoseconds, covering universal features such as the alpha relaxation and fast vibrations at the same time. The c...
Article
The essential role of enzymes is due to their catalysis of various chemical reactions in the human body. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity by small molecules is the mechanism of action of many drugs or tool compounds used to study biological processes. Here, we investigate the effect on the dynamics of the serine protease α-Chymotrypsin when in...
Article
Full-text available
Human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a highly complex nano-particle built up of various lipid classes and a single large protein moiety (apoB-100) owning essential physiological functions in the human body. Besides its vital role as a supplier of cholesterol and fat for peripheral tissues and cells, it is also a known key player in the formation...
Article
The present study is the application of a two-state model formerly developed by Bicout, D.J. and and Zaccai, G., Biophys J 2001, 80 (3), 1115-23 1 to describe the dynamical transition exhibited in the atomic mean square displacements of biological samples in terms of dynamic and thermodynamic parameters. Data were obtained by elastic incoherent neu...
Article
We studied the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the dynamical properties and folding stability of highly concentrated lysozyme solutions in the absence and presence of the osmolytes trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and urea. Elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) was applied to determine the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of t...
Article
Full-text available
Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scat...
Article
Full-text available
An essential question in studies on the origins of life is how nucleic acids were first synthesized and then incorporated into compartments about 4 billion years ago. A recent discovery is that guided polymerization within organizing matrices could promote a non-enzymatic condensation reaction allowing the formation of RNA-like polymers, followed b...
Article
Full-text available
Conformational changes associated with ribosome function have been identified by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. These methods, however, inform poorly on timescales. Neutron scattering is well adapted for direct measurements of thermal molecular dynamics, the ‘lubricant’ for the conformational fluctuations required for biologica...
Article
Full-text available
Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration wat...