Juan Del Toro

Juan Del Toro
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN

Doctor of Philosophy

About

40
Publications
4,603
Reads
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534
Citations
Introduction
As an applied developmental psychologist, I use social and developmental frameworks to examine how racial discrimination from specific perpetrators (i.e., peers, educators, and law enforcement) shape disparities among youth. The specification of the perpetrator of discrimination can inform setting-specific interventions and challenge setting-specific policies (i.e., proactive policing and zero-tolerance) to ultimately improve the wellbeing of all youth.
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - May 2021
University of Pittsburgh
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2013 - May 2019
New York University
Field of study
  • Developmental Psychology

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
The intended purpose of exclusionary discipline is to improve the learning environment by removing disruptive students; however, emerging evidence has suggested that these practices may have the opposite effect. Exclusionary discipline-especially policies that use suspensions as punishment for minor, developmentally normative behavioral infractions...
Article
Racially disparate school disciplinary practices create inequitable circumstances for minority and immigrant youth around the world. In the U.S., Black youth are more likely than their White peers to be suspended for minor, non-violent infractions. This study explores (a) whether school cultural socialization practices reported by Black students (N...
Article
Objective To determine whether rates of online racial discrimination changed over the course of 2020 and their longitudinal effects on Black youth’s mental health. Method This longitudinal study collected 18,454 daily assessments from a nationally representative sample of 602 Black and White adolescents in the United States (58% Black, 42% White;...
Article
Full-text available
The procedural justice framework suggests that negative perceptions of the police are linked to crime-related behavior. General strain theory could illuminate a key mechanism; negative perceptions of the police might undermine the obligation to obey laws and rules through promoting strain and psychological distress. This study integrated these two...
Article
Objectives To explore the relationship between self-regulatory coping behaviors (SRCB) and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) stress reactivity. Methods Data came from the Richmond Stress and Sugar Study (n=125, median age: 57 years, 46% non-Hispanic White, 48% African American). The relationships between 11 SRCB (“health-harming” [e.g., smoking...
Article
Full-text available
The role of racial stereotypes in youth’s academic achievement becomes salient during adolescence. Yet, very few studies have investigated whether associations between Black and White American adolescents’ stereotype endorsement and their cognitive engagement, mindset beliefs, and performance in math differed by stereotype valence (i.e., positive v...
Article
Negative interactions with the legal system can inform adolescents' relationships with schools. The present daily-diary study examined 13,545 daily survey assessments from 387 adolescents (Mage = 13-14; 40% male; 32% Black, 50% White, and 18% Other ethnic-racial minority) across 35 days to assess whether police stops predicted adolescents' school d...
Article
Despite notable improvements in theory and methods that center the lived experiences of Black adolescents, White supremacy endures in developmental science. In this article, we focus on one methodological manifestation of White supremacy—sampling decisions that assume Black adolescents are a homogeneous group. We examine overlooked concerns about w...
Article
The present study sought to unravel the psychological processes through which mass incarceration, specifically paternal incarceration, is negatively affecting the next generation of children. Data came from 4,327 families from 20 cities who participated in a 10-year longitudinal study. Parents and children reported on children’s rule-breaking behav...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Definitions regarding defunding or abolishing the police are highly contested in the United States. Moreover, adolescents' definitions and how socialization processes shape their definitions are unclear. Methods: Within a national sample of 822 adolescents ages 13-17 (49.69% female; 63.22% White, 16.93% Black/African American, 11.0...
Article
Objective COVID-19 has presented threats to adolescents’ psychosocial well-being, especially for those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. This longitudinal study aimed to identify which social (i.e., family conflict, parental social support, peer social support), emotional (i.e., COVID-19 health-related stress), and physical (i.e., sleep...
Article
African American adolescents are grossly overrepresented in rates of school suspensions for minor disciplinary infractions; however, the consequences associated with this disciplinary practice are unknown. African American adolescents who were suspended for minor infractions may perceive school rules and adults as unfair and illegitimate, and these...
Article
The question of whether schools should promote cultural pride and engage students in ethnic traditions is hotly contested. To contribute to this debate, this longitudinal study examined whether school cultural socialization predicted adolescents' engagement in school over time and whether this relation was mediated by school climate. Data were coll...
Article
This brief report examines whether the effects of direct and vicarious police stops on adolescents’ academic adjustment via their psychological and physical well‐being differ across ethnic–racial and gender groups. Using national and longitudinal survey data from Black, Latinx, and White adolescents (N = 3004; 49% girls), we found that the police s...
Article
Background and Objectives: This intensive longitudinal study investigated (a) the extent to which engaging in social distancing predicted adolescents’ same- and next-day stress and positive affect and (b) whether COVID-19-related knowledge and exercise moderated these links during statewide stay-at-home orders that mandated schools and nonessential...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: COVID-19 has led to soaring unemployment rates and the widespread adoption of working-from-home (WFH) arrangements that have disrupted family relationships and adolescent psychological well-being. This longitudinal study investigated how parental employment status (i.e., job loss and WFH) influenced adolescents' daily affect indirectly th...
Article
Objective Ethnic-racial minority children in the United States are more likely to experience father loss to incarceration than White children, and limited research has examined the health implications of these ethnic-racial disparities. Telomere length is a biomarker of chronic stress that is predictive of adverse health outcomes. We examined wheth...
Article
Background: COVID-19 has introduced novel stressors into American adolescents’ lives. Studies have shown that adolescents adopt an array of coping mechanisms and social supports when contending with stress. It is unclear, though, which strategies are most effective in mitigating daily pandemic-related stress, as few micro-longitudinal studies have...
Article
We strongly support efforts to generate, rigorously test, and falsify hypotheses derived from the Environmental Affordances (EA) Model of Health Disparities, as originated by the late Dr. James S. Jackson (1940–2020). Such efforts are critical to establishing robust, theoretically grounded scientific frameworks that explain the fundamental causes o...
Article
Full-text available
Culturally relevant practices are valuable assets for ethnically-racially diverse schools, but few studies examine whether such practices promote students’ engagement in school longitudinally and whether ethnicity-race moderates the effects of such practices on students’ engagement. To address this gap, the present study examined whether schools th...
Article
Purpose This study aimed to investigate racial/ethnic disparities in emotional distress during witnessed police stops among a national sample of urban-born youth. Methods A national sample of urban-born youth in the U.S. from the most recent wave (2014–2017) of the Fragile Families & Child Wellbeing Study was used in the present study, with a part...
Article
This article used self‐regulated learning as a theoretical lens to examine the individual and interactive associations between a growth mindset and metacognition on math engagement for adolescent students from socioeconomically disadvantaged schools. Across three longitudinal studies with 207, 897, and 2,325 11‐ to 15‐year‐old adolescents, students...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Adolescents are at risk for violating COVID-19 social distancing measures due to salient developmental needs for autonomy and relatedness. This intensive longitudinal study investigated the initiation and sustainment of adolescents’ daily social distancing behaviors. Methods: Focus group and daily-diary approaches were used to collect 6,2...
Research
Full-text available
Sesame Workshop Mexico has created a self-guided at-home version of its Dream Save Do activities that preschools can use with parents. In 2019, Sesame Workshop Mexico revised the Mexican program Sueña, Ahorra, Alcanza (Dream Save Do) to include more take-home activities for parents to do with their children. The goal was to strengthen parents’ invo...
Article
Maintaining learning engagement throughout adolescence is critical for long‐term academic success. This research sought to understand the role of metacognition and motivation in predicting adolescents' engagement in math learning over time. In two longitudinal studies with 2,325 and 207 adolescents (ages 11–15), metacognitive skills, interest, and...
Article
Historic racial disparities in the United States have created an urgent need for evidence‐based strategies promoting African American students’ academic performance via school‐based ethnic‐racial socialization and identity development. However, the temporal order among socialization, identity, and academic performance remains unclear in extant lite...
Article
Background: Despite their positive intention to increase school safety, zero-tolerance policies may perpetuate racial disparities in health. Zero tolerance refers to school policies and practices that mandate predetermined punishment in response to student misbehavior regardless of the context or rationale for the behavior. Black children are subje...
Article
The authors examined whether the longitudinal inter‐relations between ethnic‐racial discrimination and ethnic‐racial identity vary according to the perpetrator of discrimination. The authors used three waves of data from early adolescents (n = 387; ages 11–12 at Wave 1) to assess the strength and direction of relations between perceived discriminat...
Preprint
We examined whether the longitudinal inter-relation between discrimination and identity varies according to the perpetrator of discrimination. We used three waves of data from early adolescents (n = 387; ages 11-12 at Wave 1) to assess the strength and direction of relations between perceived discrimination from adults and peers vis-à-vis ethnic-ra...
Article
Full-text available
Socially anxious youth are at an increased risk for academic underachievement, withdrawal from school, and negative peer relationships. Given that learning tasks in science classes rely heavily on peer collaboration and social skills, this study aimed to investigate the link between high-school adolescents’ social anxiety and their science achievem...
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing evidence that racial-ethnic discrimination has a critical impact on college students of color, there is a shortage of longitudinal studies investigating such discrimination across the course of students’ college careers. The present study examined trajectories of professor- and peer-perpetrated ethnic-racial discrimination across th...
Article
This study investigated trajectories of individual and vicarious online racial discrimination (ORD) and their associations with psychological outcomes for African American and Latinx adolescents in 6th–12th grade (N = 522; Mgrade = 9th) across three waves. Data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling to estimate trajectories for ORD and to dete...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Four waves of longitudinal survey data demonstrate that contact with law enforcement predicts increases in black and Latino adolescents’ self-reported criminal behaviors 6, 12, and 18 months later. These results are partially mediated by psychological distress. The younger boys are when stopped for the first time, the stronger these re...
Article
Two approaches to conceptualizing ethnic-racial identity development dominate the literature within developmental psychology—1 focused on the process of ethnic-racial identity development, including exploration and commitment, and another focused on the evaluative components of identity, including private and public regard. In this study, we examin...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on two important mechanisms through which racial learning occurs: children's experiences of discrimination across multiple settings and messages that children receive from parents, termed racial socialization. Notably, these two mechanisms are dynamically interdependent and deeply intertwined. Youth's discrimination experiences...
Article
The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample included...
Chapter
We first review current literature on three ethnic–racial dynamics that are considered to be resources and stressors in the lives of ethnic-minority youth: ethnic–racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. Next, we propose that a more contextualized view of these ethnic–racial dynamics reveals that they are interdependent, inseparable, and...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
The purpose of this study is to learn the role of daily stress, coping, adjustment, and support for adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Starting April 2020, we worked with a national sample of culturally and ethnically diverse families to collect four waves of dyadic parent-adolescent daily-diary data, with each wave lasting two weeks.
Project
Examine the impact of policing on the health and wellbeing of citizens across the life course (particularly children and adolescents, as well as those connected to them).