Jud Mathews

Jud Mathews
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Penn State Law

Doctor of Philosophy

About

21
Publications
1,080
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296
Citations
Introduction
constitutional law, administrative law, comparative public law

Publications

Publications (21)
Article
Full-text available
The Right to Be Forgotten II crystallizes one lesson from Europe’s rights revolution: persons should be able to call on some kind of right to protect their important interests whenever those interests are threatened under the law. Which rights instrument should be deployed, and by what court, become secondary concerns. The decision doubtless involv...
Article
Full-text available
Constitutions traffic in magic and deceit, argues Günter Frankenberg, promising freedom and democracy even as they underwrite the exercise of coercive power on a massive scale. Scholars should approach constitutions with a healthy skepticism, but, Frankenberg contends, most mainstream scholars are too credulous, especially regarding the claims of l...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of contemporary, rights-based constitutionalism, and develops an approach to comparative research on systems of constitutional justice. The vast majority of modern constitutions establish such systems, which comprise an entrenched charter of rights, and a constitutional or supreme court whose mission is to defend t...
Chapter
The chapter explains why enforcement of the proportionality principle has become the central procedural component of constitutional governance in the world today. Part I argues that proportionality analysis [PA]—with its distinctive sequence of subtests culminating in balancing—neatly fits the structure of qualified rights, providing a comprehensiv...
Book
This book focuses on the law and politics of rights protection in democracies, and in human rights regimes in Europe, the Americas, and Africa. After introducing the basic features of modern constitutions, with their emphasis on rights and judicial review, the authors present a theory of proportionality that explains why constitutional judges embra...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the evolution of treaty-based human rights regimes in Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Each of the five courts under consideration insists on its own primacy with respect to the interpretation of charter rights; each considers such interpretations to be binding on all domestic judges; and each holds, or strongly implies, th...
Chapter
This chapter charts how proportionality has developed into a global principle of constitutional law. The German Federal Constitutional Court constitutionalized the proportionality principle, which has roots in eighteenth-century political theory and nineteenth-century administrative law. From Germany, proportionality radiated outward, spreading thr...
Chapter
Apex courts face a fundamental problem: they cannot succeed in building systematic effectiveness in the face of regular opposition from the other branches of government, but they must sometimes invalidate the acts of those institutions to make rights effective. Chapter 5 considers how a court can build effectiveness while inducing inter-branch coop...
Chapter
This chapter considers constitutional rights doctrines of the United States in light of the global spread of proportionality. It challenges the view that proportionality is alien to the American constitutional experience, showing that American courts have developed approaches to rights that closely resemble proportionality. In particular, the Supre...
Book
Constitutional rights protect individuals against government overreaching, but that is not all they do. In different ways and to different degrees, constitutional rights also regulate legal relations among private parties in most legal systems. In other words, rights can have not only a vertical effect, within the hierarchical relationship between...
Article
This paper offers a theory to explain cross-national variation in administrative law doctrines and practices. Administrative law regimes vary along three primary dimensions: the scope of delegation to agencies, agencies' exercise of discretion, and judicial practices of deference to agencies. Working with a principal-agent framework, we show how cr...
Article
“[T]here is a hole in the text of the U.S. Constitution,” writes Jerry Mashaw: “Administration is missing.” But the republic’s leaders did not wait a century to start filling it in, as the standard narrative has it; instead, they began building the state’s administrative capacities from day one. Mashaw traces this first century of state-building th...
Article
It is common to think that replacing a judge with a new appointment nearer an ideological extreme will pull outcomes on the court in the ideological direction of the new appointment. This paper argues that this intuition is not always correct, at least for a class of close cases. The model developed here predicts that, in certain close cases, appoi...
Article
When should courts defer to agency interpretations of statutes, and what measure of deference should agencies receive? Administrative law recognizes two main deference doctrines — the generous Chevron standard and the stingier Skidmore standard — but Supreme Court case law has not offered a bright-line rule for when each standard applies.Many obser...
Article
This Article describes and evaluates the evolution of rights doctrine in the United States, focusing on the problem of balancing. In the current Supreme Court, deep conflict over whether, when, and how courts balance rights is omnipresent. Elsewhere, we find that the world's most powerful constitutional courts have embraced a stable analytical proc...
Chapter
Over the past fifty years, proportionality analysis (PA) has widely diffused. It is today an overarching principle of constitutional adjudication, the preferred procedure for managing disputes involving an alleged conflict between two rights claims, or between a rights provision and a legitimate state or public interest. With the consolidation of t...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past fifty years, proportionality balancing – an analytical procedure akin to strict scrutiny in the United States – has become a dominant technique of rights adjudication in the world. From German origins, proportionality analysis spread across Europe, into Commonwealth systems (Canada, New Zealand, South Africa), and Israel; it has also...
Article
Within a week, both the Fifth and D.C. Circuits upheld the takings prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as applied to species found only in single states, against Commerce Clause challenges. Both cases reach the same result, but the legal analysis used to get there could hardly be more different. In GDF Realty, the Fifth Circui...

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