Joy O'Keefe

Joy O'Keefe
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences

PhD, Wildlife and Fisheries Biology

About

53
Publications
9,298
Reads
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586
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
489 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
Much of our lab's work is conducted over large areas and long periods of time, giving us valuable information on the distribution and population status of imperiled bats. We have a primary research focus on bat use of anthropogenic structures, including bridges, buildings, and bat boxes. We have investigated the ecosystem services of forest-dwelling bats and bat health and ecology in managed forests. An emerging area of work is bats' potential for to pest control in large-scale agriculture.
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
Indiana State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2011 - present
Indiana State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Full-text available
Forests provide crucial foraging and roosting habitat to many bat species, and the gradual loss of forests is among the principal threats to global bat diversity. Forests that persist in the face of land use change are those that are managed for a variety of uses, including recreation, hunting, timber production, and wildlife conservation. Thus, un...
Article
Bats suppress insect populations in agricultural ecosystems, yet the question of whether bats initiate trophic cascades in forests is mainly unexplored. We used a field experiment to test the hypothesis that insectivorous bats reduce defoliation through the top‐down suppression of forest‐defoliating insects. We excluded bats from 20 large, sub‐cano...
Preprint
Full-text available
As demand for food increases, agricultural production is poised to increase dramatically. Pesticides are commonly used to maintain high crop yield, though they have several drawbacks, including reduced efficacy over time and harmful effects to human and ecosystem health. Bats are highly effective predators of crop pests and have great potential to...
Article
Mobile acoustic surveys allow estimates of overall bat activity, relative abundance, and species richness across large areas. Protocols for estimating relative abundance recommend using non‐sinuous routes to ensure individual bats are only recorded once. We conducted mobile acoustic surveys along 12 sinuous routes in the mountainous terrain of nort...
Article
Full-text available
As demand for food increases, agricultural production is poised to increase dramatically. Pesticides are commonly used to maintain high crop yield, though they have several drawbacks, including reduced efficacy over time and harmful effects to human and ecosystem health. Bats are highly effective predators of crop pests and have great potential to...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In temperate forests, insectivorous bats need to use variable hunting strategies as prey availability fluctuates during the growing season. At sites with variable amounts of forested habitat, sympatric bat species may exhibit high dietary overlap, but mechanisms of coexistence are unknown. We analyzed the diets of sympatric Myotis septentr...
Article
1. Bats play crucial ecological roles and provide valuable ecosystem services, yet many populations face serious threats from various ecological disturbances. The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) aims to use its technology infrastructure to assess status and trends of bat populations, while developing innovative and community‐driven co...
Article
Full-text available
Bat box microclimates vary spatially and temporally in temperature suitability. This heterogeneity subjects roosting bats to a variety of thermoregulatory challenges (e.g. heat and cold stress). Understanding how different bat box designs, landscape placements, weather and bat use affect temperature suitability and energy expenditure is critical to...
Article
Bat populations face numerous threats, including the loss of forests in which they roost and forage. Present-day forests are commonly managed for timber harvesting, recreation, and wildlife. Understanding bat responses to forest management is crucial for balancing the conservation of endangered bats and forest restoration. We used radio telemetry t...
Article
1 Thermal refuges are widely used by animals of all taxonomic groups and are critical to survival in severe weather. 2 Human activities are reducing the availability of natural refuges; consequently, artificial refuges are used as conservation management tools, particularly for bats. 3 Published box evaluations are generally incomplete, omitting...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial roosting structures (e.g. bat boxes) are widely used as conservation tools for many animals, including bats. Although it is relatively easy to monitor bat box temperatures, we know little about the effect of design on temperatures within a box. Box microclimate affects energy budgets and physiological processes and, thus, suitability as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bergmann's Rule--which posits that larger animals live in colder areas--is thought to influence variation in body size within species across space and time, but evidence for this claim is mixed. We tested four competing hypotheses for spatio-temporal variation in body size within bat species during the past two decades across North America. Bayesia...
Article
Heterotherms vary their use of torpor and choice of refugia to deal with energetic stresses such as reproductive activity and extreme weather. We hypothesized that a temperate-region bat would vary its use of heterothermy in response to air temperature but use of torpor would also be influenced by reproductive stage and roost choice. To test this h...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Diverse species assemblages theoretically partition along multiple resource axes to maintain niche separation between all species. Temporal partitioning has received less attention than spatial or dietary partitioning but may facilitate niche separation when species overlap along other resource axes. We conducted a broad‐scale acoustic stu...
Article
Full-text available
Bat boxes are commonly deployed to mitigate the loss of bat roosting habitat. Due to a dearth of microclimate research, numerous untested commercially available bat boxes, and the uncertain impacts of a rapidly changing climate, the overheating risk presented to bats by bat boxes is largely unquantified. Based on limited research, we know many boxe...
Article
Full-text available
Context Conservation for the Indiana bat ( Myotis sodalis) , a federally endangered species in the United States of America, is typically focused on local maternity sites; however, the species is a regional migrant, interacting with the environment at multiple spatial scales. Hierarchical levels of management may be necessary, but we have limited k...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization may negatively affect forest obligate bat species. We compared the roosting behavior of federally endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in a fragmented site, located on the leading edge of a developing urban area (Indianapolis, IN), with a site of relatively contiguous forest cover in Indiana, USA, during the summers of 2013–2015. B...
Article
Full-text available
White-nose syndrome (WNS), an epizootic disease caused by an invasive fungus, threatens bat populations across North America. WNS-induced changes in summer bat populations could impact functional diversity. We assessed the shift in relative abundance within an assemblage of bats in a temperate southern Appalachian forest in North Carolina and Tenne...
Article
Full-text available
Confirming presence and distribution of a species is necessary for effective conservation. However, obtaining robust occupancy estimates and confidently identifying factors important to occupancy may be difficult for rare and elusive species. Further, in surveys to assess presence, false-positive detections bias results; however, false-positive occ...
Article
There is an intense interest in the effects of timber harvest on forest-dwelling bats due to the potential for timber harvest to reduce available habitat. Knowledge of these effects would be especially significant for the conservation of threatened and endangered bat species, many of which are forest obligates. We conducted a study to determine how...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding microhabitat preferences of animals is critical for effective conservation, especially for temperate-zone bats, which receive fitness benefits from selecting optimal roost microhabitats. Artificial roost structures are increasingly being used in conservation efforts for at-risk bat species. To evaluate microhabitat differences in comm...
Data
Model results for availability. Model results (parameter estimate, standard error, t value, and p value) of the most parsimonious analysis of covariance describing the effects of weather parameters on mean hourly temperature availability with the covariate of roost type (bark mimic, bat box, and rocket box). (DOCX)
Data
Mean temperatures by position. Mean ± SD (range) of temperatures (°C) recorded from 21 March–7 September 2016 by each iButton thermochron positioned throughout three adjacent artificial roosts (bat box, rocket box, and bark mimic) where bats were excluded. (DOCX)
Data
Model results for variability. Model results (parameter estimate, standard error, t value, and p value) from an analysis of covariance of weather parameters on daily roost temperature variability with the covariate of roost type (bark mimic, bat box, and rocket box). (DOCX)
Data
Boxplots of temperature by position. Temperatures (°C) recorded from 21 March–7 September 2016 by each iButton thermochron positioned throughout three adjacent artificial roosts (bat box, rocket box, and bark mimic) where bats were excluded. Position indicated by three-letter code: height (B = bottom, M = middle, T = top) and intercardinal directio...
Data
Model results for bat preference. Model results (random and fixed effects) from the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) of the maximum weekly emergence count by roost type (bark mimic, bat box, and rocket box) with cluster as a random effect. (DOCX)
Article
Temperate-zone bats likely feed in an environment with few dangerous nocturnal predators, suggesting a life largely free of the antipredator trade-offs faced by most other animals. Such bats may, however, encounter dangerous diurnal raptors with an early start to their nightly feeding, and thus may face predation-related trade-offs in deciding when...
Article
Economic prosperity and globalization are major drivers for development of international airports, but aviation-oriented businesses and residential developments are a by-product of airport business models. Among the multitude of planning and development considerations is the habitat needs of endangered wildlife species. The authors analyzed foragin...
Data
Supplemental file for: Divoll, T. J., Brown, V. A., Kinne, J., McCracken, G. F., & O'Keefe, J. M. (2018). Disparities in second‐generation DNA metabarcoding results exposed with accessible and repeatable workflows. Molecular ecology resources, 18(3), 590-601.
Article
Different second-generation sequencing technologies may have taxon-specific biases when DNA metabarcoding prey in predator feces. Our major objective was to examine differences in prey recovery from bat guano across two different sequencing workflows using the same fecal DNA extracts. We compared results between the Ion Torrent PGM and the Illumina...
Article
Full-text available
Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) is a federally threatened insectivorous bat facing devastating population declines due to white-nose syndrome (WNS). Our study provides pre-WNS (2009) capture rates and roosting-behavior data for Northern Long-eared Bats in the southern Appalachians. We conducted mist-net surveys at 37 sites and radi...
Article
Many temperate-climate bats migrate tens to hundreds of kilometers from hibernacula to summer habitat each spring and in the opposite direction each fall. Understanding the timing of migration can help reduce the risk of disturbance via anthropogenic activities, guide effective management, and determine future impacts of a changing climate. We exam...
Article
The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), a species that is federally endangered in the U.S., is being impacted by white-nose syndrome and habitat loss across much of its range. A better understanding of summer roost ecology of the species will enable us to develop management strategies that promote summer survival for breeding adult females and their pups...
Article
Full-text available
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease suspected to have infected Indiana caves in the winter of 2010–2011. This disease places energetic strains on cave-hibernating bats by forcing them to wake and use energy reserves. It has caused .5.5 million bat deaths across eastern North America, and may be the driving force for extinction o...
Article
Full-text available
We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appal...
Data
Vegetation codes for landcover types on USFS and NPS lands. Vegetation codes for landcover types on USDA Forest Service (USFS) and National Park Service (NPS) lands. Codes were inputs in models developed using 54 of 76 known roost locations for female and juvenile Myotis sodalis roosts from 2008–2012 in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North C...
Article
Full-text available
While numerous methods exist for estimating abundance when detection is imperfect, these methods may not be appropriate due to logistical difficulties or unrealistic assumptions. In particular, if highly mobile taxa are frequently absent from survey locations, methods that estimate a probability of detection conditional on presence will generate bi...
Article
Bats are highly social, but the study of bat social behavior was limited until recently due to technological limitations. Most of bat behavior is imperceptible to our senses, including both their use of ultrasound and their nocturnal activities. During the maternity seasons (May–August) of 2013 and 2014 near Plainfield, Indiana, we recorded Indiana...
Article
Manufacturers of acoustic bat detectors use proprietary microphones with different frequency responses, sensitivities, and directionality. Researchers implement various waterproofing strategies to protect microphones from inclement weather. These factors cause different detector models to have unique sampling areas and likely results in dissimilar...
Article
Full-text available
Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) are capable of exploiting ephemeral resources in structurally complex, interior forests. Consequently, surveying for this species is difficult, and even in areas harboring known populations, documenting presence remains a challenge. We aimed to determine what factors affected probability of detection (p) and site occup...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge and understanding of bat habitat associations and the responses of bats to forest management are critical for effective bat conservation and management. Few studies have been conducted on bat habitat use in the southeast, despite the high number of endangered and sensitive species in the region. Our objective was to identify important loc...
Article
Riparian zones are important to bats, which use them for foraging, roosting, and drinking. To predict effects of timber harvests in riparian areas on bats, more information is needed on the functional width of riparian zones for bats, and how bats respond to forest removal near small perennial streams. From May to August (2004–2007), we studied bat...
Article
Many aspects of animal behaviour are affected by real-time changes in the risk of predation. This conclusion holds for virtually all taxa and ecological systems studied, but does it hold for bats? Bats are poorly represented in the literature on anti-predator behaviour, which may reflect a lack of nocturnal predators specialized on bats. If bats ac...
Chapter
Early successional habitats are important foraging and commuting sites for the 14 species of bats that inhabit the Central Hardwood Region, especially larger open-adapted species such as hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), red bats (L. borealis), silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Forest gaps, small o...
Article
Full-text available
We report a maternity colony of the rare bat, Myotis leibii (Eastern Small-footed Myotis), in a high-elevation cabin in western North Carolina. Because Eastern Small-footed Myotis maternity colonies may typically roost in rock crevices, they are difficult to observe and are not well documented. This cabin provides a variety of roost locations (e.g....
Article
Full-text available
Although roost sites are critically important to bats, we have few data on macrohabitat factors that affect roost selection by foliage-roosting bats. Such data are needed so that forest managers can make informed decisions regarding conservation of bat roosts. Our objective was to examine roost selection by non-reproductive eastern pipistrelles (Pe...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives of this 5-year study (1996–2000) were to determine whether Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) showed short-or long-term fidelity to particular roost trees or areas and to develop broadly applicable definitions for types of fidelity by bats. We radiotracked 60 Indiana bats captured near a hibernaculum in the Daniel Boone National Forest, Pulas...

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