Joyce A Martin

Joyce A Martin
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services | HHS · Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

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80
Publications
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Publications

Publications (80)
Article
This report presents selected highlights from 2020 final birth data on key demographic, health care utilization, and infant health indicators. General fertility rates (births per 1,000 women aged 15-44), age-specific birth rates (births per 1,000 women in specified age group), low-risk (nulliparous, term, singleton, cephalic births) cesarean delive...
Article
Objectives-This report presents 2019 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.75 million births that occurred in 2019 are presented. Data a...
Article
Objectives-This report presents 2020 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted.
Article
Preterm birth (delivery prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States and around the world and has also been associated with long-term adverse outcomes in children (1,2). In the United States, the preterm birth rate rose 7% from 2014 to 2019, and then declined 1% from 2019 to 2020 (3). Changes...
Article
This report presents selected highlights from 2019 final birth data on key demographic, health care utilization, and infant health indicators. General fertility rates (the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15-44), prenatal care timing (the percentage of mothers with first trimester care), source of payment for the delivery (the percentage of bi...
Article
Objectives-This report presents 2018 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.79 million births that occurred in 2018 are presented. Data a...
Article
Following years of relative stability, twin births began to climb in the United States in the early 1980s, rising 79% from 1980 to 2014 (1,2). In 1980, one in every 53 births was a twin, compared with one in every 29 births in 2014 (1,2). The increase in twinning over the more than three decades was widespread, occurring across age and race and His...
Article
This report presents selected highlights from 2018 final birth data on key demographic, health care utilization, and infant health indicators. General fertility rates (the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15-44) and teen birth rates are presented. Also shown are the distribution of births with a previous cesarean delivery (vaginal births after...
Article
Objectives-A primary goal of the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth was to improve data quality.This report evaluates the quality of selected 2003 revision-based medical and health data by comparing birth certificate data for New York City with information abstracted from hospital medical records.Methods-A random sample of...
Article
This report presents selected highlights from 2017 final birth data on key demographic, health care utilization, and infant health indicators. General fertility rates (the number of births per 1,000 females aged 15-44 years) and teen birth rates are presented by race and Hispanic origin. The use of Medicaid as the source of payment for the delivery...
Article
Infants born before 37 weeks of gestation, commonly referred to as preterm, are at greater risk of early death than those born later in pregnancy and can suffer numerous health and developmental problems, especially at earlier gestational ages (1-3). The incidence of preterm birth in the United States rose from the early 1980s through 2006 but decl...
Article
This report describes prenatal care utilization in the United States for 2016, based on the trimester of pregnancy in which prenatal care began and the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) Index, by selected maternal characteristics. Data are from the 2016 national birth file and are based on 100% of births registered to residents of the 5...
Article
This report presents several key demographic and maternal and infant health indicators using 2016 final birth data. Trends in the general fertility rate (the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15–44), age-specific birth rates, cesarean delivery, preterm, and triplet and higher-order multiple birth rates are presented by age of mother. For each i...
Article
The number of births in the United States increased by 1% between 2013 and 2014, to a total of 3 988 076. The general fertility rate rose 1% to 62.9 births per 1000 women. The total fertility rate also rose 0.3% in 2014, to 1862.5 births per 1000 women. The teenage birth rate fell to another historic low in 2014, 24.2 births per 1000 women. The per...
Article
Key findings: Data from the National Vital Statistics System ?There were 3.978 million births in the United States in 2015, down less than 1% from 2014. ?The 2015 U.S. general fertility rate (births per 1,000 women aged 15-44) was down 1% from 2014. ?Birth rates dropped in 2015 to record lows among women under age 30 and rose for those aged 30-44....
Article
Objectives-This report presents preliminary 2015 data on U.S. births. Births are shown by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented.
Article
Key findings: Data from the National Vital Statistics System •The triplet and higher-order birth rate declined 41% from 1998 to 2014, or from about 1 in every 515 births in 1998 to one in every 880 births in 2014. •Triplet and higher-order birth rates were down by about 50% or more for women aged 25 and over. Rates were essentially unchanged for w...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Objectives—This report presents preliminary 2014 data on U.S. births. Births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods—Data are based on 99.71% of 2014 births. Records for the few states with less than 100% of re...
Article
Objectives-This report presents preliminary 2014 data on U.S. births. Births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented.
Article
Beginning with the 2014 data year, the National Center for Health Statistics is transitioning to a new standard for estimating the gestational age of a newborn. The new measure, the obstetric estimate of gestation at delivery (OE), replaces the measure based on the date of the last normal menses (LMP). This transition is being made because of incre...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives—This report presents 2013 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight,and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth o...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2013 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth...
Article
Data from the National Vital Statistics System. There were 3.93 million births in the United States in 2013, down less than 1% from 2012 and 9% from the 2007 high. The U.S. general fertility rate was at an all-time low in 2013. Birth rates dropped to record lows in 2013 among women under age 30 and rose for most age groups 30 and over. The cesarean...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives-This report compares data on births resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures from 2011 birth certificates with data from the 2011 National ART Surveillance System (NASS) among the subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate as of January 1, 2011, with information on ART. Methods-Birth c...
Article
Objectives: This report describes trends in low-risk cesarean delivery rates in the United States from 1990 through 2013. Trends in low-risk cesarean delivery by state of residence, gestational age, age of mother, and race and Hispanic origin of mother are examined. Methods: Low-risk cesarean delivery is defined as a cesarean delivery among term...
Article
Data from the Natality Data File, National Vital Statistics System After nearly 20 years of consecutive increases, induction of labor for singleton births reached a high of 23.8% in 2010, then declined in 2011 (23.7%) and 2012 (23.3%). Trends in induction rates vary by gestational age, with rates for most gestational age groups declining since 2010...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Healthcare coverage of pregnant women is associated with birth outcomes. Mothers whose pregnancies are insured by Medicaid are more likely to have a preterm and/or low birth weight infant compared with privately-insured mothers. Comparing birth outcomes for uninsured woman with Medicaid or privately-insured women is more complex as th...
Article
Objectives-This report describes state-specific trends in primary cesarean delivery rates from 2006 through 2012 for reporting areas that implemented the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth by January 1, 2006, and from 2009 through 2012 for reporting areas that implemented the 2003 revision by January 1, 2009. State-specific changes by ges...
Article
Objectives: This report presents 2012 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birt...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This report is the first release of multistate data for selected items exclusive to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Included is information for prepregnancy body mass index, smoking and quitting smoking in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, receipt of food from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program...
Article
Approximately one third of all infant deaths in the U.S. are related to preterm birth. Infants who survive a preterm birth are at greater risk than those born later in pregnancy for early death and lifelong effects such as neurologic and cognitive difficulties. The rate of preterm births (i.e., <37 completed weeks' gestation) increased approximatel...
Article
Full-text available
The birth certificate variable obstetric estimate of gestational age (OE) has not been previously validated against gestational age based on estimated date of delivery (EDD) from medical records. We estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI...
Article
Objectives-A primary goal of the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth was to improve data quality, in part by improving data sources, definitions, and instructions. This report evaluates the quality of selected medical and health data from the 2003 revision of the birth certificate by comparing birth certificate data with in...
Article
Key findings: Data from the natality data file, national vital statistics system. After 12 years of consecutive increases, the preliminary cesarean delivery rate among singleton births was unchanged from 2009 to 2011 (31.3%). Cesarean delivery rates decreased more than 5% among births at 38 weeks of gestation, but increased 4% among births at 39 w...
Article
The number of births in the United States declined by 1% between 2010 and 2011, to a total of 3 953 593. The general fertility rate also declined by 1% to 63.2 births per 1000 women, the lowest rate ever reported. The total fertility rate was down by 2% in 2011 (to 1894.5 births per 1000 women). The teenage birth rate fell to another historic low i...
Article
Objectives: This report presents preliminary data for 2011 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods: Data in this report are based on approximately 100% of...
Article
The number of births in the United States decreased by 3% between 2008 and 2009 to 4 130 665 births. The general fertility rate also declined 3% to 66.7 per 1000 women. The teenage birth rate fell 6% to 39.1 per 1000. Birth rates also declined for women 20 to 39 years and for all 5-year groups, but the rate for women 40 to 44 years continued to ris...
Article
The number of twins has doubled and the rate of twin births has risen by more than three-fourths over the three decades 1980–2009. Increases in twin birth rates averaged more than 2 percent annually from 1980 to 2004, but the pace of increase slowed to less than 1 percent from 2005 to 2009. The increase in twinning over the three decades has been w...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2009 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal characteristics including age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, hypertension during pregnancy, attendant at birth, method of delivery, and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight,...
Article
This report presents data for selected items exclusive to the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth as well as key items considered not comparable between the 1989 (unrevised) and 2003 (revised) versions for states and territories that implemented the 2003 revision as of January 1, 2008. Information is shown for educational attainment, tobac...
Article
This report presents 2008 data on receipt of epidural and spinal anesthesia as collected on the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of women giving birth and the circumstances of births in which epidural or spinal anesthesia is used to relieve the pain of labor for vaginal deli...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2008 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, and multiple births...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives—This report presents 2009 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal characteristics including age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, hypertension during pregnancy, attendant at birth, method of delivery, and infant characteristics (period of gestation, bi...
Article
Key findings: Following a long period of fairly steady increase, the U.S. preterm birth rate declined for the second straight year in 2008 to 12.3 percent, from 12.8 percent in 2006. This marks the first 2-year decline in the preterm birth rate in nearly three decades. Preterm birth rates declined from 2006 to 2008 for mothers of all age groups un...
Article
This report presents 2006 data on new checkbox items exclusive to the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Information is shown for checkboxes in the following categories: "risk factors in this pregnancy," "obstetric procedures," "characteristics of labor and delivery," "method of delivery," "abnormal conditions of the newborn," and "conge...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents birth data for the region affected by Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall along the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, comparing the 12-month periods before and after the storm according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, race, His...
Article
US births increased 3% between 2005 and 2006 to 4,265,996, the largest number since 1961. The crude birth rate rose 1%, to 14.2 per 1000 population, and the general fertility rate increased 3%, to 68.5 per 1000 women 15 to 44 years. Births and birth rates increased among all race and Hispanic-origin groups. Teen childbearing rose 3% in 2006, to 41....
Article
This report presents data for 2005 on checkbox items exclusive to the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Information is shown for checkboxes in the following categories: Risk factors in this pregnancy, Obstetric procedures, Characteristics of labor and delivery, Method of delivery, Abnormal conditions of the newborn, and Congenital anoma...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2005 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco us...
Article
Estimates of the gestational age of the newborn based on US Birth Certificate data are extensively used to monitor trends in infant and maternal health and to improve our understanding of adverse pregnancy outcome. Two measures of gestational age, the ‘date of the last normal menses’ (LMP) and the ‘clinical estimate of gestation’ (CE), have been av...
Article
In recent years, national vital statistics data indicate that the US preterm delivery rate has decreased among African Americans and increased among whites. These trends in preterm delivery rates may have been affected, in part, by improvements in the accuracy of gestational age reporting on birth certificates. Several data-editing methods have bee...
Article
Birth certificate gestational age data based on the date of the mother's last menstrual period (LMP) are considered problematic. Of particular concern are birthweight distributions for infants reported on the birth certificate as having been delivered at 28–31 weeks' gestation; these distributions have been shown to be distinctly bimodal. The ‘seco...
Article
This is the first report to present maternal and infant health information exclusive to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Information is shown for the items: Risk factors in this pregnancy, Obstetric procedures, Characteristics of labor and delivery, Method of delivery, Abnormal conditions of the newborn, and Congeni...
Article
This report presents 2003 fetal and perinatal mortality data by a variety of characteristics, including maternal age, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and state of residence; and by infant birthweight, gestational age, plurality, and sex. Trends in fetal and perinatal mortality are also examined. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented...
Article
The general fertility rate in 2005 was 66.7 births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teen mothers (aged 15 to 19 years) declined by 2% between 2004 and 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1000 women, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which there are consistent data. The birth rates for wome...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The rec...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2004 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco us...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives—This report presents preliminary data for 2008 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods—Data in this report are based on 99.9 % of births for 2008....
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2003 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); medic...
Article
The crude birth rate rose slightly in 2003 to 14.1 births per 1000 population, from 13.9 in 2002. The 2002 rate was the lowest ever reported for the United States. The total number of births and the fertility rate (66.1) also increased. The birth rate for teenaged mothers dropped 3% to another record low in 2003, to 41.7 per 1000 females aged 15 to...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. infant mortality rate (IMR) increased from 6.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2001 to 7.0 in 2002, the first increase in more than 40 years. From 2001 to 2002, IMR increased for very low birthweight infants as well as for preterm and very preterm infants. Although IMR for very low birthweight infants increased, most of the increase...
Article
U.S. preliminary data for 2002 show a significant increase in the infant mortality rate to 7.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, the first rise in the infant mortality rate since 1958. The increase in infant mortality was concentrated in the neonatal period, particularly in deaths occurring within seven days of birth. Partially edited fetal deat...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. infant mortality rate increased from 6.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2001 to 7.0 in 2002, the first increase in more than 40 years. From 2001 to 2002 infant mortality rates increased for very low birthweight infants as well as for preterm and very preterm infants. Although infant mortality rates for very low birthweight infants...
Article
This report presents preliminary data for 2003 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, tobacco use, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on nearly 99 percent of births for 2003...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents the number and rate of U.S. births for 10-14 year olds, for 1990-2002 by race and Hispanic origin and by State. Pregnancy risk factors and outcomes by selected maternal and infant characteristics are shown. Tabular and graphical descriptions of births and infant deaths to 10-14 year olds are presented based on information repor...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2002 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco, and alcohol use); medical...
Article
This report presents preliminary data for 2002 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on nearly 98 percent of births for 2002. The records...
Article
To examine trends in multiple births conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) in the United States between 1997 and 2000 and to estimate the proportion of all US multiple births attributable to ART use. We analyzed population-based data of 109 519 live-born infants who were conceived in the United States using ART and born between 199...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2001 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco, and alcohol use); medical...
Article
Induction of labour is one of the fastest growing medical procedures in the United States. In 1998, 19.2% of all US births were a product of induced labour, more than twice the 9.0% in 1989. Induction of labour has been efficacious in the management of post-term pregnancy and in expediting delivery when the mother or infant is sufficiently ill to m...
Article
This report presents preliminary data for 2001 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2001. The records are weighted...
Article
A focus group convened at a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stillbirth Conference discussed issues related to vital statistics as a data source on fetal mortality. Fetal death is a tragic occurence and part of the continuum of pregnancy outcomes. A primary source of data is the National Vital Statistics System fetal death component, which is ro...
Article
The most comprehensive source of US data on fetal deaths of 20 gestational weeks or greater is available through the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). The NVSS is a collaborative effort between the independent reporting areas (the individual States and the territories), and the federal government or its agent, the Centers for Disease Control...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents 2000 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco and alcohol use); medical c...
Article
Full-text available
Context Multiple births account for an increasing percentage of all low-birth-weight infants, preterm births, and infant mortality in the United States. Since 1981, the percentage of women with multiple births who received intensive prenatal care (defined as a high number of visits, exceeding the recommendation of the American College of Obstetric...
Article
Many positive trends in the health of Americans continued into 1997. In 1997, the preliminary birth rate declined slightly to 14.6 births per 1000 population, and the fertility rate, births per 1000 women 15 to 44 years of age, was unchanged from the previous year (65.3). These indicators suggest that the downward trend in births observed since the...