Juan Rofes

Juan Rofes
University of the Philippines | UPD · Department of Archaeological Studies

PhD
Head of the Zooarchaeology Laboratory , ASP-UPD

About

134
Publications
45,892
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Introduction
I am an environmental archaeologist and palaeontologist currently studying the effects of climate and anthropization on the biogeographical histories, genotypes and phenotypes of various species of small mammals in Europe and South East Asia. I am also dedicated to the (multi-proxy) reconstruction of past environments along the Quaternary to study interactions between environmental change and human development. Also interested in the taxonomy, evolution, paleobiology, biochronology, taphonomy, palaeoecology and biogeography of small mammals from the Pleistocene and Holocene; and finally in the phylogeny and adaptations of small mamals in insular contexts.
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - present
National Museum of the Philippines
Position
  • Research Associate
August 2018 - present
University of the Philippines
Position
  • Head of Department
Description
  • Effects of climate and anthropization on the biogeographical histories, genotypes and phenotypes of small mammals in Europe and South East Asia. Reconstruction of past environments to study interactions between environmental change and human development.
May 2016 - present
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
Position
  • Reserach Associate
Description
  • Effects of climate and anthropization on the biogeographical histories, genotypes and phenotypes of small mammals in Europe and South East Asia. Reconstruction of past environments to study interactions between environmental change and human development.

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Full-text available
Three very different records are combined here to reconstruct the evolution of environments in the Cantabrian Region during the Upper Pleistocene, covering ~35.000 years. Two of these records come from Antoliñako Koba (Bizkaia, Spain), an exceptional prehistoric deposit comprising 9 chrono-cultural units (Aurignacian to Epipaleolithic). The palaeoe...
Article
Full-text available
Because hard tissues can be radiocarbon dated, they are key to establishing the archaeological chronologies, palaeoenvironmental reconstructions and historical-biogeographical processes of the last 50,000 years. The advent of accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) has revolutionized the field of archaeology but routine AMS dating still requires 60–20...
Article
Phenotypic variation was characterized in 187 modern and archaeological specimens of the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), obtained from both insular and continental European locations. Geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify variation in size and shape of the mandible. The phenotypic distance between populations, and...
Article
Frequently preserved in archaeological and palaeontological sites, the tiny size of small‐mammal remains favours percolations into underlying layers along stratigraphic sequences. This is one of the various post‐depositional processes that may affect the integrity of the original deposits and therefore the subsequent scientific interpretations. Rec...
Article
Full-text available
The Chalcolithic levels of El Portalón de Cueva Mayor (Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) offer a good opportunity to test whether the small-mammal contents of different archaeo-stratigraphical units may be useful to characterize them as independent entities. With that purpose, we studied representative samples of small-mammal remains from the two main cont...
Chapter
An international team began initial excavations in Ardales Cave (Ardales, Málaga) and in Sima de las Palomas (Teba, Málaga) within the framework of a General Research Project authorized by the Junta of Andalusia. Ardales Cave is a site well known for the importance of its Palaeolithic rock art. In this new project, excavations were carried out in z...
Conference Paper
En esta revisión de los sorícidos de los niveles del Pleistoceno Inferior y Medio del yacimiento de Gran Dolina (Burgos, España) se han identificado diez taxones, concentrándose la mayor diversidad de especies en los niveles del Pleistoceno Inferior. Además, en este trabajo se identifican por primera vez algunas de ellas: Sorex gr. runtonensis-suba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The cave of Armiña is part of the same karstic system than Atxurra cave, which has an occupation site in the entrance, covering from Gravettian to Late Magdalenian, and numerous evidences of Paleolithic rock-art in the inner part of the cave. The current entrance of Armiña was discovered at the end of XIX century when the road between Markina and L...
Article
One of the main characteristics of the soricines (Eulipotyphla, Mammalia) is the red pigmentation of the outer part of the enamel in the cusps of the teeth. This gives the group its popular name: the red-toothed shrews. Several studies of extant species show that they have a complex enamel structure with three different parts and that the pigmentat...
Article
The red-toothed shrews (Soricinae) are the most widespread subfamily of shrews, distributed from northern South America to North America and Eurasia. Within this subfamily, the tribe Nectogalini includes the fossil species Nesiotites hidalgo recorded from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean). Although the...
Article
Full-text available
Level TE9c of the Sima del Elefante site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) is one of the oldest sites with evidence of human occupation in western Europe. We began excavating level TE9c in 2003, and the work there continues today. The studies of the archaeology, palaeontology and geology from this locality have provided an indispensable dataset with whi...
Article
Full-text available
Bone remains of small vertebrate fossils provide valuable information for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. However, direct radiocarbon dating of small vertebrates remains challenging as the extraction of sufficient good quality collagen is required. The efficiency of eight collagen extraction protocols was tested on seven sampl...
Poster
Full-text available
Praileaitz I Cave (Deba, Basque Country) is one of those caves that can be considered special. Excavated in various series since 2000, the use of this cave is different to the rest of the caves we know of. Used sporadically as a temporary dwelling for a group of people since the Gravettian period, the singularity of the remains dated in the Lower M...
Presentation
Les microvertébrés sont d’excellents marqueurs environnementaux et climatiques, et la datation directe de ces restes retrouvés en contexte archéologique permettrait d’inscrire les reconstructions associées à leur découverte dans une chronologie absolue. La datation 14C de microéchantillons osseux représente aujourd’hui un défi car cela nécessite de...
Conference Paper
The sepulchral cavity of Lano was discovered in March 2015 by two speleologists. Located in the center of Corsica at 835 m high, the cavity occurs in a Jurassic limestone cliff at 20 m above the floor. Exceptional sedimentary conditions made possible the preservation of two wooden coffins, among which one is dated of 1200 cal BC, associated to huma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La recherche concernant l’impact de l’Homme sur la biodiversité animale et végétale du passé est développée de longue date par des équipes de recherche françaises et internationales. Ces travaux concernent, pour la plupart, la mise en évidence de phénomènes anthropogènes d’invasions, d’extinctions ou d’érosion de la diversité morphologique et génét...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper The small vertebrate assemblage from Praileaitz I (Deba, Gipuzkoa) is described. Although during the archaeological works were not taken specific samples for the microvertebrate study, we could use the residue from the sedimentological study, encompassing a chrono-cultural sequence from the Solutrean to the Mesolithic. A total of 13 d...
Presentation
Les microvertébrés sont d’excellents marqueurs environnementaux et climatiques, et la datation directe de ces restes retrouvés en contexte archéologique permettrait d’inscrire les reconstructions associées à leur découverte dans une chronologie absolue. La datation 14C de micro-échantillons osseux représente aujourd’hui un défi car elle nécessite d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Gran Dolina (TD) site (Burgos, Spain) is a cave deposit belonging to the Sierra de Atapuerca localities with one of the most complete succession of small-vertebrates of Early-Middle Pleistocene age. Soricines are characterised by living in humid habitats and having ferruginous enamel, probably due to their metabolism and diet. Here we describe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cave sediments occasionally incorporate the remains of vertebrates than can fossilize, becoming important sources for the knowledge of past faunas. The fossil breccia can even survive the caves where originated and provide information about faunas dated to million years ago. The discovery of Na Burguesa-1 site in Mallorca (Balearic Islands) has pro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) is nowadays distributed on many islands of the north-western margin of Europe. Its status, indigenous or accidentally introduced by humans is still debated. Early observations strongly suggest that C. suaveolens originally occupied most of the islands of the Channel, Iroise Sea and French Atlant...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soricines are a group of shrews (Eulipotyphla) that live in humid habitats and have a fast metabolism. One of their characteristics is that the outer part of their tooth enamel is red. Previous studies revealed that in the extant shrew Blarina brevi-cauda, iron (Fe) is responsible for the red colour of the tooth enamel (Dötsch and Koenigswald, 1978...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of small, very well-defined and perfectly preserved tooth marks on the humerus of a mole, Talpa cf. europaea (TE9, Sima del Elefante, Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos), is extraordinary. To date, no micromammal fossil is known with puncture prints produced by a bite with a clear or delimited morphology that would permit its detailed study....
Article
Full-text available
The Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) contains the most comprehensive archaeological and paleontological evidence of human evolution in Europe during the Quaternary. The time scale based on the microfossil content of the sedimentary infillings of the caves of Atapuerca has been used to attribute relative ages to the various paleontological and ar...
Article
No ideal method can be used alone to provide an accurate and irrefutable chronology for dating European Early Pleistocene localities. The solution lies in the combination of different, but complementary, approaches for complementing their chronological framework. In that regard, the results of the present study show that biochronology may be a usef...
Conference Paper
Until very recently, most ancient DNA studies have focused on samples found in Northern regions since cold environments preserve DNA integrity. However, new advances in the recovery of DNA from fossil samples, enrichment of libraries with particular endogenous genes, generation of million of DNA reads from Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms...
Article
Full-text available
Three very different records are combined here to reconstruct the evolution of environments in the Cantabrian Region during the Upper Pleistocene, covering ~35.000 years. Two of these records come from Antoliñako Koba (Bizkaia, Spain), an exceptional prehistoric deposit comprising 9 chrono-cultural units (Aurignacian to Epipaleolithic). The palaeoe...
Data
Full-text available
Three very different records are combined here to reconstruct the evolution of environments in the Cantabrian Region during the Upper Pleistocene, covering ~35.000 years. Two of these records come from Antoliñako Koba (Bizkaia, Spain), an exceptional prehistoric deposit comprising 9 chrono-cultural units (Aurignacian to Epipaleolithic). The palaeoe...
Article
Full-text available
The cave of Askondo (Mañaria, Bizkaia, Spain) is an archaeological site on the western flank of Asko Mount. Archaeological excavations in 2011 have provided a prehistoric and historic sequence from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Bronze Age. Approximately 3000 microvertebrate elements (including mammals, reptiles, and amphibians) were recovered, of...
Article
Full-text available
The end of the Middle Pleistocene is an interesting period for investigating the transformation of Neandertal behavior from the early Middle Paleolithic to the late Middle Paleolithic. Few sites in the Iberian Peninsula have sequences corresponding to the last interglacial (MIS5) and even fewer in the Cantabrian Region. One of the best places to in...
Article
Full-text available
The extant Cabrera’s vole, Microtus cabrerae, differs in morphology and evolutionary history from the other species of Microtus. This arvicoline has unique, derived features in the cranium, mandible and dentition. Probably its most conspicuous features are its large size, the high skull in lateral view, the long and distally broad nasals, and the t...
Poster
Full-text available
The cave of Lezetxiki II, located in the upper valley of the Deba River and near the eastern end of the Bay of Biscay, is an archaeological site physically connected to the classical site of Lezetxiki.Both cavities are well known due to the important archaeological and paleontological discoveries that have been made there. In the deposit of Lezetxi...
Article
The Kiputz IX site records climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene since it represents a continuous time interval record (ca. 25–13 ka cal BP). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from the bone collagen of herbivores (Rangifer tarandus, Cervus elaphus, and Bison priscus) were analysed to establish environmental and climatic conditions in th...
Article
Full-text available
The cave of Santimamiñe (Kortezubi, Bizkaia, Spain), on the southern slopes of the Ereñozar Mountain (Urdaibai biosphere reserve), is one of the most famous prehistoric localities of the Cantabrian range. Between 2004 and 2006, a test trench revealed a 6 m-deep stratigraphic sequence in the inner vestibule of the cave covering ∼20,000 years, from t...
Article
Full-text available
The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera is the longest cave of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) and one of the 30 longest caves in the world. The exploration of one of the galleries allowed the discovery of a fossiliferous deposit of vertebrate remains in a remarkable preservation state. The fossil faunal complex found in this gallery is...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of small, very well-defined and perfectly preserved toothmarks on a humerus of a mole Talpa cf. europaea from level TE9 of Sima del Elefante (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos) with a chronology of the Early Pleistocene is extraordinary. In a previous paper, this bite was compared with current small carnivores such as Mustela nivalis molars...
Article
Full-text available
The vertebrate fossil record from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) has improved considerably over the past decade, especially in Mallorca and Menorca. In Menorca, the Pliocene terrestrial fauna was updated by the discovery and description of the large-sized leporid Nuralagus, several reptiles and an amphibian. In Mallorca, paleontologic...
Poster
Full-text available
El Portalón is the current entrance to the Cueva Mayor Karst system of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). The latter is internationally well-known for its rich Early to Middle Pleistocene hominin-bearing localities. Besides, El Portalón is an important archaeological site with a long stratigraphic sequence roughly covering the last 30.000 yea...
Chapter
Full-text available
En esta comunicación, nos centraremos en los microvertebrados en sentido estricto y más concretamente en los restos que de ellos encontramos en los yacimientos arqueológicos y paleontológicos, es decir en las distintas partes del esqueleto y en aquellos elementos que mejor se conservan: las piezas dentales. A continuación, revisaremos cuatro aspect...
Chapter
Full-text available
La Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica (CVC) (Fig. 5.1) es testigo de importantes acontecimientos bióticos ocurridos en el planeta Tierra. Estos eventos, algunos de ellos de escala global, han quedado registrados en las rocas de la cuenca mediante los fósiles. El estudio paleontológico de este registro fósil ha permitido obtener información sobre estos acontec...
Poster
Full-text available
THE LONG SMALL VERTEBRATE RECORD OF ANTOLIÑAKO KOBA (BIZKAIA, SPAIN; UPPER PLEISTOCENE): A PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION FROM THE AURIGNACIAN TO THE AZILIAN PERIOD
Poster
Full-text available
By means of fossil remains we try to reconstruct the climatic and environmental changes in the southern Bay of Biscay in the last 100 or 120 thousand years. These reconstructions are able for comparison with other local, regional and global registers as pollen, GISP2, the marine record, etc.
Article
Full-text available
The taxonomy of the extinct European subgenus Drepanosorex (Mammalia, Soricidae) has traditionally been problematic, but it seems to comprise five valid species from the Pleistocene: Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus, S. (D.) savini, S. (D.) margaritodon, S. (D.) austriacus and S. (D.) rupestris. The first record of Sorex (Drepanosorex) margaritodon...
Presentation
Excavation report of Baltzola cave (Bizkaia, Spain), campaign 2013, closing campaign.
Article
Full-text available
The extant Cabrera's vole, Microtus cabrerae, differs in morphology and evolutionary history from the other species of Microtus. This arvicoline has unique, derived features in the cranium, mandible and dentition. Probably its most conspicuous features are its large size, the high skull in lateral view, the long and distally broad nasals, and the t...
Article
Full-text available
The Peña Larga site, a rock shelter on the southern slopes of the Cantabrian cordillera (north Spain), is an archeological deposit covering nearly 4000 years, from the early Neolithic to the middle Bronze Age (Atlantic/Subboreal chronozones). It was used both as a household and as a stable, with a hiatus in the Chalcolithic when it was used as a co...