Jude Cassidy

Jude Cassidy
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Psychology

About

117
Publications
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16,191
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Publications

Publications (117)
Article
Full-text available
The current multimethod longitudinal study examines how parents’ distress reactions to adolescents’ negative emotions may shape youths’ own perceptions of negative life events and subsequent increases in depressive symptomology. Ninety adolescents (41 girls, 49 boys, average age = 16.5 years old) and their parents were assessed over three timepoint...
Article
Full-text available
Ample research demonstrates that parents’ experience-based mental representations of attachment—cognitive models of close relationships—relate to their children’s social-emotional development. However, no research to date has examined how parents’ attachment representations relate to another crucial domain of children’s development: brain developme...
Article
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Recent social movements have illuminated systemic inequities in U.S. society, including within the social sciences. Thus, it is essential that attachment researchers and practitioners engage in reflection and action to work toward anti-racist perspectives in the field. Our aims in this paper are (1) to share the generative conversations and debates...
Article
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Decades of evidence demonstrate that insecure attachment is associated with increased risk for depressive symptoms. Yet research has focused on predominantly White samples, with little attention to whether developmental pathways vary by social-contextual factors like racial identity and neighborhood racism. This study examines whether longitudinal...
Article
Central to attachment theory is the idea that behavior in close relationships can best be understood in context. Although decades of research have illuminated cross-cultural patterns of caregiving and attachment, there remains a critical need to increase research with African American families, examine the specific sociocultural context of systemic...
Article
The present two-study investigation is the first to examine whether experimentally boosting attachment security (security priming) affects attitudes in the parenting domain for both parents and non-parents. Mothers (n = 72) and childless undergraduates (n = 82) were randomly assigned to a neutral or a secure prime condition and then completed measu...
Article
Maternal emotional functioning and emotion socialization practices can facilitate or hinder children’s emotional development, and youth with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for emotion lability. However, little is known about the independent and interactive effects of maternal emotion dysregulation...
Article
Objective: To prospectively assess breastfeeding and room-sharing practices during the infant's first 6 months and investigate whether mothers' own adult attachment style predicts the initiation and course of these recommended parenting behaviors. Method: This study included 193 mother-infant dyads living in the Netherlands. Diary methodology wa...
Article
OBJECTIVE: Although ample evidence indicates that child health is compromised by early adversity (e.g., abuse and poverty), less is known about the contribution of parenting in low-stress contexts to child health, especially in infancy. This longitudinal study extends previous research on early adversity to ask the question: Does quality of parenta...
Article
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Maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) are inconsistently associated with lower rates of child prosocial behavior. Studies typically examine prosocial behavior as a unitary construct rather than examining its multiple dimensions, and rarely consider how the quality of the parent-child relationship could influence this association. OBJECTIVE: The curren...
Article
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In recent years, an increased interest in the importance of children's ability to regulate emotions in socially adaptive ways has driven considerable research on the development of emotion regulation. A widely studied emotion regulation strategy known as expressive suppression (ES), in which a person attempts to conceal emotion-expressive behavior,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Empathic responding-the capacity to understand, resonate with, and respond sensitively to others' emotional experiences-is a complex human faculty that calls upon multiple social, emotional, and cognitive capacities and their underlying neural systems. Emerging evidence in adults has suggested that the hippocampus and its associated network may pla...
Article
Husbands and wives often provide different reports about the qualities of their relationship—a pattern of reporting that is often discounted as measurement error. In the present study, we tested three research questions related to perceptions of marital conflict in a sample of 123 married couples. First, we tested whether individual and partner att...
Article
This observational study addressed a critical gap in the understanding of the precursors of infant attachment by examining whether a new conceptualization of maternal caregiving behavior, secure base provision (SBP), explained variance in attachment above and beyond variance explained by sensitivity. Participants included 83 low‐socioeconomic statu...
Article
Individuals' social experiences are associated with their mental health, physical health, and even mortality. Over the last 30 years, researchers have examined the ways in which these social experiences might be associated with chronic inflammation—a component underlying many of the chronic diseases of aging. Little research, however, has examined...
Article
Over the last 40 years, researchers have made considerable progress identifying the ways in which attachment security shapes individuals’ social and emotional functioning. In recent years, new investigations have shed light on connections between attachment and physiological systems in the body. The goal of this special issue is to focus attention...
Article
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Current recommendations encourage parent–infant room sharing for the first 6 months of life. This longitudinal study (N = 193) is the first to examine long‐term relations of early room sharing with three domains of child behavior: sleep, behavior problems, and prosocial behavior. Information on room sharing was collected daily for infants’ first 6...
Data
The main research article (Beier et al., 2018, Child Development) describes children’s responses during nine tasks: 3 helping opportunities, 3 sharing opportunities, and 3 comforting opportunities. This document provides procedural details for each of those tasks, plus coding guides for deriving children’s prosocial scores and identifying additiona...
Data
Additional methods and results for Beier et al. (2018), "Helping, Sharing, and Comforting in Young Children: Links to Individual Differences in Attachment".
Data
Additional details for the Preschool Strange Situation protocol, as reported in Beier et al. (2018), "Helping, Sharing, and Comforting in Young Children: Links to Individual Differences in Attachment".
Article
According to attachment theory, a sense of attachment security (confidence that others will be available and supportive when needed) facilitates the functioning of the caregiving behavioral system and the empathic provision of care to suffering others. In this article we review what has been learned during the last decade about attachment-related i...
Article
The first months after becoming a new parent are a unique and important period in human development. Despite substantial research on the many social and biological changes that occur during the first months of parenthood, little is known about changes in mothers’ attachment. The present study examines developmental stability and change in first-tim...
Article
Research indicates that dispositional attachment security fosters empathy, and that short-term increases in security ("security priming") increase empathy and willingness to help others. In two experiments, we examined effects of recalling one's own vulnerability ( feeling hurt by a relationship partner) and security priming on empathy for a recipi...
Article
Ninety 6- and 7-year-olds (49.3% White, mostly middle class) from greater Washington, DC were randomly assigned to a subliminal priming condition (secure, happy, or neutral) to determine if attachment security priming decreases physiological, expressive, and self-reported fear reactions to threatening stimuli. Dispositional attachment security was...
Article
Empathy involves understanding and “feeling with” others’ emotions, and is an essential capacity underlying sensitive care in humans and other species. Evidence suggests that the roots of empathy appear early in ontogeny, and that individual differences in empathy bear meaningfully on children’s social behavior and relationships throughout developm...
Article
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions...
Article
Few studies have examined stability and change in attachment during adolescence. This 5-year longitudinal study (a) examined whether prototype or revisionist developmental dynamics better characterized patterns of stability and change in adolescent attachment (at T1, N = 176; Mage = 14.0 years, SD = 0.9), (b) tested potential moderators of prototyp...
Article
Within the field of relationship science there is increasing interest in the connections between close relationships and physical health. In the present study, we examined whether adolescents’ (∼12 years old) and young adults’ (∼20 years old) perceptions of their parents as a secure base prospectively predict C-reactive protein (CRP), a commonly us...
Chapter
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Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980) is, at its core, a theory of prosocial behavior. It explains how, in early childhood, interactions with mindful, caring, and supportive parental figures (“attachment figures”) create and solidify children’s positive mental representations of others (as competent, dependable, and well intentioned), t...
Article
Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental...
Article
Adolescence is accompanied by increased stress in the parent–adolescent relationship, which frequently results in conflict. Researchers often rely on self-reports to measure conflict, but these reports are frequently discrepant from one another. In two studies, we examined the extent to which communication observed during parent–adolescent discussi...
Article
Objective: Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents' supportive and unsupportive responses to children's negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children's emotions, and even less is known about...
Article
The present study investigated links between the observer-rated process of psychotherapy and 2 key psychotherapy relationship constructs (i.e., working alliance and attachment to the therapist) in the context of a brief, attachment-based, home-visiting, mother-infant intervention that aimed to promote later secure infant attachment. Additionally, l...
Article
For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mi...
Article
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Attachment theorists propose that individuals’ internal working models influence their social information processing. This study explored links between attachment representations and social information processing by examining adolescents’ (n = 189; Mage = 16.5 years) attachment-related memory biases. Participants completed laboratory tasks assessin...
Article
Mothers with elevated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms demonstrate parenting deficits, as well as difficulties in emotion regulation (ER), which may further impact their ability to effectively parent. However, no empirical research has examined potential mediators that explain the relations between maternal ADHD symptoms and...
Article
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The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE =...
Article
Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay p...
Article
Developmental scientists studying interpersonal relationships often find that informants disagree in their reports, and two theoretical perspectives suggest that these discrepancies may be predictable. In two studies of adolescents’ interpersonal relationships, we examined two factors that may predict the absolute magnitude and the direction of the...
Article
Given extensive evidence about the importance of relationships with friends during development, a large body of research has examined the correlates of these significant social experiences. Most of this research, however, has examined either individual characteristics (e.g., behavior, personality) or contextual factors (e.g., family), and most of t...
Article
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Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and the...
Article
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The present study examined whether adolescent loneliness would be lower within the context of positive relationships with peers. The core conceptual model predicted that hypothesized links between peer‐rated social behaviors or victimization and loneliness would be mediated by social acceptance. Relationship experiences (i.e., social acceptance, re...
Article
This study examined whether attachment, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996) was linked to how adolescents reconstructed their memory for an initial interaction with an unfamiliar peer. Adolescents (N = 189, 62% female) completed a 10-min laboratory task with a student whom they did not know. Immediately...
Article
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In the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984), state of mind with respect to attachment is assessed not on the basis of the content of the participant's narrative, but rather on the basis of the narrative's linguistic properties. The present study is the first to further explore linguistic characteristics of attachment state...
Article
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This chapter describes theory and research on intergenerational connections between parents' attachment and children's social information processing, as well as between parents' social information processing and children's attachment. The chapter begins with a discussion of attachment theorists' early insights into the role that social information...
Article
This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately...
Article
The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive symptom...
Article
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This randomized controlled trial examined (a) the efficacy of a brief intervention designed to increase the rate of secure infant attachment, (b) the differential susceptibility hypothesis, and (c) whether maternal attachment styles moderated the expected Treatment x Irritability interaction in predicting infant attachment outcomes. Although there...
Article
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Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the patte...
Article
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This study examined whether 17-year-old adolescents (n=189) and their parents reconstructed their memory for an adolescent-parent laboratory conflict over a 6-week period as a function of adolescent attachment organization. It also compared participants' perceptions of conflict over time to observational ratings of the conflict to further character...
Article
The United States now incarcerates more people than any other country in the world (Pew Charitable Trust, 20088. Pew Charitable Trusts. 2008. 1 in 100: Behind bars in America 2008 Retrieved October 20, 2009, from www.pewcenteronthestates.org View all references), and most of these incarcerated individuals have one or more children 18 years of age o...
Article
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Pregnant female offenders face multiple adversities that make successful parenting difficult. As a result, their children are at risk of developing insecure attachment and attachment disorganization, both of which are associated with an increased likelihood of poor developmental outcomes. We evaluated the outcomes of participants in Tamar's Childre...
Article
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The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants in...
Article
The goal of the present study was to examine the predictive relation between an individual's newborn status, as rated with the Neonatal Perception Inventories (NPI), and his or her adult attachment organization, as rated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). All participants (N = 26) had been healthy, full-term, singleton, first-born infants w...
Article
The present study examined whether adolescent attachment security and attachment-related representations moderate and mediate, respectively, the link between parent symptoms (depressive and anxiety) and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 189 (118 girls) eleventh graders and their parents in a community sample. Results showed that ado...
Article
Abstract This investigation examined the influence of a prior social support interaction on a subsequent interaction between new peer acquaintances. Pairs of adolescent peers (recruited in a large metropolitan area in the United States) were videotaped as they met and discussed current life concerns in 2 separate interactions. Results indicated tha...
Article
Home visiting programs for at-risk mothers and their infants have proliferated nationally in recent years, yet experimental studies of home visiting have yielded mixed findings. One promising strategy for explicating the effects of early home visiting is to examine moderators of program impacts. This study assessed the roles of maternal depression...
Article
Even though generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common of the anxiety disorders, relatively little is known about its precursors. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a framework within which these precursors can be considered. According to Bowlby, adult anxiety may be rooted in childhood experiences that leave a child uncertain of...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that experimentally induced security changes people's response to psychological pain (operationalized in terms of hurt feelings) in ways that depend on their attachment style. Seventy undergraduates were randomly assigned to receive (a) security-enhancing subliminal primes (the words love, secure, affection) or (b) neutral...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined three sets of questions about secure base provision in the context of the family, including (1) relations between inter-parental perceptions of secure base provision and parents' adult romantic attachment and marital satisfaction, (2) interrelations among family members' perception of secure base provision, and (3) links...
Article
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The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment represen...
Article
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It is exciting to see how far research on hurt feelings has progressed since 1987 as both affective science and relationship science have blossomed. Our own professional involvement with the study of hurt feelings began accidentally, in the late 1980s, when Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, and O'Connor (1987) probed the semantic structure of the English e...
Article
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The aim of this investigation was to examine whether adolescent attachment representation (as assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview) is linked to the quality of adolescents' peer relations (as assessed using a standard battery of peer-report instruments tapping adolescents' social behaviors, peer victimization, social acceptance, and sociom...
Article
Relatively little has been written about one group of infants identified with Ainsworth's “Strange Situation” assessment of infant-parent attachment, those classified insecure/ambivalent. Although virtually all samples contain some insecure/ambivalent infants, these infants are uncommon, comprising 7%–15% of most American samples. Recently develope...
Article
This chapter summarizes J. Bowlby's initial ethological approach to understanding the child's tie to the mother, along with elaborations based on more recent research and theorizing. First, I discuss the biological bases of attachment, describing the evolutionary roots of attachment behavior, the attachment behavioral system and its organization, t...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss attachment theory and research concerning the influence of early attachments on other relationships. We consider the influence of early attachments on several kinds of affectional bonds: those with siblings, friends, romantic partners, and children. We also consider the large body of research on the influence of early at...
Article
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Do internal working models of attachment influence the ways in which adolescents process social information? The chapter addresses this intriguing question by reviewing studies that have examined links between attachment and adolescents' memory, feedback seeking, perceptions of others, and secure base scripts.
Article
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The articles included in this Special Issue of Attachment and Human Development were originally presented as contributions to symposia at the Society for Research in Child Development (Atlanta, Georgia, April 2005) and at the European Developmental Psychology Conference (Laguna, Canary Islands, August 2005). The articles represent efforts of indepe...
Article
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We explored the notion that adolescents possess mental secure base scripts of attachment-related events and examined, for the first time, whether these scripts were linked to adolescent attachment security. Results indicated that adolescents possessed a general script for mother and for father, and that they drew upon these scripts across different...