Juan Aparicio

Juan Aparicio
Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche | UMH · Centro de Investigación Operativa

Professor
Trying to establish links between Data Envelopment Analysis and Machine Learning techniques.

About

181
Publications
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Publications

Publications (181)
Article
This paper contributes to research on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) field and the inefficiency measurement of firms by proposing a new method for evaluating inefficiency accounting for firms’ CSR activities. The new approach considers the imprecise nature of CSR data through the fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA) method and further...
Article
eat is a new package for R that includes functions to estimate production frontiers and technical efficiency measures through non-parametric techniques based upon regression trees. The package specifically implements the main algorithms associated with a recently introduced methodology for estimating the efficiency of a set of decision-making units...
Article
Full-text available
In the technical efficiency evaluation area, it may happen that many observations obtain a similar relative technical efficiency status, making it difficult to discriminate between them. The determination of super-efficiency has been a way of solving this problem by providing a method to differentiate between the performance of observations. Despit...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this paper is to propose a tool for measuring the productivity and performance gaps across a set of Decision Making Units (DMUs) for monitoring their evolution and analyzing their components over time. To do this, we use the approach proposed by Aparicio and Santín (2018), which is grounded on a base-group base-period producti...
Article
Full-text available
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is one of the most used non-parametric techniques for technical efficiency assessment. DEA is exclusively concerned about the minimization of the empirical error, satisfying, at the same time, some shape constraints (convexity and free disposability). Unfortunately, by construction, DEA is a descriptive methodology t...
Article
In this paper, we show that both Free Disposal Hull (FDH) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which are well-known modern techniques for efficiency measurement, can be seen as particular cases of a more general model based upon Support Vector Regression (SVR) within machine learning. Our approach is based on the adaptation of SVR in a multi-respon...
Article
In this paper, we propose and discuss a new model in order to obtain the weight profiles to be used in the calculation of cross-efficiency scores in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In the standard DEA literature, total flexibility in the selection of weights has been strongly criticized due to the fact that some inputs and/or outputs may have no c...
Article
The results-based budgeting (RBB) framework is a public management strategy in which economic resources are allocated to certain budget programmes, oriented towards delivering specific products and results to the population. The present paper analyzes the regional governments' efficiency in using their economic resources, under the RBB framework, w...
Article
The measurement of technical efficiency is a topic of great interest in microeconomics and engineering. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is one of the the existing techniques for measuring technical efficiency. One of the challenges related to DEA is to introduce a "well-defined" efficiency measure. Overall, it means that the technical efficiency me...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed Integer Linear Programs (MILPs) are usually NP-hard mathematical programming problems, which present difficulties to obtain optimal solutions in a reasonable time for large scale models. Nowadays, metaheuristics are one of the potential tools for solving this type of problems in any context. In this paper, we focus our attention on MILPs in t...
Article
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The main objective of this article is the evaluation of the efficiency and its evolution over time of 27 member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). We analyse the relationship between defense expenditure and the spending on military personnel as well as how security is perceived by citizens. To this end, a data panel for the...
Article
There is extensive literature focused on the evaluation of efficiency in the education sector, both at the micro level, analyzing the performance of students or schools, and at the macro level, exploring the behavior of regions or countries. The development of this type of study has been driven in recent years by exploiting data available in intern...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this article is the evaluation of the efficiency and its evolution over time of 27 member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). We analyse the relationship between defense expen-diture and the spending on military personnel as well as how security is perceived by citizens. To this end, a data panel for th...
Article
Full-text available
International large-scale assessments (ILSAs) provide several measures as a representation of educational outcomes, the so-called plausible values, which are frequently interpreted as a representation of the ability range of students. In this paper we focus on how this information should be incorporated into the estimation of efficiency measures of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces the methodology necessary to evaluate inefficiency of regulated decision making units that operate under quotas through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), accounting for both quotas’ restrictions and negative environmental externalities of production. Three technical inefficiency measures are proposed: inefficiency in the produc...
Article
Full-text available
In microeconomics, a topic of interest is the estimation of production functions. By definition, a production function is a non-decreasing function that envelops all the observations (firms) from above in the input-output space, capturing the extreme behavior of the data. These characteristics are far from the usual ones assumed by machine learning...
Code
This is the package of R created for estimating technical efficiency improving FDH and DEA. The new technique, called EAT (Efficiency Analysis Trees), avoids the problem of overfitting associated with the standard non-parametric methodologies. We show how to use the package through some numerical examples. This is related to our objective of creati...
Article
Full-text available
Most empirical studies examining the export competitiveness of a country in a target market are undertaken by focusing on supply, only analysing the group of competing countries. In addition, if the target market to be analysed is extensive, like the European Union, it is generally analysed as a whole. This study presents an evaluation of the tomat...
Article
Within the framework of data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology, the problem of determining the closest targets on the efficient frontier is receiving increased attention from both academics and practitioners. In the literature, the number of approaches to this problem are increasing, most of which are based on the computation of closest target...
Article
Innovation is one of the main determinants of economic development of modern societies. The extant evidence points to increasing territorial disparities in Europe in relation to innovation. Relying on production theory, we examine the nature of these disparities. In particular, we are interested in finding out whether catching up processes are taki...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to provide a systemic instrument to evaluate the functioning of higher education systems. Despite systemic instruments have had a strong impact on the management of public policy systems in fields such as health and innovation, higher education has not been widely discussed in applying this type of instrument. Herein lies the main...
Article
Full-text available
Today’s global competition and rapid development of information technology have led to the creation of massive amounts of data that are, moreover, exponentially increasing day by day. Analysing these large data sets is a key basis of competition and innovation, and supports new waves of productivity growth. This has challenged organisations to find...
Chapter
The determination of technical efficiency through the previous estimation of a production frontier has been a relevant topic in the literature related to production theory and engineering. Many parametric and nonparametric approaches have been introduced in the last forty years for estimating production frontiers given a data sample. However, few o...
Article
This paper extends the Camanho and Dyson (2006) one-period Malmquist-type index (CDMI) and the recent pseudo-panel Malmquist index (PPMI) by Aparicio et al. (2017) and Aparicio and Santín (2018) to a context where additive efficiency measures are used. In particular, we apply the Luenberger productivity indicator. Unlike the CDMI, the new approach...
Article
Full-text available
In the literature of Economics, Engineering and Operations Research, the estimation of production frontiers is a current hot topic. Many parametric and nonparametric methodologies have been introduced for estimating technical efficiency of a set of units (for example, firms) from the production frontier. However, few of these methodologies are base...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este artículo es identificar grupos estratégicos en el sector privado de un sistema de educación superior. Las técnicas de clasificación tienden a comparar conjuntamente a las instituciones de educación superior privadas con sus contrapartes públicas, y corren el riesgo de subestimar el impacto del mercado como fuente de diferenciaci...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing demands for accountability have led to the development of a significant research stream related to the assessment of the performance of higher education institutions. In particular, research in this field has focused on evaluating the efficiency and productivity of higher education institutions in relation to their basic missions, wi...
Article
The measurement of technical efficiency attracts considerable interest in the literature. In fact, following on from the seminal works by Koopmans (1951); Debreu (1951); Shephard (1953); Farrell (1957), a substantial amount of literature has been dedicated to methods for estimating production frontiers and measuring the technical efficiency of prod...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este artículo es identificar grupos estratégicos en el sector privado de un sistema de educación superior. Las técnicas de clasificación tienden a comparar conjuntamente a las instituciones de educación superior privadas con sus contrapartes públicas, y corren el riesgo de subestimar el impacto del mercado como fuente de diferenciaci...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with introducing a series of new concepts under the name of Economic Cross-Efficiency, which is rendered operational through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques. To achieve this goal, from a theoretical perspective, we connect two key topics in the efficiency literature that have been unrelated until now: economic eff...
Article
The measurement of technical efficiency is a topic of great interest. Since the beginning, many researchers have developed new approaches to gauge technical efficiency, mainly in the non-parametric area of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). However, the first measures in DEA, the well-known radial models, only accounted for radial inefficiency, which...
Article
Full-text available
Metaheuristic and exact methods are one of the most common tools to solve Mixed-Integer optimization Problems (MIP). Most of these problems are NP-hard problems, being intractable to obtain optimal solutions in a reasonable time when the size of the problem is huge. In this paper, a hybrid parallel optimization algorithm for matheuristics is studie...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents an innovative empirical application to assess the efficiency of regional tax offices in Spain. The existing evidence about the performance of those administrative units is still limited, thus our aim is to contribute to extend this line of research by incorporating three relevant issues into our empirical analysis. First, we cons...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we introduce a new methodology based on regression trees for estimating production frontiers satisfying fundamental postulates of microeconomics, such as free disposability. This new approach, baptized as Efficiency Analysis Trees (EAT), shares some similarities with the Free Disposal Hull (FDH) technique. However, and in contrast to...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a presentation of a work on how to estimate production functions by means of machine learning techniques. In particular, we resort to an adaptation of Regression Trees (CART).
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a model to construct composite indicators for performance evaluation of decision making units, which is based upon the determination of the least distance from each assessed unit to a frontier estimated by Data Envelopment Analysis. This generates less-demanding targets from a benchmarking point of view. The model also makes i...
Article
There is variation in how long it takes a golfer to win for the first time on the PGA tour. There are also golfers who never win. We investigate the time to first win using a survival function methodology, including shots gained measures of golfing ability, number of events played, experience prior to joining the tour, the competition, as explanato...
Article
Full-text available
This study introduces the measurement of environmental inefficiency from an economic perspective. We develop our proposal using the latest by-production models that consider two separate and parallel technologies: a standard technology generating good outputs, and a polluting technology for the by-production of bad outputs. While research into envi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a new method to measure economic inefficiency of decision making units based on the calculation of the least distance to the Pareto-efficient frontier in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). While all previously published approaches that have dealt with the problem of determining least distances to the efficient frontier are focus o...
Book
Full-text available
This book includes a spectrum of concepts, such as performance, productivity, operations research, econometrics, and data science, for the practically and theoretically important areas of ‘productivity analysis/data envelopment analysis’ and ‘data science/big data’. Data science is defined as the collection of scientific methods, processes, and sys...
Chapter
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely applied to empirically measure the technical efficiency of a set of schools for benchmarking their performance. However, the endogeneity issue in the production of education, that plays a central role in education economics, has received minor attention in the DEA literature. Under a DEA framework, en...
Chapter
We begin by providing contextual background for this book, the second in a series. We continue by proclaiming the importance of efficiency and productivity, for businesses, industries and nations. We then summarise the chapters in the book, which consist of an equal number of advances in the analytical foundations of efficiency and productivity mea...
Chapter
Overall efficiency measures were introduced in the literature for evaluating the economic performance of firms when reference prices are available. These references are usually observed market prices. Recently, Aparicio and Zofío (2019) have shown that the result of applying cross-efficiency methods (Sexton et al., 1986), yielding an aggregate mult...
Chapter
In this paper we present a comparison of robust efficiency scores for the scenario in which the specification of the inputs/outputs to be included in the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is modeled with a probability distribution, through the traditional cross efficiency evaluation procedure. We evaluate the ranking obtained from these scores...
Book
Full-text available
This book surveys the state-of-the-art in efficiency and productivity analysis, examining advances in the analytical foundations and empirical applications. The analytical techniques developed in this book for efficiency provide alternative ways of defining optimum outcome sets, typically as a (technical) production frontier or as an (economic) cos...
Chapter
Average efficiency is popular in the empirical education literature for comparing the aggregate performance of regions or countries using the efficiency results of their disaggregated decision-making units (DMUs) microdata. The most common approach for calculating average efficiency is to use a set of inputs and outputs from a representative sample...
Article
Full-text available
Given a ranking of elements of a set and given a disjoint partition of the same set, the ranking does not generally imply a total order of the partition. In this paper, we introduce the Kendall-t partition ranking, a linear order of the subsets of the partition which follows from the given ranking. We prove that, under certain assumptions, the Kend...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-efficiency has been developed for the evaluation of cross-sectional data in Data Envelopment Analysis. This paper extends cross-efficiency evaluation introducing the concept of cross-productivity. The extension proposed here is aimed at providing a dynamic peer-evaluation of decision making units, based on the standard Luenberger indicator, w...
Conference Paper
In recent decades, there has been widespread literature dedicated to evaluating efficiency in the educational sector, both at the micro level, analyzing the performance of students or schools, and at the macro level, exploring the behavior of regions and even countries These types of studies have been driven by the proliferation of international da...
Article
Full-text available
A natural multiplicative efficiency measure for the Constant Returns to Scale Proportional Directional Distance Function (pDDF) is derived, relating its associated linear program to that of the well-known output-oriented radial efficiency measurement model. Based on this relationship, a traditional CCD (Caves, Christensen and Diewert) Malmquist ind...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes two new Luenberger-type indicators, one for measuring productivity change of decision making units in the full input-output space, and the other for determining profit inefficiency change over time when information on market prices is also available. Both approaches are based upon the recently introduced Weighted Additive Distan...
Article
Full-text available
The aggregation of multiple metrics of corporate social performance (CSP) poses one of the major problems in CSP research. In this paper we propose a new method to compute a composite indicator of CSP from an efficiency perspective using data envelopment analysis. The new approach makes it possible to appropriately account for both positive and neg...
Article
Full-text available
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a technique for identifying the best practices of a given set of decision-making units (DMUs) whose performance is categorized by multiple performance metrics that are classified as inputs and outputs. Although DEA is regarded as non-parametric, the sample size can be an issue of great importance in determining th...
Chapter
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric methodology for estimating technical efficiency and benchmarking. In general, it is desirable that DEA generates the efficient closest targets as benchmarks for each assessed unit. This may be achieved through the application of the Principle of Least Action. However, the mathematical models assoc...
Article
Full-text available
Slacks that arise when nonparametrically constructing technologies are relevant because they can be an important source of technical inefficiency. This paper extends the measurement of dynamic inefficiency in the full input-output space in the adjustment-cost theory framework to account for slacks. In particular, the paper develops the dynamic weig...
Article
Many studies devoted to efficiency performance evaluation in the education sector are based on measures of central tendency at school level as, for example, the average values of students belonging to the same school. Although this is a common and accepted way of summarizing data from the original observations (students), it is not less true that t...
Article
The aggregation of multiple metrics of corporate social performance (CSP) poses one of the major problems in CSP research. In this paper we propose a new method to compute a composite indicator of CSP from an efficiency perspective using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The new approach makes it possible to appropriately account for both positive a...
Article
Full-text available
Bounded additive models in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) under the assumption of Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) were recently introduced in the literature (Cooper et al., 2011, Pastor et al., 2013 and 2015). In this paper, we propose to extend the so far generated knowledge about bounded additive models to the family of Directional Distance Func...