Juan Antonio García-Madruga

Juan Antonio García-Madruga
National Distance Education University | UNED · Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology

Professor

About

134
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
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This study evaluates the contribution of conditional relationship contents to making inferences, depending on the span of the participant’s working memory. This is achieved through the use of a deductive reasoning task with conditional statements and the “Reading Span Test” by Daneman and Carpenter, in its Spanish version. The results of the two ex...
Article
El propósito de este estudio es analizar las interrelaciones entre los procesos ejecutivos de la Memoria operativa (MO), la inteligencia fluida y la comprensión lectora, así como su capacidad predictiva respecto del rendimiento académico en Historia. Participaron 26 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria. Los resultados indican que las var...
Article
El Retén Episódico (RE) está tomando un creciente papel central en las explicaciones sobre el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa. De hecho, los últimos estudios de Baddeley y sus colaboradores sitúan al RE en el corazón del sistema de memoria. Recientemente la discusión también atañe a si este componente de la memoria operativa presenta una nat...
Article
Full-text available
Solving arithmetic word problems is a complex task that requires individuals to activate their working memory resources, as well as the correct performance of the underlying executive processes involved in order to inhibit semantic biases or superficial responses caused by the problem’s statement. This paper describes a study carried out with 135 s...
Article
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The relation between the prediction and explanation of the false belief task (FBT) with counterfactual reasoning (CFR) was explored. Fifty eight 3-5 year-olds received a prediction or an explanation FBT, a belief attribution task and some counterfactual questions of increasing difficulty. Linguistic comprehension was also controlled. CFR highly pre...
Book
EDICOLE, Evaluación Diagnóstica de la Comprensión Lectora, una prueba de evaluación de la comprensión lectora basada en un análisis de los procesos y componentes esenciales que, conforme a los modelos cognitivos actuales, están implicados en dicha actividad. En este marco, la prueba permite realizar una evaluación funcional de tres componentes cogn...
Article
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En el estudio de las conectivas proposicionales confluyen la lingüística, la lógica y la psicología, por lo que constituye un campo de gran interés para la ciencia cognitiva. Los enunciados condicionales son especialmente relevantes, ya que son una herramienta básica para expresar en forma precisa las posibilidades lógicas que se producen en la rea...
Article
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Three experiments tracked participants’ eye-movements to examine the time course of comprehension of the dual meaning of counterfactuals, such as “if there had been oranges then there would have been pears.” Participants listened to conditionals while looking at images in the visual world paradigm, including an image of oranges and pears that corre...
Article
Full-text available
Higher-order thinking abilities such as abstract reasoning and meaningful school learning occur sequentially. The fulfillment of these tasks demands that people activate and use all of their working memory resources in a controlled and supervised way. The aims of this work were: (a) to study the interplay between two new reasoning measures, one mat...
Poster
Full-text available
if he had arrived early, he would have bought roses' People represent two possibilities:-The conjecture: 'He arrived early and he bought roses'-The presupposed fact: 'He did not arrive early and he did not buy roses' (Byrne 2016) BUT, HOW PEOPLE UNDERSTAND A NEGATIVE COUNTERFACTUAL? 'if he had not arrived early, he would not have bought roses' When...
Article
Full-text available
Reading comprehension is a complex cognitive task crucial to success in formal education and everyday life activities. Working memory (WM) and associated executive processes have been shown to be implicated in reading comprehension abilities. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a program for improving reading comprehension sk...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a preliminary theory of executive functions that address in a specific way their relationship with working memory (WM) and higher-level cognition. It includes: a) four core on-line WM executive functions that are involved in every novel and complex cognitive task; b) two higher order off-line executive functions, planning...
Article
Full-text available
The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with thre...
Article
A number of heuristic-based hypotheses have been proposed to explain how people solve syllogisms with automatic processes. In particular, the matching heuristic employs the congruency of the quantifiers in a syllogism — by matching the quantifier of the conclusion with those of the two premises. When the heuristic leads to an invalid conclusion, su...
Article
We report research investigating the role of mental models in deduction. The first study deals with conjunctive inferences (from one conjunction and two conditional premises) and disjunctive inferences (from one disjunction and the same two conditionals). The second study examines reasoning from multiple conditionals such as: If e then b; If a then...
Article
Full-text available
Este estudio se centra en la influencia del contenido de la tarea en problemas de razonamiento deductivo. Se utilizaron cuatro tareas diferentes: de razonamiento proposicional, usando diferentes tipos de conectivas lógicas, silogismos lineales o series de tres términos, silogismos categoriales y la tarea selección de Wason. Para cada una de las tar...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar, en 3° y 6° de Primaria, el patrón evolutivo de las relaciones entre las habilidades lectoras de descodificación (mediante una prueba de Ortografía y otra de Segmentación de palabras) y las de comprensión (mediante una nueva prueba de comprensión DARC y la prueba de comprensión del PROLEC-R), así como su r...
Article
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The aim of this paper is focused on the relationship of executive processes of working memory and fluid intelligence with reading comprehension, in a group of 77 third-grade primary students. Moreover, we studied the predictive capacity of working memory and fluid intelligence on reading comprehension. As predicted, there was a pattern of positive...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is focused on the relationship of executive processes of working memory and fluid intelligence with reading comprehension, in a group of 77 third-grade primary students. Moreover, we studied the predictive capacity of working memory and fluid intelligence on reading comprehension. As predicted, there was a pattern of positive...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The study of the contribution of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension is an important goal of current reading research. However, reading comprehension is not easily assessed by a single instrument, as different comprehension tests vary in the type of tasks used and in the cognitive demands required. Method: This stu...
Article
Reading comprehension is a highly demanding task that involves the simultaneous process of extracting and constructing meaning in which working memory's executive processes play a crucial role. In this article, a training program on working memory's executive processes to improve reading comprehension is presented and empirically tested in two expe...
Article
In this paper we analysed the metalogical and deductive inferential ability of a wide sample (1118 participants) of seventh and eighth grade school students (12–13 years old). We used two metareasoning tasks: an evaluation of propositional attitudes and a modal syllogistic task. Two additional deductive (propositional and syllogistic) reasoning tas...
Article
Using a priming paradigm, the possibilities that people keep in mind in order to understand “unless A, B” were compared to those from “if A, not-B” conditionals. The length of time it took people to read conjunctions as “A and B”, “A and not-B”, “not-A and B”, and “not-A and not-B” after they had been primed by the different conditionals was measur...
Article
Full-text available
Many students may read fluently but have difficulties constructing meaning from texts. Difficulties with reading comprehension have many implications at school. In particular, problems understanding texts interfere with studying and learning from text. Reading comprehension has improved in the last 30 years focusing on intervention programs that wo...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate, in 3rd and 6th year of Primary school, the developmental pattern of relationships between decoding abilities in reading (by means of orthography and word segmentation measures) and comprehension (by means of the new DARC comprehension test and the PROLEC-R comprehension test), as well as their relatio...
Article
The paper presents two experiments which aim to clarify existing relationships between knowledge of a specific field, overconfidence and interest in it, within an educational setting. In the first experiment, first and third year students of Compulsory Secondary Education assessed the extent of their own knowledge and interest on the topic of "nutr...
Article
We report the results of an experiment investigating conditional inferences from conditional assertions such as 'Juan won't go to León unless Nuria goes to Madrid' and 'Either Nuria goes to Madrid or Juan won't go to León'. This experiment addresses Dancygier's claims about the semantics of 'unless' by examining inferential endorsements of 'not-A u...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to present a new working memory test following the line of work started by García-Madruga et al. (2007) and to examine its relation to reading comprehension and propositional reasoning measures. In that study we designed a new working memory span test--based on Daneman & Carpenter's (1980) Reading Span Test (RST)--in which...
Article
Full-text available
The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts...
Article
Full-text available
Using a priming paradigm in the context of a reading comprehension task, the possibilities that people keep in mind in order to understand indicative and subjunctive concessive sentences were examined and compared to those from factual and counterfactual 'if A, not-B' conditionals. The length of time it took people to read conjunctive descriptions...
Article
Full-text available
Development of deductive reasoning: Differences between factual and counterfactual conditionals. In this work we study how adults and children make inferences about what could have occurred but did not occur (counterfactual). For this, a deductive reasoning task with real conditional statements (or factual, of the type "if you run, you'll arrive on...
Article
Full-text available
El artículo analiza cómo los adultos y los niños realizan inferencias sobre lo que podría haber ocurrido pero no ocurrió (contrafácticos). Para ello, se utiliza una tarea de razonamiento deductivo con enunciados condicionales reales (o fácticos, del tipo "si corres, llegas a tiempo") y contrarios a la realidad (o contrafácticos, del tipo "si hubier...
Article
We report three experiments to test the possibilities reasoners think about when they understand a conditional of the form 'A only if B' compared to 'if A then B'. The experiments examine conditionals in the indicative mood (e.g., A occurred only if B occurred) and counterfactuals in the subjunctive mood (A would have occurred only if B had occurre...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en presentar dos nuevas pruebas de memoria operativa (MO) y examinar su relación con la comprensión, el razonamiento y el rendimiento académico. En el primer estudio, se validó empíricamente el material de las dos pruebas. En el segundo estudio, se desarrollaron dos Pruebas de Memoria Operativa de Anáforas (una...
Article
Full-text available
This article tackles factual and counterfactual 'unless' expressions such as 'Virginia will not pass the exam unless she works harder' and 'Virginia would not have passed the exam unless she had worked harder'. 'Unless' is a negative conditional that is semantically equivalent to 'if not'. However, some authors have claimed that 'unless' is more cl...
Article
This article tackles factual and counterfactual "unless" expressions such as "Virginia will not pass the exam unless she works harder" and "Virginia would not have passed the exam unless she had worked harder". "Unless" is a negative conditional that is semantically equivalent to "if not". However, some authors have claimed that "unless" is more cl...
Article
Full-text available
We report the results of two experiments investigating conditional inferences from conditional unless assertions, such as Juan is not in León unless Nuria is in Madrid. Experiments 1 and 2 check Fillenbaum's hypothesis about the semantic similarity of unless with if not and only if assertions; both also examine inferential endorsements (Experiment...
Article
Full-text available
La presente investigación evalúa cómo los preescolares interpretan expresiones condicionales e infieren a partir de ellas. Con tal fin, se diseñó una tarea novedosa para evaluar inferencias, adaptando para ello la que Harris y Núñez (1996) emplearon en un estudio sobre la comprensión de condicionales. Participan 180 preescolares de edades comprendi...
Article
We report three experiments on semifactual conditionals such as 'even if he had worn his seatbelt he would have been injured'. Semifactuals contain a counterfactual antecedent (the presupposed fact is, he did not wear a seatbelt) and a true consequent (the fact is, he was injured). The experiments show that from the denial of the antecedent, 'he di...
Article
The main objective of this paper was to assess working memory, reading comprehension and reasoning abilities of two groups of Secondary School students (Ist and 4th levels), and to analyse the relations among these three cognitive variables. As measures of these three variables we used: the 'Prueba de Amplitud Lectora' by Elosúa, Gutiérrez, García...
Article
Cognitive components that contribute to social adaptation in children: prevention of bullying from pre-school education. This paper addresses the study of the influence of several cognitive elements on social adaptation in 3-5 years old children. Aggressive behaviours constitute a crucial element in the assessment of social adaptation process. The...
Article
En el presente trabajo se evalúa la memoria operativa, la comprensión lectora y el razonamiento en dos grupos de estudiantes de 1º y 4º de ESO y se analizan las interrelaciones entre estas tres variables cognitivas. Como medidas de estas variables, se utilizan respectivamente la Prueba de Amplitud Lectora de Elosúa, Gutiérrez, García Madruga, Luque...
Article
We examine the role of working memory's central executive in the mental model explanation of propositional reasoning by using two working memory measures: the classical “reading span” test by Daneman and Carpenter (198013. Daneman , M. and Carpenter , P. A. 1980 . Individual differences in working memory and reading . Journal of Verbal Learning and...
Article
Full-text available
The present study envisages the relationship between working memory and syllogistic reasoning from an individual differences perspective (i.e. whether or not the performance on the reasoning task can be predicted from the working memory capacity). A group of syllogistic inference problems were used. These problems differed in terms of cognitive dem...
Chapter
• Actualmente, se reconoce que las pautas de desarrollo no se ajustan a patrones regulares y estables, sino que más bien se caracterizan por su gran complejidad y variabilidad. Consecuentemente y con el objetivo de ofrecer mejores descripciones y explicaciones del desarrollo, se están proponiendo nuevos métodos de análisis y nuevos modelos conceptu...
Article
Full-text available
La concepción de la memoria a corto plazo como una memoria operativa (MO) ha permitido analizar e interpretar en forma productiva las diferencias individuales que se observan en la ejecución de tareas cognitivas complejas, como el razonamiento o la comprensión lectora. Sin embargo, permanecen sin resolverse algunas dificultades relativas a la medid...
Article
En el presente trabajo se comparan dos pruebas de memoria operativa: la Prueba de Amplitud Lectora de Elosúa, Gutiérrez, García Madruga, Luque y Gárate (1996; versión española del Reading Span Test de Daneman y Carpenter, 1980) y la más reciente Prueba de Analogías Verbales (García Madruga, Gutiérrez, Carriedo, Luzón y Vila, en prensa). Se estudia...
Article
En: Infancia y aprendizaje : journal for the study education and development Madrid 2005, n. 28 (1) ; p. 25-50 Análisis evolutivo en el que se comparan dos pruebas de memoria operativa: la prueba de amplitud de Elosúa, Gutiérrez, García Madruga, Luque y Gárate (1996; versión española del Reading Span Test de Daneman y Carpenter, 1980) y la más reci...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments show that understanding of biases in probability judgment can be improved by extending the application of the associative-learning framework. In Experiment 1, the authors used M. A. Gluck and G. H. Bower's (1988a) diagnostic-learning task to replicate apparent base-rate neglect and to induce the conjunction fallacy in a later judg...
Article
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We report two new phenomena of deontic reasoning: (1) For conditionals with deontic content such as, "If the nurse cleaned up the blood then she must have worn rubber gloves", reasoners make more modus tollens inferences (from "she did not wear rubber gloves" to "she did not clean up the blood") compared to conditionals with epistemic content. (2)...
Article
Barceló, 2003), por mucho que la organización funcional adulta sea modular para cada una de estas funciones. En conclusión, creo que la noción de modularidad sigue siendo Útil y plausible , aunque no como término dentro de una dicotomia estricta, y en la medida en que se desvincula del innatismo y se mantiene alerta ante las dificultades que supone...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an intervention program to promote active text-processing strategies (main-idea identification and summarization) at two developmental levels (12- and 16-year-olds). The independent variables were training condition (experimental and control) and school level (7th and 10th grades). Several mea...
Article
Full-text available
The mental model theory assumes that people reason by manipulating mental representations of states of the word, called "mental models." In the present study we used a new deduction task based on diagrammatic premises. We show that a premise can prime other premises that induce similar mental models in a way analogous to the case of words with rela...
Article
Full-text available
Se evaluaron 117 alumnos de 7 a 14 años y a un grupo de 26 universitarios en una tarea de razonamiento con condicionales fácticos (sobre lo que ocurrió) y semifácticos (sobre lo que podría haber ocurrido). Los resultados mostraron que, como los adultos, los niños aceptaban menos inferencias lógicas con condicionales semifácticos que con fácticos. E...
Article
Full-text available
We report research investigating the role of mental models in deduction. The first study deals with conjunctive inferences (from one conjunction and two conditional premises) and disjunctive inferences (from one disjunction and the same two conditionals). The second study examines reasoning from multiple conditionals such as: If e then b; If a then...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo revisamos algunas de las principales cuestiones teóricas que se han planteado en torno al constructo de «memoria operativa » (MO) y a su reconocido papel en la cognición. En este sentido, nos centramos particularmente en la investigación sobre las habilidades de comprensión lectora, donde la MO se viene estudiado como posible fuente...
Article
Tested the model theory of syllogistic reasoning, which assumes that individuals can devise models of syllogistic premises when the middle terms are contiguous. When the arrangement (figures) of the terms is not appropriate, individuals have to perform additional processing operations. Results of Exp 1 ( n = 31) show that the time consumed by these...
Article
Multi-conditional problems can be used to compare the mental model theory and mental rule theories of deductive reasoning. The two theories make contrasting predictions about performance. The mental model theory relates the difficulty of a problem with the number of models the reasoner has to construct, whereas mental rule theories explain this dif...
Article
En: Infancia y aprendizaje : journal for the study of education and development Madrid 2002, n. 25 (4) ; p. 485-498 Se evaluaron 117 alumnos de 7 a 14 años y a un grupo de 26 universitarios en una tarea de razonamiento con condicionales fácticos (sobre lo que ocurrió) y semifácticos (sobre lo que podría haber ocurrido). Los resultados mostraron que...
Article
Full-text available
Oaksford (2001) considers that the findings of Espino, Santamaría, and García Madruga (2000a) could be explained by the Probability Heuristics Model (PHM) proposed by Chater and Oaksford (1999). He specifically voices three objections, the two main ones being based on the fact that PHM is not a theory about syllogism representation. If this is the...
Article
Full-text available
We report four experiments investigating conjunctive inferences (from a conjunction and two conditional premises) and disjunctive inferences (from a disjunction and the same two conditionals). The mental model theory predicts that the conjunctive inferences, which require one model, should be easier than the disjunctive inferences, which require mu...
Article
Llevamos a cabo este estudio con la finalidad de comprobar la influencia de la memoria operativa (MO) en los procesos de razonamiento con condicionales. Utilizamos dos formulaciones condicionales diferentes que, según la teoría de los modelos mentales producen dos representaciones iniciales diferentes: "si entonces" y "a menos que". Contamos con 40...
Article
Full-text available
We report five experiments showing that the activation of the end-terms of a syllogism is determined by their position in the composite model of the premises. We show that it is not determined by the position of the terms in the rule being applied (Ford, 1994), by the syntactic role of the terms in the premises (Polk & Newell, 1995; Wetherick & Gil...
Article
Se presentan dos experimentos con tareas de razonamiento silogístico que investigan la influencia del contenido semántico (materiales de identidad y materiales de inclusión)y la figura (figura 1 versus figura 2)durante la fase de comprensión de las premisas y la fase inferencial. El experimento 1 nos muestra que en una tarea de evaluación silogísti...
Article
Full-text available
En: Cognitiva Madrid 1999, v. 11, n. 2; p. 133-151 Se presentan dos experimentos con tareas de razonamiento silogístico que investigan la influencia del contenido semántico ( materiales de identidad y materiales de inclusión) y la figura durante la fase de comprensión de las premisas y la fase inferencial. El experimento 1 muestra que en una tarea...