Juan Carlos Castillo

Juan Carlos Castillo
University of Chile · Departamento de Sociología

PhD Sociology

About

79
Publications
44,638
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1,067
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2010 - February 2014
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Position
  • Researcher, assistan professor

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Full-text available
In a developing and highly unequal region like Latin America, it is crucial to understand the determinants that affect people's support for redistribution of resources from the state. A series of theories focused on self-interest have continuously established a negative link between people's income and their support for the reduction of inequalitie...
Article
Full-text available
Support for redistribution is crucial for reducing economic inequality. Despite people's desire for reducing extreme inequalities, they still have mixed opinions regarding how to do so. The aim of the article is to examine the underlying latent dimensions of support for redistribution and test its correlates to perceptions of and attitudes toward i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
El interés por el estudio de la cohesión social posee una larga trayectoria tanto académica como también desde el Estado y de organizaciones con interés público. La cohesión social aparece como una aspiración normativa de una sociedad mejor, vinculada a conceptos como lazos sociales de calidad, pertenencia, y confianza en los demás y en el Estado....
Chapter
Democracy was forged in the furnaces of oppression, whether combatting tyranny or affirming the rights of the individual. As democracy is under threat in many parts of the world, there has never been a more urgent need to understand political thoughts and behaviours. This lucid and accessible book brings together a global group of scholars from psy...
Preprint
This study analyzes the effect of information about economic inequality on the justification of wage inequality. Using a representative sample of the metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile (n=732), we implemented an experimental survey design to replicate the results reported by Kriss-Stella Trump (2017) for the context of Sweden and the United State...
Preprint
Full-text available
La opinión pública y las preferencias redistributivas de los ciudadanos han ganado una renovada atención en el estudio de reformas institucionales. Ellas aparecen como un termométro social que indica la temperatura de la sociedad respecto de la temática de la desigualdad y la demanda ciudadana por bienestar (Soroka & Wlezien, 2009). Junto a ello, l...
Preprint
Economic and social inequalities have generated growing concerns and crises across contemporary societies. One of the mechanisms proposed by social sciences to explain the persistence of inequality is the belief in meritocracy, which would legitimize economic disparities based on differences in effort and talent. Despite its wide use as a concept,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perceptions of economic inequality have become a topic of growing interest in research from different social science disciplines. This article presents an up-to-date literature review of studies on this topic, stressing aspects related to its conceptualisation and measurement, as well as psychosocial, socioeconomic and contextual factors associated...
Chapter
Large-scale international studies focus most of their efforts on measuring knowledge as academic achievement. For this reason, more attitudinal instruments, such as questionnaires for students, teachers, and principals, are left in an instead auxiliary role. In the case of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009, in addi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The replication involved an experimental condition. A “transparent” group received the original study and code, and an “opaque” group received the same unde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Findings from 162 researchers in 73 teams testing the same hypothesis with the same data reveal a universe of unique analytical possibilities leading to a broad range of results and conclusions. Surprisingly, the outcome variance mostly cannot be explained by variations in researchers’ modeling decisions or prior beliefs. Each of the 1,261 test mod...
Article
Full-text available
El estudio de las atribuciones de pobreza y riqueza ha tenido un rol central en la literatura sobre la justificación de las desigualdades sociales. La investigación en esta área ha explorado en qué medida se usan razones individualistas versus estructuralistas para explicar por qué ciertas personas logran posiciones más precarias o aventajadas que...
Article
We analyze economic elites’ perceptions and beliefs about meritocracy from a moral economy perspective. A moral economy perspective considers how norms and beliefs structure socioeconomic practices through the constitution and expression of what is considered acceptable, proper, and legitimate. Our study explores how economic elites make sense of t...
Article
Full-text available
Although the idea of meritocracy is widely present in social research, few studies analyze and discuss this concept. This research note shows the results from a first stage of a wider research project on meritocracy and distributive preferences in Chile, which is based on 9 interviews with social science scholars whose research is related to these...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we explore the associations of people’s valuations of universal healthcare with risk exposure and humanitarianism across diverse institutional contexts. We argue that both micro-level factors increase the valuations. Furthermore, interactions between material interests and humanitarians are expected. This work also hypothesizes tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Large scale international studies focus a great deal on measuring knowledge as academic achievement, leaving sidelined the study of students, parents and teachers’ attitudes. In the case of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2009), along with civic knowledge there are a series of relevant instruments for measuring citizen...
Article
Full-text available
La idea de meritocracia está relacionada con la distribución de bienes y beneficios basada en el talento y esfuerzo individual, constituyendo un principio que legitima la distribución desigual de los recursos en sociedades modernas. Pese a las constantes referencias a la meritocracia en la investigación de desigualdad y estratificación social en so...
Research
Steffen Mau, académico de la Humbold University de Berlín, en conversación con Juan Carlos Castillo (COES - Universidad de Chile) y Raimundo Frei (PNUD- ICSO UDP) durante la Conferencia COES 2018: Concentraciones.
Preprint
Full-text available
In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social solidarity? Comparative cross-national research, relying mostly on secondary data, has findings in different directions. There is a threat of sele...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in understanding how civic engagement emerges has been fueled by worries about the decline of youth participation in conventional political activities. Acknowledging the developmental nature of civic engagement, this study analyzes involvement in civic activities during early adolescence. We used latent class analysis to identify patterns...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of attributions has long been used to study people's explanations for the origin of poverty. Nevertheless, research on the perceived causes of wealth has thus far been sidelined and isolated from the study of poverty attributions. This article focuses on the relationship between poverty and wealth attributions from a latent variable meas...
Article
Objective This study analyzes which characteristics of pension recipients are taken into account when evaluating the fairness of pensions. Furthermore, it identifies some respondents’ characteristics and preferences that could be related to the justice evaluation of different pension amounts. Methods A factorial survey was designed to simultaneous...
Preprint
Full-text available
When asked whether the government should take money from the rich and give to the poor, most Latin American individuals answer affirmatively. Therefore, countries in the region have been portrayed as welfare supporters. Although the political economy literature has largely addressed the determinants behind these preferences, little has been said re...
Preprint
Full-text available
The theory of attributions has a long tradition in studying explanations for the origin of poverty. Nevertheless, research regarding the perceived causes of wealth has been so far sidelined and not related to the study of poverty attributions. This paper focuses on the relationship between poverty and wealth attributions from a latent variable meas...
Article
Full-text available
The idea of meritocracy is related to the distribution of goods and rewards based on individual talent and effort, being a principle that legitimizes the unequal distribution of resources in modern societies. Despite the constant references to meritocracy in inequality and stratification research, there are still few conceptual and empirical attemp...
Preprint
SocArxiv Preprint: https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/qkpu4/ The idea of meritocracy is related to the distribution of goods and rewards based on individual talent and effort, being a principle that legitimizes the unequal distribution of resources in modern societies. Despite the constant references to meritocracy in inequality and stratification...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lack of tolerance toward traditionally disadvantaged groups, such as immigrants, ethnic minorities and women, represents a growing challenge to contemporary democracies. Assuming that attitudes toward such social groups are at least partly learned during the political socialization of school-age children, this chapter explores individual difference...
Chapter
Full-text available
Based on the conceptualization of democratic principles in the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009, particularly attitudes concerning equal rights for disadvantaged groups, such as immigrants, ethnic groups and women, this chapter evaluates the extent to which the scales measuring attitudes toward gender equality, equal...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between income and egalitarian values and attitudes towards healthcare policy. Study design: Cross-sectional and cross-national study. Methods: Data for 29 countries from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2011 were used. The dependent variables are a general attitude towards government in...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo estudia los aprendizajes y desafíos que se desprenden de la investigación empírica sobre élites en Chile en las últimas dos décadas, con énfasis en la élite económica. Utilizando doce entrevistas semiestructuradas a expertos que han investigado a este grupo en Chile y una operacionalización específica para diferenciar los criterios y...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of literature from different disciplines addresses concepts and measurement of citizenship. The present paper seeks to contribute to this field by examining the issue of youth citizenship from a comparative international perspective and proposing a simplified conceptual model that can be operationalized. This model includes a communi...
Book
Full-text available
Political trust – of citizens in government, parliament or political parties – has been centre stage in political science for more than half a century, reflecting ongoing concerns about the legitimacy of representative democracy. This Handbook offers the first truly global perspective on political trust and integrates the conceptual, theoretical, m...
Article
Though the concept of social justice is widely used in the social sciences, we know little about the amount of income inequality that is perceived as just and why perceptions vary across social contexts. In this paper, we argue the ways people define the causes of poverty are related to how they perceive and justify existing income inequality. We e...
Article
Full-text available
Curricular guidelines have become progressively relevant for educating future active citizens. In such a context, it becomes crucial to explore the relationship between the curricular guidelines and how citizenship education is currently acquired by students in Latin American countries. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to comparatively evaluate...
Article
Full-text available
Political participation has frequently been associated with individual resources; that is, individuals with higher incomes, higher educational levels and more time tend to participate in the political process to a greater extent than other individuals do. The present study suggests that in addition to resources, an individual's beliefs about econom...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
What elements are taken into account at the moment of evaluating a pension as just or not? Research in distributive justice has dealt with the evaluation of situations and rewards for a long time, ranging from theories of relative deprivation and equity to studies about justice evaluation functions and legitimacy. What is known so far is that distr...
Conference Paper
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El Centro de Estudios de Conflicto y Cohesión Social (COES) lanzó ayer el segundo módulo de su encuesta nacional, la primera en conflicto y cohesión en Chile. En esta ocasión, los investigadores del Centro Juan Carlos Castillo, Daniel Hojman y Emmanuelle Barozet presentaron los datos de este segundo módulo que entre otros temas incluyó cuál es la p...
Article
In the wake of rising levels of income inequality during the past two decades, widespread concerns emerged about the social and political consequences of the widening gap between the poor and the rich that can be observed in many established democracies. Several empirical studies substantiate the link between macro-level income inequality and polit...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical evidence has consistently shown that political participation is positively related with socioeconomic background. Furthermore, recent research suggests that children who come from low status families are already less willing to get politically involved. The present paper aims to analyze the possible impact that schools can have in mitigat...
Book
Full-text available
Aunque son motivo de discusión en todas las épocas, con distintos significados y usos, los impuestos han adquirido en los últimos años una relevancia especial, en tanto dimensión central desde la cual abordar asuntos como el financiamiento del gasto social, el rol de Estado en la provisión de bienes y servicios y las formas de concretar las diferen...
Article
Full-text available
Durante el año 2011, Chile fue lugar de una serie de manifestaciones estudiantiles que demandaban mayor equidad en el acceso a la educación superior. La alta aprobación ciudadana de estas demandas (llegando a un 89%) parece sugerir la existencia de un gran consenso acerca de la debilidad del modelo educacional que existe en Chile, el que no cumplir...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A series of studies consistently show that socioeconomic status is related to higher rates of electoral participation. Such association implies a transmission of economic inequality into political inequality, threatening ideals of equality and even the legitimacy of the political system. Nevertheless, there are several elements that could affect th...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent does social origin impact the disposition of students toward becoming politically involved in their future adult life? Using Chilean data from Civic Education Study, 1999 (N = 5688), and International Civic and Citizenship Education Study, 2009 (N = 5192), the present research analyzes, on the one hand, the impact of socioeconomic va...
Article
Full-text available
What are the key contents related to democratic life in the curricula of civic and citizenship education in Latin American countries? What values and dimensions are most emphasized? This paper summarizes the results of a comparative analysis of civic/citizenship curricula for primary and secondary education in six countries of the region that parti...
Article
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El trabajo considera los currículos de seis países latinoamericanos – Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, México, Paraguay y República Dominicana –, que a fines de la década pasada convinieron en ser parte del proyecto Sistema Regional de Evaluación y Desarrollo de Competencias Ciudadanas (SREDECC). Con el apoyo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, SRED...
Article
The current research explores six hypotheses derived from the well-known procedural justice-based model of legitimacy in two different religious groups in Israel, and adds to the model the effect of religiosity on the perceived legitimacy of rules and institutions of social control. Our results, based on data from a representative sample of 1,216 I...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although most empirical research on political trust has focused on the so called developed world, previous scholarly work regarding this topic within Latin American countries has provided some interesting insights. Most notably, Latin American societies show lower levels of political trust when compared to other regions of the world (Catterberg and...
Chapter
Full-text available
¿Importa conocer lo que las personas piensan respecto de la distribución de ingresos en una sociedad? Una primera respuesta a esta pregunta proviene del ámbito de las políticas públicas, donde se asume que en un sistema democrático el apoyo ciudadano es fundamental para otorgar una base de legitimidad al accionar político. En esta línea, Liebig y M...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Chile es uno de los países con mayor concentración del ingreso a nivel mun-dial. Dada la relación entre alta desigualdad económica y patrones de estratificación social, en tal contexto se esperaría una alta dispersión de las percepciones respecto del propio estatus o estatus social subjetivo. Sin embargo, la evidencia internacional señala...
Article
Full-text available
Las creencias respecto de cómo deberían distribuirse los bienes y recursos en la sociedad constituyen un elemento central de la identificación con partidos políticos. En este sentido, sería esperable que las preferencias por un rol más o menos activo del Estado en la redistribución se relacionara con distintas identificaciones partidarias y con el...
Article
Beliefs about how goods and resources should be distributed in society constitute a central element in the identification with political parties. In this sense, the preference for a more or less active role of the state in redistribution is expected to be related with different party identifications and with the left-right continuum. The present ar...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to study the legitimacy of earnings inequality in contexts with different economic inequality levels. The question guiding the research is: How do high levels of income inequality in a society influence the legitimacy of earnings inequality? Such question requires on the one hand tackling the concept of legitimacy – c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Empirical research in civic and political participation has consistently shown that higher levels of civic knowledge and higher participation levels are characteristic of those with higher socio-economic status and formal education. Socio-economic status differences among citizens are accentuated in societies with high inequality as the Latin Ameri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the year 2011, Chile has been site of several student´s demonstrations claiming for more equity in the access to the higher education. These claims have as background several studies that characterize the Chilean educational system as one of the most economically segregated at world level (OECD, 2010). The high support to the protests by the...
Article
Full-text available
En el discurso público comúnmente se asume que Chile es un país solidario, un supuesto que se confunde con la ideade una cierta homogeneidad en lo que respecta a valores solidarios y conductas de ayuda en el país. El presente trabajo apunta acuestionar esta idea de homogeneidad respecto de solidaridad, proponiendo que las conductas solidarias se re...
Article
Full-text available
En el discurso público comúnmente se asume que Chile es un país solidario, un supuesto que se confunde con la idea de una cierta homogeneidad en lo que respecta a valores solidarios y conductas de ayuda en el país. El presente trabajo apunta a cuestionar esta idea de homogeneidad respecto de solidaridad, proponiendo que las conductas solidarias se...
Article
Full-text available
Even though a series of perceived inequality indicators have been used in survey research, to date there is no research comparing these indicators. Using data from the 2009 Chilean ISSP national representative survey (N = 1,505), this research compared 3 measures of inequality perception and analyzed the influence of status, political position and...
Article
Solidarity, understood as a social and communicative operationdestined to maintain people’s cohesion in the context of modern society, evidencesthe permanence of a stratified social order that produces exclusion from certainsocial rights. This article attempts to further discuss this definition by offering anempirical and multidimensional analysis...