# Jozef H. PrzytyckiGeorge Washington University | GW · Department of Mathematics

Jozef H. Przytycki

PhD

## About

192

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Introduction

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (192)

W. Rump showed that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between involutive
right non-degenerate solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation and Rump right quasigroups. J. S. Carter, M. Elhamdadi, and M. Saito, meanwhile, introduced a homology theory of set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation in order to define cocycle invariants of class...

We define a map from second quandle homology to the Schur multiplier and examine its properties. Furthermore, we express the second homology of Alexander quandles in terms of exterior algebras. Additionally, we present a self-contained proof of its structure and provide some computational examples.

In this paper we disprove a twenty-two year old theorem about the structure of the Kauffman bracket skein module of the connected sum of two handlebodies. We achieve this by analysing handle slidings on compressing discs in a handlebody. We find more relations than previously predicted for the Kauffman bracket skein module of the connected sum of h...

In this article, we adjust the Yang-Baxter operators constructed by Jones for the HOMFLYPT polynomal. Then we compute the second homology for this family of Yang-Baxter operators. It has the potential to yield 2-cocycle invariant for links.

We show that the only way of changing the framing of a knot or a link by ambient isotopy in an oriented $3$-manifold is when the manifold has a properly embedded non-separating $S^2$. This change of framing is given by the Dirac trick, also known as the light bulb trick. The main tool we use is based on McCullough's work on the mapping class groups...

W. Rump showed that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between involutive right non-degenerate solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation and Rump right quasigroups. J. S. Carter, M. Elhamdadi, and M. Saito, meanwhile, introduced a homology theory of set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation in order to define cocycle invariants of class...

This paper is an extended account of my “Introductory Plenary talk at Knots in Hellas 2016” conference. We start from the short introduction to Knot Theory from the historical perspective, starting from Heraclas text (the first century AD), mentioning R. Llull (1232–1315), A. Kircher (1602–1680), Leibniz idea of Geometria Situs (1679), and J.B. Lis...

The Gram determinant of type $A$ was introduced by Lickorish in his work on invariants of 3 - manifolds. We generalize the theory of the Gram determinant of type $A$ by evaluating, in the annulus, a bilinear form of non-intersecting connections in the disc. The main result provides a closed formula for this Gram determinant. We conclude the paper b...

We classify incompressible, boundary-incompressible, nonorientable surfaces in punctured-torus bundles over $S^1$. We use the ideas of Floyd, Hatcher, and Thurston. The main tool is to put our surface in the "Morse position" with respect to the projection of the bundle into the basis S^1.

We define a map from second quandle homology to the Schur multiplier and examine its properties. Furthermore, we express the second homology of Alexander quandles in terms of exterior algebras. Additionally, we present a self-contained proof of its structure and provide some computational examples.

We classify incompressible, \(\partial \)-incompressible, nonorientable surfaces in punctured-torus bundles over \(S^1\). We use the ideas of Floyd, Hatcher, and Thurston. The main tool is to put our surface in the “Morse position” with respect to the projection of the bundle into the basis \(S^1\).

This paper is an extended account of my "Introductory Plenary talk at Knots in Hellas 2016" conference We start from the short introduction to Knot Theory from the historical perspective, starting from Heraclas text (the first century AD), mentioning R.Llull (1232-1315), A.Kircher (1602-1680), Leibniz idea of Geometria Situs (1679), and J.B.Listing...

It was proven by Gonz\'alez-Meneses, Manch\'on and Silvero that the extreme Khovanov homology of a link diagram is isomorphic to the reduced (co)homology of the independence simplicial complex obtained from a bipartite circle graph constructed from the diagram. In this paper we conjecture that this simplicial complex is always homotopy equivalent t...

We introduce the notion of partial presimplicial set and construct its geometric realization. We show that any semiadequate diagram yields a partial presimplicial set leading to a geometric realization of the almost-extreme Khovanov homology of the diagram. We give a concrete formula for the homotopy type of this geometric realization, involving we...

Based on the presentation of the Kauffman bracket skein module of the torus given by the third author in previous work, Charles D. Frohman and R\u{a}zvan Gelca established a complete description of the multiplicative operation leading to a famous product-to-sum formula. In this paper, we study the multiplicative structure of the Kauffman bracket sk...

This paper has partially a novel and partially a survey character. We start with a short review of rack (two term) homology of self distributive algebraic structures (shelves) and their connections to knot theory. We concentrate on a sub-family of quandles satisfying the graphic axiom. For a large family of graphic quandles (including infinite ones...

For a Catalan state $C$ of a lattice crossing $L\left( m,n\right) $ with no returns on one side, we find its coefficient $C\left( A\right) $ in the Relative Kauffman Bracket Skein Module expansion of $L\left( m,n\right) $. We show, in particular, that $C\left( A\right) $ can be found using the plucking polynomial of a rooted tree with a delay funct...

We describe the polynomial time complexity algorithm for computing first coefficients of the skein (Homflypt) and Kauffman polynomial invariants of links, discovered by D.Vertigan in 1992 but never published.

In this paper we give a sufficient and necessary condition for two rooted trees with the same plucking polynomial. Furthermore, we give a criteria for a sequence of non-negative integers to be realized as a rooted tree.

In the Khovanov homology of links, presence of
-torsion is a very common phenomenon. Finite number of examples of knots with
-torsion for n > 2 were also known, none for n > 8. In this article, we present several infinite families of links whose Khovanov homology contains
-torsion for 2 < n < 9 and
-torsion for s < 24. We introduce 4-braid links w...

We describe the polynomial time complexity algorithm for computing first coefficients of the skein (Homflypt) and Kauffman polynomial invariants of links, discovered by D.Vertigan in 1992 but never published.

We prove that the degenerate part of the distributive homology of a
multispindle is determined by the normalized homology. In particular, when the
multispindle is a quandle $Q$, the degenerate homology of $Q$ is completely
determined by the quandle homology of $Q$. For this case (and generally for two
term homology of a spindle) we provide an expli...

In 2004, Carter, Elhamdadi and Saito defined a homology theory for set-theoretic Yang-Baxter operators(we will call it the "algebraic" version in this article). In 2012, Przytycki defined another homology theory for pre-Yang-Baxter operators which has a nice graphic visualization(we will call it the "graphic" version in this article). We show that...

We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a given polynomial to be a plucking polynomial of a rooted tree. We discuss the fact that different rooted trees can have the same polynomial.

In this paper we work toward the Homflypt skein module of the lens spaces $L(p,1)$, $\mathcal{S}(L(p,1))$, using braids. In particular, we establish the connection between $\mathcal{S}({\rm ST})$, the Homflypt skein module of the solid torus ST, and $\mathcal{S}(L(p,1))$ and arrive at an infinite system, whose solution corresponds to the computatio...

Homology theories for associative algebraic structures are well established and have been studied for a long time. More recently, homology theories for self-distributive algebraic structures motivated by knot theory, such as quandles and their relatives, have been developed and investigated. In this paper, we study associative self-distributive alg...

We show that the Kauffman bracket skein algebra of any oriented surface F F (possibly with marked points in its boundary) has no zero divisors and that its center is generated by knots parallel to the unmarked components of the boundary of F F . Furthermore, we show that skein algebras are Noetherian and Ore. Our proofs rely on certain filtrations...

We classify rooted trees which have strictly unimodal q-polynomials (plucking
polynomial). We also give criteria for a trapezoidal shape of a plucking
polynomial. We generalize results of Pak and Panova on strict unimodality of
q-binomial coefficients. We discuss which polynomials can be realized as
plucking polynomials and whether or not different...

We show that every alternating link of 2-components and 12 crossings can be
reduced by 4-moves to the trivial link or the Hopf link. It answers the
question asked in one of the last papers by Slavik Jablan.

We describe in this note a new invariant of rooted trees. We argue that the
invariant is interesting on it own, and that it has connections to knot theory
and homological algebra. However, the real reason that we propose this
invariant to readers is that we deal here with an elementary, interesting, new
mathematics, and after reading this essay rea...

It is a classical result in reduced homology of finite groups that the order
of a group annihilates its homology. Similarly, we have proved that the torsion
subgroup of rack and quandle homology of a finite quasigroup quandle is
annihilated by its order. However, it does not hold for connected quandles in
general. In this paper, we define an $m$-al...

After a long and brave battle with a serious illness, our dear friend and colleague Slavik Jablan passed away on 26 February 2015. [...]

We prove that if Q is a finite quasigroup quandle, then |Q| annihilates the
torsion of its homology. It is a classical result in reduced homology of finite
groups that the order of a group annihilates its homology. From the very
beginning of the rack homology (between 1990 and 1995) the analogous result was
suspected. The first general results in t...

This paper is a sequel to my essay "Distributivity versus associativity in
the homology theory of algebraic structures" Demonstratio Math., 44(4), 2011,
821-867 (arXiv:1109.4850 [math.GT]). We start from naive invariants of arc
colorings and survey associative and distributive magmas and their homology
with relation to knot theory. We outline poten...

For a Lattice crossing $L\left( m,n\right) $ we show which Catalan connection
between $2\left( m+n\right) $ points on boundary of $m\times n$ rectangle $P$
can be realized as a Kauffman state and we give an explicit formula for the
number of such Catalan connections. For the case of a Catalan connection with
no arc starting and ending on the same s...

This is an extended abstract of the talk given at the Oberwolfach Workshop
"Algebraic Structures in Low-Dimensional Topology", 25 May -- 31 May 2014. My
goal was to describe progress in distributive homology from the previous
Oberwolfach Workshop June 3 - June 9, 2012, in particular my work on
Yang-Baxter homology; however I concentrated my talk on...

We consider the classical problem of a position of n-dimensional manifold M
in R^{n+2}. We show that we can define the fundamental (n+1)-cycle and the
shadow fundamental (n+2)-cycle for a fundamental quandle of a knotting M to
R^{n+2}. In particular, we show that for any fixed quandle, quandle coloring,
and shadow quandle coloring, of a diagram of...

The one-term distributive homology was introduced by J.H.Przytycki as an
atomic replacement of rack and quandle homology, which was first introduced and
developed by R.Fenn, C.Rourke and B.Sanderson, and J.S.Carter, S.Kamada and
M.Saito. This homology was initially suspected to be torsion-free, but we show
in this paper that the one-term homology o...

We define link and graph invariants from entropic magmas modeling them on the
Kauffman bracket and Tutte polynomial. We define the homology of entropic
magmas. We also consider groups that can be assigned to the families of
compatible entropic magmas.

The goal of this paper is to address A. Shumakovitch's conjecture about the
existence of $\Z_2$-torsion in Khovanov link homology. We analyze torsion in
Khovanov homology of semi-adequate links via chromatic cohomology for graphs
which provides a link between the link homology and well-developed theory of
Hochschild homology. In particular, we obta...

In this chapter (Chapter III) we introduce the concept of Conway algebras
(the notion related to entropic magmas) and describe invariants of links
yielded by (partial) Conway algebras (including the Homflypt polynomial and
signatures). We present, in detail, a proof (following the original
Przytycki-Traczyk 1984 proof) of the existence of Conway ty...

We use the idea of expressing a nonoriented link as a sum of all oriented links corresponding to the link to present a short proof of the Lickorish-Millett-Turaev formula for the Kauffman polynomial at z=-a-a -1 [see W. B. R. Lickorish and K. C. Millett, Lect. Notes Math. 1350, 104-108 (1988; Zbl 0655.57004); V. G. Turaev, Invent. Math. 92, No. 3,...

Using an argument from statistical mechanics, V. Jones has given a new method for constructing pairs of links with identical skein polynomials. We give a more general construction and use it to provide a simple proof of a theorem of Traczyk's involving rotors of links. Several examples are given of pairs of knots with coincident skein polynomials a...

We outline the theory of sets with distributive operations: multishelves and
multispindles, with examples provided by semi-lattices, lattices and skew
lattices. For every such a structure we define multi-term distributive homology
and show some of its properties. The main result is a complete formula for the
homology of a finite distributive lattic...

While homology theory of associative structures, such as groups and rings,
has been extensively studied in the past beginning with the work of Hopf,
Eilenberg, and Hochschild, homology of non-associative distributive structures,
such as quandles, were neglected until recently. Distributive structures have
been studied for a long time. In 1880, C.S....

W listopadzie 2002 roku świat matematyczny obiegla wiadomośc, ze rosyjski matematyk Grigorij Perelman zaanonsowal rozwiazanie jednego z najslynniejszych problemow matematycznych – hipotezy Poincar'ego. Kim jest Perelman? Co i w jaki sposob wlaściwie udowodnil? Odpowiedzi na te pytania oraz historie otrzymania i odrzucenia medalu Fieldsa w 2006 roku...

Large-scale molecular interaction networks are being increasingly used to provide a system level view of cellular processes. Modeling communications between nodes in such huge networks as information flows is useful for dissecting dynamical dependences between individual network components. In the information flow model, individual nodes are assume...

We develop a theory of sets with distributive products (called shelves and
multi-shelves) and of their homology. We relate the shelf homology to the rack
and quandle homology.

This paper is base on talks which I gave in May, 2010 at Workshop in Trieste
(ICTP). In the first part we present an introduction to knots and knot theory
from an historical perspective, starting from Summerian knots and ending on Fox
3-coloring. We show also a relation between 3-colorings and the Jones
polynomial. In the second part we develop the...

We introduce the concept of the quandle partial derivatives, and use them to define extreme chains that yield homological operations. We apply this to a large class of finite and infinite quandles to show, in particular, that they have nontrivial elements in the third and fourth quandle homology.

We investigate the Gram determinant of the pairing arising from curves in a planar surface, with a focus on the disk with two holes. We prove that the determinant based on n-1 curves divides the determinant based on n curves. Motivated by the work on Gram determinants based on curves in a disk and curves in an annulus (Temperley-Lieb algebra of typ...

We consider the problem of classification of links up to (2, 2)-moves. Our motivation comes from the theory of skein modules, more specifically from the skein module of S3 based on the deformation of (2, 2)-move. As it was proved in D-P-2, not every link can be reduced to a trivial link by (2, 2)-moves, for instance, the closure of (σ1σ2) 6. In thi...

We prove that if G is an abelian group of odd order then there is an isomorphism from the second quandle homology H 2 Q (T(G)) to G∧G, where ∧ is the exterior product. In particular, for G=ℤ k n ,k, odd, we have H 2 Q (T(ℤ k n ))=ℤ k n(n-1)/2 . Nontrivial H 2 Q (T(G)) allows us to use 2-cocycles to construct new quandles from T(G), and to construct...

In this paper we discuss several open problems in classical knot theory and we develop techniques that allow us to study them: Lagrangian tangles, skein modules and Burnside groups of links. We start from the definition of the Fox p-colorings, and rational moves on links. We formulate several elementary conjectures including the Nakanishi 4-move co...

Knot Theory is currently a very broad field. Even a long survey can only cover a narrow area. Here we concentrate on the path from Goeritz matrices to quasi-alternating links. On the way, we often stray from the main road and tell related stories, especially if they allow as to place the main topic in a historical context. For example, we mention t...

In this paper we give a method for constructing systematically all simple 2-connected graphs with n vertices from the set of simple 2-connected graphs with n-1 vertices, by means of two operations: subdivision of an edge and addition of a vertex. The motivation of our study comes from the theory of non-ideal gases and, more specifically, from the v...

We consider various homological operations on homology of quandles. We introduce the notion of quandle partial derivatives, and extreme chains on which appropriate partial derivatives vanish. Extreme chains yield homological operations. We also consider the degree one homology operations created using elements of the quandle satisfying the so-calle...

The Hochschild homology of the algebra of truncated polynomials
Am=\mathbb Z[x]/(xm){{\mathcal {A}_m=\mathbb {Z}[x]/(x^m)}} is closely related to the Khovanov-type homology as shown by the second author. In the present paper we utilize this in the
study of the first graph cohomology group of an arbitrary graph G with v vertices. The complete desc...

We analyze properties of links which have diagrams with a small number of negative crossings. We show that if a nontrivial link has a diagram with all crossings positive except possibly one, then the signature of the link is negative. If a link diagram has two negative crossings, we show that the signature of the link is nonpositive with the except...

It was asked by J.Birman, Williams, and L.Rudolph whether nontrivial Lorentz knots have always positive signature. Lorentz knots are examples of positive braids (in our convention they have all crossings negative so they are negative links). It was shown by L.Rudolph that positive braids have positive signature (if they represent nontrivial links)....

We solve the conjecture by R. Fenn, C. Rourke and B. Sanderson that the rack homology of dihedral quandles satisfies H_3^R(R_p) = Z \oplus Z_p for p odd prime. We also show that H_n^R(R_p) contains Z_p for n>2. Furthermore, we show that the torsion of H_n^R(R_3) is annihilated by 3. We also prove that the quandle homology H_4^Q(R_p) contains Z_p fo...

We investigate the Gram determinant of the bilinear form based on curves in a planar surface, with a focus on the disk with two holes. We prove that the determinant based on $n-1$ curves divides the determinant based on $n$ curves. Motivated by the work on Gram determinants based on curves in a disk and curves in an annulus (Temperley-Lieb algebra...

The survey we are presenting is over 22 years old but it has still some ideas which where never published (except in Polish). This survey is the base of the third Chapter of my book: KNOTS: From combinatorics of knot diagrams to combinatorial topology based on knots, which is still in preparation (but compare http://arxiv.org/pdf/math.GT/0512630)....

In this paper we show that the matrix of chromatic joins and the Gram matrix of the Temperley-Lieb algebra are similar (after rescaling), with the change of basis given by diagonal matrices.

We prove that the fundamental quandle of the trefoil knot is isomorphic to the projective primitive subquandle of transvections of the symplectic space $\Z \oplus \Z$. The last quandle can be identified with the Dehn quandle of the torus and the cord quandle on a 2-sphere with four punctures. We also show that the fundamental quandle of the long tr...

In this paper, we solve a problem posed by Rodica Simion regarding type B Gram determinants. We present this in a fashion influenced by the work of W.B.R.Lickorish on Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev invariants of 3-manifolds. The roots of the determinant were predicted by Dabkowski and Przytycki, and the complete factorization was conjectured by Gefry Ba...

We start a systematic analysis of links up to 5-move equivalence. Our
motivation is to develop tools which later can be used to study skein modules
based on the skein relation being deformation of a 5-move (in an analogous way
as the Kauffman skein module is a deformation of a 2-move, i.e. a crossing
change). Our main tools are Jones and Kauffman p...

We present in this chapter (Chapter II) the history of ideas which lead up to the development of modern knot theory. We are more detailed when pre-XX century history is reported. With more recent times we are more selective, stressing developments related to Jones type invariants of links. In the Appendix, A.Przybyszewska translation of Preface to...

It is natural to try to place the new polynomial invariants of links in algebraic topology (e.g. to try to interpret them using homology or homotopy groups). However, one can think that these new polynomial invariants are byproducts of a new more delicate algebraic invariant of 3-manifolds which measures the obstruction to isotopy of links (which a...

This paper has two-fold goal: it provides gentle introduction to Knot Theory starting from 3-coloring, the concept introduced by R. Fox to allow undergraduate students to see that the trefoil knot is non-trivial, and ending with statistical mechanics. On the way we prove various (old and new) facts about knots. We relate Fox 3-colorings to Jones an...

The algebra of truncated polynomials A_m=Z[x]/(x^m) plays an important role in the theory of Khovanov and Khovanov-Rozansky homology of links. We have demonstrated that Hochschild homology is closely related to Khovanov homology via comultiplication free graph cohomology. It is not difficult to compute Hochschild homology of A_m and the only torsio...

It is a natural question to ask whether two links are equivalent by the following moves -- parallel parts of a link are changed to k-times half-twisted parts and if they are, how many moves are needed to go from one link to the other. In particular if k=2 and the second link is a trivial link it is the question about the unknotting number. The new...

A left order on a magma (e.g., semigroup) is a total order of its elements that is left invariant under the magma operation. A natural topology can be introduced on the set of all left orders of an arbitrary magma. We prove that this topological space is compact. Interesting examples of nonassociative magmas, whose spaces of right orders we analyze...

A left order on a magma (e.g., semigroup) is a total order of its
elements that is left invariant under the magma operation. A natural
topology can be introduced on the set of all left orders of an arbitrary
magma. We prove that this topological space is compact. Interesting
examples of nonassociative magmas, whose spaces of right orders we
analyze...

We describe in this chapter (Chapter IX) the idea of building an algebraic topology based on knots (or more generally on the position of embedded objects). That is, our basic building blocks are considered up to ambient isotopy (not homotopy or homology). For example, one should start from knots in 3-manifolds, surfaces in 4-manifolds, etc. However...

In this chapter (Chapter V) we present several results which demonstrate a close connection and useful exchange of ideas between graph theory and knot theory. These disciplines were shown to be related from the time of Tait (if not Listing) but the great flow of ideas started only after Jones discoveries. The first deep relation in this new trend w...

This paper is motivated by a general question: for which values of k and n is the universal Burnside kei of k generators and Kei "exponent" n, $\bar Q(k,n)$, finite? It is known (starting from the work of M. Takasaki (1942)) that $\bar Q(2,n)$ is isomorphic to the dihedral quandle Z_n and $\bar Q(3,3)$ is isomorphic to Z_3 + Z_3. In this paper we g...

Khovanov homology offers a nontrivial generalization of Jones polynomial of links in R^3 (and of Kauffman bracket skein module of some 3-manifolds). In this chapter (Chapter X) we define Khovanov homology of links in R^3 and generalize the construction into links in an I-bundle over a surface. We use Viro's approach to construction of Khovanov homo...

We show that Khovanov homology and Hochschild homology theories share common structure. In fact they overlap: Khovanov homology of a $(2,n)$-torus link can be interpreted as a Hochschild homology of the algebra underlining the Khovanov homology. In the classical case of Khovanov homology we prove the concrete connection. In the general case of Khov...