Judith Glück

Judith Glück
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt · Institute of Psychology

Mag. Dr.

About

127
Publications
57,372
Reads
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Introduction
My main topic of research is wisdom psychology. I am particularly interested in the development of wisdom through an interplay of life experiences and internal and external resources, but also in new approaches for measuring wisdom, the relationship of wisdom and morality, situational aspects of wisdom, and lay theories of wisdom.
Additional affiliations
May 2007 - present
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Position
  • Professor (Full)
February 2002 - May 2007
University of Vienna
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 1999 - February 2002
Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
December 1995 - April 1999
University of Vienna
Field of study
  • Psychology
October 1989 - November 1995
University of Vienna
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
This article proposes an integrative model of wise behavior in real life. While current research findings depend considerably on how wisdom is conceptualized and measured, there are strong conceptual commonalities across psychological wisdom models. The proposed model integrates the components of several existing models into a dynamic framework exp...
Article
Full-text available
© 2022, American Psychological Association. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the final, authoritative version of the article. Please do not copy or cite without authors' permission. The final article will be available, upon publication, via its DOI: 10.1037/pag0000692 Using data from two studies, we tested three...
Article
Full-text available
There has been some controversy about the relationship between wisdom and constructs of the well-being complex. Some wisdom researchers argue that the ability to maintain a high level of well-being, even in the face of very negative experiences, is a core characteristic of wisdom. Other researchers argue that the willingness of wise people to refle...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Editorial Das Leben steckt voller schwieriger Situationen. Beziehungen zerbrechen, (chronische) Krankheiten machen der bisherigen Lebensplanung einen Strich durch die Rechnung, uns nahestehende Menschen sterben und schließlich wir selbst. Solche Situationen lassen sich weder verhindern noch rückgängig machen, wenn sie eingetreten sind. Es gibt wede...
Article
Why do some people become wise by learning from life's challenges, but many people do not? The MORE Life Experience Model (Glück & Bluck, 2013) proposes that life experiences are catalysts for the development of wisdom; they can lead to more wisdom, but they do not necessarily do so. The model postu- lates that five psychological resources are esse...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is framed as an email conversation between the authors, a lifespan developmental psychologist with expertise in the field of wisdom and an educational scientist with expertise in the field of giftedness. We discuss how giftedness is defined and whether the definition, and the concept in general, is still useful in today’s world. We draw...
Book
The world is simultaneously facing many crises that humanity is failing to solve. Yet, at the same time, humans are smarter (with IQs on average thirty points higher than a century ago) and more knowledgeable (with the world's knowledge base at our fingertips), and scientific advances are accelerating. However, intelligence and knowledge are not en...
Article
This chapter reviews theoretical and empirical relationships between wisdom and aspects of intelligence, personality, emotions and well-being, and value orientations. Relationships between wisdom and other psychological characteristics vary considerably by wisdom measure. On average, wise people tend to be somewhat more intelligent than not-so-wise...
Article
This chapter reviews how psychologists’ ideas of wisdom have evolved over time. There was virtually no research on wisdom until the 1970s. As psychologists became more interested in aging, wisdom, as a positive quality associated with old age, became a field of interest. The first psychological research programs on wisdom took a cognitive perspecti...
Article
This chapter reviews theoretical models and empirical evidence about the development of wisdom. Wisdom does not automatically come with age: many people grow very old without becoming very wise! Studies show that the relationship between wisdom and ages varies somewhat between different measures of wisdom, but there seems to be a growing consensus...
Article
This chapter defines wisdom and discusses its relevance to life. In particular, it highlights wisdom as the search for a common good, by balancing one’s own, others’, and larger interests over the long- as well as the short-term through the infusion of positive ethical values. The chapter gives an extended example of how this definition applies in...
Article
This chapter reviews the methods that psychologists have devised for measuring wisdom. There are two classical types of measures: self-report scales, where people rate themselves with respect to characteristics of wisdom, and performance measures, where people respond to descriptions of problems that require wisdom. Both types of measures have thei...
Article
The world is simultaneously facing many crises that humanity is failing to solve. Yet, at the same time, humans are smarter (with IQs on average thirty points higher than a century ago) and more knowledgeable (with the world's knowledge base at our fingertips), and scientific advances are accelerating. However, intelligence and knowledge are not en...
Article
This chapter discusses how to cultivate wisdom. First, it discusses why people are not wise, mainly, because they are susceptible to foolishness through eight fallacies. • 1. The fallacy of unrealistic optimism. • 2. The fallacy of egocentrism. • 3. The fallacy of false omniscience. • 4. The fallacy of false omnipotence. • 5. The fallacy of false...
Article
This chapter discusses why wisdom is so important to the world. In particular, it states: • 1. Most important problems cannot be solved by knowledge + intelligence (IQ) alone. This formula has failed. • 2. Analytical thinking untempered by wisdom can be risky and dangerous. • 3. Creativity untempered by wisdom can be risky or downright dangerous....
Article
The reminiscence bump phenomenon is well established: adults in the second half of life remember more events from their youth than from other periods. Almost no research has focused, however, on the adaptive value of the reminiscence bump for adult well-being. Grounded in a life story approach, this research examined whether perceiving that one had...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This paper investigated which value orientations (1) people associate with wisdom and (2) are actually correlated with measures of wisdom. Conceptions of wisdom suggest benevolence and universalism as likely candidates. Method: In Study 1, 160 university students reported their political orientation and completed a value survey for t...
Article
Several studies have investigated adults’ understanding of wisdom, but what do children know about this complex concept? A sample of 408 Iranian children aged 6–12 years completed a self-report questionnaire. Familiarity with the term “wisdom” increased from 55.2% in preschool to 99.1% in grade 6. Children’s open definitions emphasized concern for...
Article
Full-text available
We have all had difficult times and challenges in our lives, and most of us feel that we learned something from those experiences. At the same time, few people actually become wise in the course of their lives - while most of us become (or remain) well-adapted and happy, generally satisfied, or even bitter or depressed. Why is it that some people,...
Chapter
Many countries in the so-called Western world seem to be taking an alarming turn toward nationalism, intolerance, political populism, and ideological polarization. In this chapter, I offer some wisdom-psychological perspectives on these recent changes. In short, research on moral judgment and on decision-making suggests that people often make judgm...
Chapter
One hundred percent. That is the percentage of authors of this volume who believe that the world would be a better place if people more frequently applied wisdom to their interactions with other people and with the world in general. Zero percent. That is the percentage scaled likelihood that people will apply such wisdom, on a regular basis, any ti...
Article
Objectives Human beings are social entities – our development occurs in and through interaction with others. Thus, it seems likely that relationships influence the development of wisdom, especially long-term intimate relationships in which couples share many important life experiences, and that wisdom, in turn, influences relationships. How wisdom...
Chapter
The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, incl...
Book
This book presents perspectives from world experts in the field of wisdom studies to propose how wisdom can provide the foundation upon which solutions to social and global problems can be grounded. The authors argue that where society has come to rely on leaders with skills relating to knowledge and intelligence; instead we should focus on wisdom-...
Article
Why do some people become exemplars of wisdom in the course of their lives, while most of us do not? The development of wisdom entails a complex interaction of personality, life experiences, and self-regulation that has hardly been empirically investigated. In this symposium, leading wisdom researchers present new findings highlighting important fa...
Conference Paper
Despite a growing body of knowledge on wisdom, little is known about how wisdom is socially transmitted between people. In the current study, we investigated the possibility that grandparents use intergenerational storytelling to transmit wisdom they have gained about life to their grandchildren. In a sample of grandchildren and grandparents collec...
Article
The MORE Life Experience Model (Glück & Bluck, 2013) proposes that wisdom develops through an interaction of psychological resources - a sense of Manageability, Openness, Reflectivity, and Emotional Sensitivity and Regulation - with life challenges: Individuals higher in the MORE resources are more likely to grow wiser as they experience and reflec...
Data
Mean offers per stake size for water and monetary rewards; in percentage of overall amount. (PDF)
Data
Table A. Bayesian correlation between thirst and water offered; proposers, responders. All Bayesian Analyses were conducted using JASP [40]. Table B. Bayesian one-way ANOVA for amount shared (100, 150, 200 ml; 5, 7.5, 10 €), by amount to be shared; proposers. Table C. Correlation of water offers with monetary offers, proposers, and expectations of...
Data
Overview of pilot studies. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Human social interactions in daily life involve sharing various types of rewards. Previous research evolving around issues of selfish versus altruistic behavior indicates that when individuals share rewards like money with powerless others, some are purely selfish while a substantial number shares evenly. It is, however, mostly unknown how they sha...
Article
Full-text available
Open-access article, please read the full text at https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbx140/4769351?guestAccessKey=39429f3b-bcc8-4644-984a-b3400eda6112. The question how wisdom can best be measured is still open to debate. Currently, there are two groups of wisdom measures: open-ended performance measur...
Article
Full-text available
What makes a researcher wise? At least for the field of psychology, I argue that the two main characteristics of scholarly wisdom are a desire to understand, rather than to be right, and an orientation toward ethical values. These characteristics do not necessarily produce the highest levels of academic success. Because wisdom is partly context dep...
Article
Full-text available
According to the MORE Life Experience Model, the experience of challenging life events, such as divorce or illness, interacts with personal resources to support the development of wisdom. To investigate this empirically the current study examined general and personal wisdom in divorced and non-divorced Iranian females. Twenty divorced women were re...
Article
Professional wisdom, the way people balance their own interests with those of their organization and the individuals they work with, has not often been investigated yet. We believe that organizational and situational constraints can limit individuals’ ability to act wisely. For a first test of this hypothesis, we investigated autobiographical memor...
Chapter
Full-text available
For thousands of years, philosophers have argued that wisdom makes the good life possible. Yet, paradoxically, the development of wisdom has been strongly associated with difficult life events—life-challenging experiences that may leave one feeling ‘sadder but wiser.’ This chapter opens with an exploration of psychological theories that have evolve...
Article
Full-text available
Laypersons and experts believe that wisdom is cultivated through a diverse range of positive and negative life experiences. Yet, not all individuals with life experience are wise. We propose that one possible determinant of growth in wisdom from life experience is self-reflection. In a life span sample of adults (N = 94) ranging from 26 to 92 years...
Article
Full-text available
The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluation of representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical...
Article
Psychological wisdom research is a relatively young and fast-growing field. This article first gives an overview of the history of psychological wisdom research and work on laypeople's theories of wisdom. Then, psychological conceptions of wisdom are reviewed, and approaches to measuring wisdom are described. The relationships of wisdom to age, inc...
Chapter
The Rasch model has several advantages for the psychometric investigation of item quality (e.g., specific objectivity). One approach to testing model fit uses quasi-exact tests which are well suited to test the validity of the Rasch model when sample sizes are rather small. Application of these tests is not restricted to Rasch modeling. In this cha...
Book
Mit Psychologie kompakt Grundlagen und Forschungsperspektiven liegt ein aktuelles Einführungswerk in die Wissenschaft Psychologie vor. Es vereint Texte zu allen relevanten Teil- disziplinen des Faches und stellt in kurzer, klarer Form deren ausgewählte Grundbegriffe dar. Das Werk bietet somit allen Interessierten einen gut lesbaren Überblick, der d...
Chapter
Full-text available
We all experience challenges in our lives, and probably most of us feel we have learned something from the challenges we have encountered. But why do some (few) people learn things that make them wiser over their life course - while others become (or remain) rigid, bitter, depressed, superficially content, or overly selfinvolved? Little theoretical...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives.This study investigated the relationship of gratitude to wisdom. Both constructs are conceptually related to self-reflectivity, but they differ in their emphasis on extrapersonal resources. Previous wisdom research has focused mainly on intrapersonal capacities.Method.In Study 1, 47 wisdom nominees and 47 control participants were interv...
Article
Previous research has shown that most laypeople hold one of two typical conceptions of wisdom--a cognitive or an integrative conception. The current study extends previous research by including a qualitative assessment of people's views of what wisdom is and how it develops, and by relating wisdom conceptions are related to levels of wisdom and gra...
Article
Full-text available
Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular res...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study investigated relationships between three measures of wisdom: self-ratings, peer ratings, and a self-report scale. We expected to find a zero or negative correlation between the self-rating and the average peer rating and low positive correlations of both to the self-report scale. We also tested whether there would be more co...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas a number of studies have investigated adult laypersons' understanding of the concept of wisdom, children's knowledge about wisdom has not yet been studied. A total of 461 Austrian elementary-school children filled out a questionnaire about wisdom. Results showed an increase in self-reported familiarity with the term “wisdom” from 43.0% in g...
Article
Previous studies with adults have shown that age has an important influence on laypeople's wisdom theories. However, children's and adolescents' understanding of the concept of wisdom has hardly been investigated. In the current study, 80 children and adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning an event where they had been wise and an event wh...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined individual differences in laypeople's conceptions of wisdom using a person-oriented approach, as previous studies using a priori group variables may have underestimated the variability. Although there is a tradition of examining people's implicit theories of wisdom, this study is the first to also investigate their views of how...
Article
Full-text available
Wisdom represents a fruitful topic for psychological investigations for at least two reasons. First, the study of wisdom emphasizes the search for the continued optimization and the further cultural evolution of the human condition. Second, it exemplifies the collaboration of cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes. The growth and scope of...
Chapter
Wisdom is a highly complex construct that integrates several different facets. Tus, there may be many different ways of being “unwise,” including foolishness (Sternberg 2005), rigidity, self-centeredness, and, perhaps, embitterment. The other way round, there are many different ways of not being bitter, and wisdom, which we seldom observe anyway, i...
Article
Full-text available
A new test on map understanding for preschool and elementary-school children was constructed based on a Piagetian framework of the development of spatial ability and representational understanding. Results from a study with 95 3- to 6-year-old children are reported. The developmental trajectories for the performance components confirmed the constru...
Article
Full-text available
Use of strategy was investigated using a new spatial test in which items are presented in three-dimensional space and solutions are actively constructed rather than selected from alternatives. As the final test also comprises a training module, the focus of a first evaluation study was on the strategies participants use and their relationship to pe...
Article
Gender differences in the Mental Rotations Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978) are larger than in virtually all other spatial tests and have been highly robust over decades. Several possible explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. This research tests the hypothesis that the gender differences are partly due to the response format of the MRT...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 10 to 15 years, interest in spatial ability research in psychology has not been particularly high, and the field was progressing slowly:Empirical findings were largely correlational and rarely exceeded the “.30 barrier” so characteristic of many methodologically neglected fields in empirical psychology. Recently, however, interest see...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies are reported that investigated different aspects of gender differences in implicit theories. In Study 1, participants rated characteristics and possible sources of wisdom concerning their importance for wisdom. Gender differences are small, but suggest a slightly more cognition-oriented view of wisdom in men. Study 2 showed gender dif...
Chapter
In this chapter, we illustrate the spectrum of developmental questions that can be investigated using Rasch models (RMs). We structure the chapter by different types of developmental research questions. RMs are recommended as method of choice (1) for cross-sectional as well as longitudinal designs, and (2) for exploratory as well as theory-guided r...
Article
Full-text available
The reminiscence bump is a robust finding in the autobiographical memory literature: Adults recall more events from the second and third decades of life than from other periods. Berntsen and Rubin (2004; Rubin & Berntsen, 2003) proposed a life script account of the reminiscence bump. We extend the life script account by taking a theory-based, life...
Poster
Poster: 9. Arbeitstagung der Fachgruppe für Differentielle Psychologie, Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Psychologische Diagnostik, Wien; 09-24-2007 - 09-26-2007.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, preliminary to a larger experiment, 42 participants completed four different spatial tests and, after each test, a strategy questionnaire. For half of the participants, visualizational strategies were presented first in this questionnaire, and for the other half, analytical strategies. The order of strategy descriptions had effects o...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the authors explored whether wisdom-related performance could be enhanced by an instruction referring to the abstract concept of wisdom ("try to give a wise response"). The authors used three levels of activation of the concept of wisdom as well as intelligence-activation and control conditions in a heterogeneous sample of three age...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR - overlaying virtual objects onto the real world) offer interesting and wide spread possibilities to study different components of human behaviour and cognitive processes. One aspect of human cognition that has been frequently studied using VR technology is spatial ability. Research ranges from trainin...
Article
Full-text available
This research uses an autobiographical approach to examine the relation of age to several aspects of wisdom. In Study 1 (N ¼ 86), adolescents', young adults', and older adults' wisdom narratives were content-coded for the types of life situations mentioned and the forms that wisdom took. Types of life situations reported (e.g., life decisions) were...
Article
Full-text available
This research uses an autobiographical approach to examine the relation of age to several aspects of wisdom. In Study 1 (N 1/4 86), adolescents', young adults', and older adults' wisdom narratives were content-coded for the types of life situations mentioned and the forms that wisdom took. Types of life situations reported (e.g., life decisions) we...