Judi McLean Parks

Judi McLean Parks
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Olin Business School

PhD

About

62
Publications
31,252
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5,696
Citations

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Face threat sensitivity (FTS) is defined as reactive sensitivity to threats to one's social self-worth. In negotiations, such threats may come from a counterpart's competitive behavior. We developed and tested the argument that individuals high in face threat sensitivity, when negotiating with a competitive (vs. cooperative) counterpart, exhibit ps...
Article
Extending theory on behavioral integrity to department and business unit levels of analysis, we examined a chain of relationships culminating in operational and financial performance measures. Specifically, we analyzed survey data from 6,800 workers from 76 same-branded US hotels and integrated it with operational and financial data. Latent variabl...
Article
A total of 154 foreign workers in Saudi Arabia responded to a web survey that inquired about role characteristics, work attitudes and behaviors. Surveys were matched with 138 supervisor surveys asking about the focal worker's job performance. Results indicated a significant relationship between role ambiguity and job performance, a relationship med...
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Reputation serves important functions in social interactions. As a result, negotiators should be concerned about protecting their reputations. Using an online experiment with 343 respondents, we examined the impact of perceived reputational risk on the acceptability of potentially questionable tactics. Consistent with and extending previous finding...
Article
Given that women executives are present in the top management teams of IPO firms in increasing numbers, the lack of female-led IPO firms is a curious fact, especially since women-owned private businesses represent almost half of the new businesses formed in the United States, with patterns of founding similar to male-owned businesses. It hints at a...
Article
We examined the role of anticipated happiness in negotiation settings. Anticipated happiness is the happiness that individuals expect to experience in the future if certain events do or do not occur. In two studies, we tested the argument that anticipated happiness initiates an approach goal, leading individuals to promote economic interests. Study...
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The primary objectives of this article are twofold. Our first objective is to introduce the construct of ‘organizational expedience’. We differentiate organizational expedience from a wide range of related constructs in the literature, such as counterproductive work behavior, deviance, pro-social rule-breaking, organizational retaliation behavior,...
Article
This research examined how framing a compensation contract potentially affects fraudulent behavior in organizations: specifically, the misrepresentation of performance and misappropriation of assets. We also explored how priming ethical concerns affects these behaviors. The relationship between fraudulent behavior and performance-contingent pay is...
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Recent research has suggested that employees are highly affected by perceptions of their managers' pattern of word-action consistency, which T. Simons (2002) called behavioral integrity (BI). The authors of the present study suggest that some employee racial groups may be more attentive to BI than others. They tested this notion using data from 1,9...
Article
The paper analyzes on the cultural dimension of universalism vs. particularism as how people solve problems facing conflicting social norms of rules and of relationships. We argue that universalism versus particularism is personal values. Following Jackson (1966), the values should be measured both in intensity and crystallization. Study 1 establis...
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This study explores, within the context of escalating commitment, how ambiguous information affects decision making. By analyzing subjects' looking times and allocation decisions, we examined the process by which individuals abstract and use information to arrive at their decisions. We found that subjects spent more time processing ambiguous inform...
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This paper analyzes the theoretical foundations for organizational disidentification and tests the validity of organizational disidentification in a structural equation model. Organizational disidentification is defined as "(1) a cognitive separation between one's identity and the identity of an organization, and (2) a negative relational categoriz...
Article
This study explores the roles of calibrated (annual vs. hourly wage) positions on negotiators' expected contentiousness and estimation of reservation price on negotiators' initial offers and final outcomes. In a distributive labor negotiation, we found negotiator determinations of reservation prices served as an anchor such that the more ambitious...
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This study was designed to examine professional human resource managers recommendations and inferences about prototypical applicants who had identical qualifications, in which the presence of periods of unemployment and name (feminine, masculine) of applicants were manipulated. Results indicate that although overall income for female applicants was...
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The employee-organization relationship (EOR) has increasingly become a focal point for researchers in organizational behavior, human resource management, and industrial relations. Literature on the EOR has developed at both the individual – (e.g. psychological contracts) and the group and organizational-levels of analysis (e.g. employment relations...
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This paper explores how power and gender influence the acceptability of potentially questionable negotiation tactics. We tested conflicting hypotheses to explore whether power corrupts or ennobles, and whether or not the power holder's sex moderates this relationship. Using tactics from the SINS scale (Robinson, Lewicki & Donohue, 2000) as well as...
Article
Prior work on resource allocation has generally considered only a small number of allocation rules, usually reflecting equity or equality. We use a scenario study to examine the effect of eight different allocation rules (past performance, future performance, rank, random draw, chance meetings, business need, personal need, and political reasons) o...
Article
Relationships between individuals' ethical orientations (classified on dimensions of idealism and relativism), their negotiation strategies, their views of ethically ``marginal'' tactics, and their outcomes in dyadic negotiation are examined. Results indicate a relationship between ethical orientation and negotiation strategy. Specifically, absolut...
Article
This paper examines how perceptions of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) are affected by socially constructed gender roles. We argue that gender roles are important for the perception, categorization, and consequences of OCBs. We suggest that the dimensions of OCBs (altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue) are related to gende...
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This paper examines work commitment outside of traditional and ongoing employer–employee relationships. In particular, attention is given to the commitment-related implications associated with the growth of various forms of “contingent” employment contracts. Of specific theoretical and practical concern is the applicability, overlap, and/or relativ...
Article
Although the resource allocation literature has frequently examined the decision rules used to distribute monetary resources, many other types of resources have not been systematically studied. In addition, very little is known about the allocation rules that might be used when resources are recovered (i.e., taken away) as opposed to distributed. A...
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Full-text available
Although the resource allocation literature has frequently examined the decision rules used to distribute monetary resources, many other types of resources have not been systematically studied. In addition, very little is known about the allocation rules that might be used when resources are recovered (i.e., taken away) as opposed to distributed. A...
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Are threats and assaults by employees a reflection of aggression found in society at large, or of management practices (procedural injustice), or both? Analyses of large-scale longitudinal data showed that local violent crime rates predicted both workplace threats and assaults. Organizational climates of procedural injustice predicted assaults but...
Article
In this paper, we present a model of organizational identity, generating specific, testable propositions. In particular, we extend the conceptualization of the features of organizational identity beyond what is central, distinctive and enduring to include the crystallization of identity, pivotal identity space, and identity incongruence, providing...
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In this paper, we have endeavored to integrate the literature on psychological contracts with the literature on contingent work arrangements. We have further developed the theoretical foundation of the psychological contract and its dimensions. After reviewing previous work on contingent employment, we illustrate how the dimensions of psychological...
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Identification with organizations For all these lifetime employees [at Imperial Oil], there develops an attachment, a loyalty, something deeper than habit, a true identification. They will work longer at Imperial than their kids live at home, than they live in one house, in one neighborhood, one city, longer than most friendships and many marriages...
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Research on the distribution of resources typically focuses on anticipated outcomes. This paper investigates the social norms people use to distribute adventitious (unanticipated) outcomes. Participants in this study read a scenario where either they, or the person they were with (an acquaintance or a friend), received either an unexpected gain or...
Article
This paper considers whether negotiation outcomes and processes of groups of males and females differ. Previous research examining such differences has had mixed results, in part because of “cueing” effects contained in typical, high-conflict negotiation cases. Low-conflict negotiation cases, such as the one used in this study, provide an opportuni...
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We use prospect and agency theory to examine framing contingent compensation in the context of the medical profession. Different compensation forms used by the profession (fee-for-service, capitation & salary) resulted in different behavioral intentions by physicians, as well as different forms of treatment recommended for patients.
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This paper explores retribution both from the perspective of justice, as well as the reciprocity norms on which assessments of justice and injustice are based. It has suggests three primary mechanisms for retribution: retributory recompense, retributory retaliation, and retributory impression management. Retribution and revenge are sensitive topics...
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We use behavioral decision and agency theory to examine how the framing of contingent compensation affects agent preferences and behaviors in three separate studies sampling business undergraduates, MBAs, and physicians. In general, we found support for the risk aversion assumptions of agency theory, as well as the loss aversion posited by prospect...
Article
In contrast to the past and current reliance upon a unidimensional or additive index of union participation, our research presents evidence of the multidimensional nature of the construct of union participation, a behavioral manifestation of union commitment. In this study, we examined a more diverse set of items than typically used in studies of u...
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This study examined how the ability to monitor an agent's actions and environmental munificence affect compensation contracts in principal-agent dyads. In a laboratory experiment, we tested predictions based on both assumptions grounded in agency theory and an alternative perspective, In simulated munificent environments, inability to monitor foste...
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This study examined the validity of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) as a measure of organizational commitment in the Japanese culture. Results of the LISREL analyses indicated that the 3-factor model was a better fit to the data than either the 1-factor or the 2-factor model. Overall, the results provide support for the cross-cult...
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Full-text available
establish the construct validity of a particular operationalization of union participation / the current study measured union satisfaction, union commitment, attitudes toward unions in general, and traditional participation / to establish the predictive validity of our measure of union participation, we hypothesized that participation would be posi...
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In this article, policy capturing was used to examine how lawyers, as experts, understand the wording in employee handbook passages that promise procedural protections for employees. Specifically, how the wording of employee handbook passages can create both legal and nonlegal obligations was examined. Forty-six lawyers were asked to make the follo...
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Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Iowa, 1990. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 191-198).
Article
An experiment was designed to test the theory that monitoring by the principal would interact with the presence of a tradition to affect the extent to which a compensation agreement, negotiated between the principal and the agent, would include a performance contingency. Data gathered from 40 dyads supported the prediction.
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Staw's (1981) theory of escalation, that decision makers who are responsible for a failure will be more retrospectively oriented than those who are not responsible for a failure, was tested by monitoring the information requests of subjects performing the Adams and Smith decision case (Staw, 1976). A total of 72 Master of Business Administration (M...
Article
Staw's (1981) theory of escalation, that decision makers who are responsible for a failure will be more retrospectively oriented than those who are not responsible for a failure, was tested by monitoring the information requests of subjects performing the Adams and Smith decision case (Staw, 1976). A total of 72 Master of Business Administration (M...
Article
This study examined cognitive processing and, within the context of escalation addresses the question: do responsible decision makers process information differently from non-responsible decision makers? We found that responsible decision makers process information differently as a function of both the content of the information, as well as the ext...
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The predominant escalation theory posits that responsible decision makers experiencing failure focus on information concerning the past when making additional allocations. This study examined information requests within the escalation context. Results supported the theory, indicating that the type of information requested is related to subsequent a...
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Full-text available
We provide a retrospective of how the degree of values congruence between life domains affects women's career advancement. Values issues include the intensity with which the values are held relative to other values, how crystallized those values are across life domains, and the depth and breadth of the pivotal space created by values components. Th...
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Full-text available
The notion of “behavioral integrity” describes the extent to which one person perceives that another lives by his or her word, keeps promises, and lives by professed values. Effective management leadership depends on how employees perceive their manager's behavior on these points, because this drives credibility. Since most managers are neither sai...

Projects

Project (1)
Project
Resource allocations and divisions often engender conflict. Attempts to resolve these conflicts frequently fail because of the characteristics of the asset or issues themselves, which may appear to be indivisible (e.g., a Picasso painting or sacred lands). In this paper, we propose a framework to better understand the underlying causes and characteristics of apparent indivisibility. Such (apparently) indivisible assets run the gamut from the “lumpy” asset (e.g. a Picasso painting) to ideologies (e.g. sacred and pseudo sacred values), and often are at the root of our most intractable conflicts. In this paper, we recast the notion of sacred values to include the secular as well as sacred, using the broader construct of ideologies. We then develop the construct of identity embeddedness to better understand the complexities of dividing the (apparently) indivisible. Providing a nomological network of relationships around this new construct to facilitate future research, we argue that identity embeddedness provides unique insights into indivisibility. Permeating disputants’ concepts of self and infusing daily life, preferences and decisions, we assert that identity embeddedness reflects the ability of a resource to internally instantiate individuals’ identities, de facto making the issues appear to the disputants as indivisible.