Joshua M Pearce

Joshua M Pearce
The University of Western Ontario | UWO · Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Ph.D.
Wanted: Graduate students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing + recycling.

About

594
Publications
406,494
Reads
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20,690
Citations
Citations since 2017
291 Research Items
15226 Citations
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Introduction
I run the Free Appropriate Sustainable Technology (FAST) research group. We use open source appropriate technology (OSAT) to find collaborative solutions to problems in sustainability and to reduce poverty. My research spans areas of engineering of solar photovoltaic technology, open hardware, and distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) using RepRap 3-D printing. I am interested in making technologies that drive sustainable development - open source appropriate technologies.
Additional affiliations
May 2019 - May 2022
University of Lorraine
Position
  • Professor
May 2018 - May 2021
Aalto University
Position
  • Professor
August 2017 - May 2018
Aalto University
Position
  • Chair

Publications

Publications (594)
Preprint
Canada has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by increasing the non-emitting share of electricity generation to 90% by 2030. As solar energy costs have plummeted, agrivoltaics (co-development of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and agriculture) provide an economic path to these goals. This study quantifies agrivoltaic potential in...
Preprint
In the event of an abrupt sunlight reduction scenario there is a time window that occurs between when food stores would likely run out for many countries (~6 months or less) and ~1 year when resilient foods are scaled up. A promising temporary resilient food is leaf protein concentrate (LPC). Although it is possible to extract LPC from tree biomass...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the Canada federal government has invested over $2.6 billion developing health information technology (HIT), all 10 provinces still have their own separate HIT systems, which are non-interoperable, expensive, and inconsistent. After first reviewing how these systems operate, this paper analyzes the costs and savings of integrating the comm...
Article
Full-text available
Terrorists have worked directly with tobacco companies and used tobacco sales to fund traditional terrorist activities. This familiarity with tobacco, coupled with the high mortality rate of tobacco indicates terrorists may use tobacco investing as a means of covert legal killings (CLK), which refers to the terrorist intention of mass killing in a...
Article
Full-text available
As Alberta increases conventional solar power generation, land-use conflicts with agriculture increase. A solution that enables low-carbon electricity generation and continued (in some cases, increased) agricultural output is the co-locating of solar photovoltaics (PV) and agriculture: agrivoltaics. This review analyzes policies that impact the gro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To support the broader realization of agrivoltaics in the U.S., this research provides a multidimensional assessment of the socio-political barriers and opportunities for development. A synthesis of five empirical studies is presented: 1) an investigation of the impediments to farmer adoption; 2) an exploration of development challenges from the pe...
Article
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Patents can be granted for unoriginal inventions if prior art outside of the patent literature is missed such as free and open source software and hardware. The Open Source Hardware Association created a certification database that could be used for prior art, but it misses inventions that are not commercialized. To capture these technologies, this...
Article
Full-text available
Solar photovoltaic (PV) growth can be stalled due to social acceptance. Agrivoltaics can improve social acceptance by enabling dual use of land. The most popular type of agrivoltaics in North America is grazing sheep under conventional PV farms. The environmental benefits of this integrated agrivoltaic system are unknown, so this ISO-compliant life...
Article
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Changes in science funders’ mandates have resulted in advances in open access to data, software, and publications. Research capacity, however, is still unequally distributed worldwide, hindering the impact of these efforts. We argue that to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), open science policies must shift focus from products to pro...
Article
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One of the UN’s 17 sustainable development goals is to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition by 2030. This goal will be missed. Global hunger is still highly prevalent. In 2021, about 821 million people experience undernourishment every day and more are at risk. Is this necessary? This article calculates the investments needed fo...
Article
Full-text available
Solar powering the increasing fleet of electrical vehicles (EV) demands more surface area than may be available for photovoltaic (PV)-powered buildings. Parking lot solar canopies can provide the needed area to charge EVs but are substantially costlier than roof- or ground-mounted PV systems. To provide a low-cost PV parking lot canopy to supply EV...
Article
Full-text available
Disabled People deal with a series of barriers that limit their inclusion, empowerment, well-being, and role in society with a special emphasis in low and medium-income countries. One of these barriers is concerning the accessibility and affordability of assistive technologies (ATs) that help to enhance the quality of life of these persons. In this...
Article
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Proprietary metal 3D printing is still relegated to relatively expensive systems that have been constructed over years of expensive trial-and-error to obtain optimum 3D printing settings. Low-cost open-source metal 3D printers can potentially democratize metal additive manufacturing; however, significant resources are required to redevelop optimal...
Article
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This study reports on the second harmonic generation (SHG) of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles synthesized by a low-cost and easily-accessible sol-gel hydrothermal method at different temperatures (100-250 °C). According to the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, all of the prepared samples had meta-phase without a centre of symmetry, and...
Preprint
Full-text available
As Alberta increases solar power generation, land use conflicts with agriculture increase. A solution that enables low-carbon electricity generation and continued (in some cases increased) agricultural output is the co-locating of solar photovoltaics and agriculture: agrivoltaics. This study reviews policies that impact the growth of agri-voltaics...
Article
Full-text available
Agrivoltaic systems integrate agricultural production with solar photovoltaic electricity generation. Given the proven technical, economic, and environmental co-benefits provided by agrivoltaic systems, increased proliferation is anticipated, which necessitates accounting for the nuances of community resistance to solar development on farmland and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The application of computer vision and machine learning methods in the field of additive manufacturing (AM) for semantic segmentation of the structural elements of 3-D printed products will improve real-time failure analysis systems and can potentially reduce the number of defects by enabling in situ corrections. This work demonstrates the possibil...
Article
Full-text available
Solar photovoltaic (PV) deployments are growing rapidly to provide a sustainable source of electricity, but their output is strongly impacted by environmental phenomena such as soiling and low irradiance conditions induced by haze from urban sources, dust, and bushfire smoke. This review examines the effects of haze on PV performance, highlights si...
Article
Full-text available
The world is facing a climate emergency. We must reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and their export and, instead, develop renewable and efficient energy. Electrification of heating with heat pumps can radically reduce natural gas use, electrical vehicles cut the need for oil, and energy efficiency and renewable energy can help shoulder the greate...
Article
Full-text available
In many developing countries, plastic waste management is left to citizens. This usually results in landfilling or hazardous open-air burning, leading to emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. An easy, profitable, and clean method of processing and transforming the waste into value is required. In this context, this study p...
Article
Full-text available
To accelerate scientific progress by advancing the spread of open access and free and open source software and hardware in academia, this study surveyed university professors in Canada to determine their willingness accept open source (OS) endowed chair professorships. To obtain such an open source endowed chair, in addition to demonstrated excelle...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a novel policy to provide incentives for open science: to offer open-source (OS)-endowed professorships. To hold an open-source-endowed chair, in addition to demonstrated excellence in their field, professors would need to agree to (1) ensuring all of their writing is distributed via open access in some way and (2) releasing all...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many developing countries, plastic waste management is left to citizens. This usually results in hazardous landfilling or open-air burning, leading to emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. An easy, profitable, and clean method of processing and transforming the waste into value is required. In this context, this study p...
Preprint
Using bolts through the back of a solar photovoltaic (PV) module frames to attach them to racking is time consuming and awkward, so commercial PV installations use clamping technologies on the front. Conventional and proprietary clamps are costly and demand access to supply chains for uncommon mechanical components that limits deployment velocity....
Article
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Respiratory diseases pose an increasing socio-economic burden worldwide given their high prevalence and their elevated morbidity and mortality. Medical devices play an important role in managing acute and chronic respiratory failure, including diagnosis, monitoring, and providing artificial ventilation. Current commercially available respiratory de...
Article
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aperta-accessum,which: i) harvests names and emails from adepartments faculty webpage, ii) identifies scholars’ Open Researcherand Contributor IDs (ORCID iDs), iii)obtains digital object identifiers (DOIs) of publications for each scholar, iv) checks for existingcopies in an institution’s OA repository, v) identifies the legal opportunitiesto provi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Solar powering the increasing fleet of electrical vehicles (EV) demands more surface area than may be available for photovoltaic (PV) powered buildings. Parking lot solar canopies can provide the needed area to charge EVs, but are substantially costlier than roof- or ground-mounted PV systems. To provide a lower-cost PV parking lot canopy to supply...
Article
Full-text available
Access to vacuum systems is limited because of economic costs. A rapidly growing approach to reduce the costs of scientific equipment is to combine open-source hardware methods with digital distributed manufacturing with 3D printers. Although high-end 3D printers can manufacture vacuum components, again, the cost of access to tooling is economicall...
Article
Most polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste is landfilled or pollutes the environment. Additionally, global food production must increase to support the growing population. This article explores the feasibility of using microorganisms in an industrial system that upcycles PET into edible microbial protein powder to solve both problems simul...
Article
Full-text available
As the additive manufacturing industry grows, it is compounding the global plastic waste problem. Distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) offers an economic solution to this challenge, but it has been relegated to either small-volume 3D printers (limiting waste recycling throughput) or expensive industrial machines (limiting accessi...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the additive manufacturing industry grows, it is compounding the global plastic waste problem. Distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) offers an economic solution to this challenge, but it has been relegated to either small-volume 3D printers (limiting waste recycling throughput) or expensive industrial machines (limiting accessi...
Article
Full-text available
Roughly a third of the surgical procedures the World Bank is prioritizing as essential and cost-effective are orthopedic procedures. Yet in much of the developing world, prohibitive costs are a substantial barrier to universal access. One area where this is clear is surgical fracture tables, which generally cost >US$200,000 new. With the advent of...
Article
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The development of 100% renewable electricity (RE) systems play a pivotal role in ensuring climate stability. Many municipalities blessed with wealth, an educated and progressive citizenry, and large RE resources, have already reached 100% RE generation. Impoverished municipalities in unwelcoming environments both politically and climatically (e.g....
Article
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Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA) plastic and stamp sand are both waste materials that impose a significant burden on the environment. This study investigates the potential of using stamp sand and ASA plastic composite as the pavement structure. It should be noted that this new material does not use the asphalt binder. A series of lab tests usua...
Article
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Global catastrophes such as a supervolcanic eruption, asteroid impact, or nuclear winter could cause global agricultural collapse due to reduced sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. The human civilization’s food production system is unprepared to respond to such events, but methane single cell protein (SCP) could be a key part of the solution. Cu...
Article
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Fixed-tilt mechanical racking, consisting of proprietary aluminum extrusions, can dominate the capital costs of small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Recent design research has shown that wood-racking can decrease the capital costs of small systems by more than 75% in North America. To determine if wood racking provides enough savings to ena...
Article
Full-text available
Albedo is the percentage of radiation that a given surface reflects. Its study is important to evaluate thermal effects in buildings, generation capacity with bifacial panels, among others. In this work, the design and validation of a low-cost mobile albedometer is presented, which measures the reflection in 8 spectral bands in the visible, additio...
Article
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To facilitate future novel devices incorporating rare earth metal films and III-V semiconductors on Si substrates, this study investigates the mechanisms of growth via molecular beam epitaxy of gadolinium (Gd) on aluminum nitride (AlN) by determining the impact of substrate temperature on microstructure. The Gd films underwent extensive surface ana...
Article
Full-text available
Although solar photovoltaic (PV) module costs have been declining aggressively there has been only modest capital cost improvements for the balance of systems (BoS) in general, and for racking in particular. For small-scale PV systems racking can make up the majority of the capital expenditures. To overcome this challenge, in this study a novel par...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the benefits and the economic advantages of agrivoltaics, capital costs limit deployment velocity. One recent potential solution to this challenge is to radically reduce the cost of racking materials by using existing farm fencing as vertical photovoltaic (PV) racking. This type of fenced-based PV system is inherently electrically challengi...
Article
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There has been a recent surge in interest in the more accurate snow loss estimates for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems as large-scale deployments move into northern latitudes. Preliminary results show bifacial modules may clear snow faster than monofacial PV. This study analyzes snow losses on these two types of systems using empirical hourly data...
Article
Full-text available
Although small solar photovoltaic (PV) systems avoid most soft costs, they still have a relatively high $/W value due to racking costs. In order to fulfill the promise of small-scale plug-and-play solar, a do-it-yourself PV rack design is provided and analyzed here for six criteria: (1) made from locally-accessible renewable materials, (2) 25-year...
Article
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It appears that open access (OA) academic publishing is better for science because it provides frictionless access to make significant advancements in knowledge. OA also benefits individual researchers by providing the widest possible audience and concomitant increased citation rates. OA publishing rates are growing fast as increasing numbers of fu...
Article
Full-text available
Free and open-source hardware (FOSH) development has been shown to increase innovation and reduce economic costs. This article reviews the opportunity to use FOSH as a sanction to undercut imports and exports from a target criminal country. A formal methodology is presented for selecting strategic national investments in FOSH development to improve...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents an open source method for detecting 3D printing anomalies by comparing images of printed layers from a stationary monocular camera with G-code-based reference images of an ideal process generated with Blender, an open source free physics rendering engine. Recognition of visual deviations was accomplished by analyzing the similar...
Article
Full-text available
Global agricultural catastrophes, which include nuclear winter and abrupt climate change, could have long-term consequences on humanity such as the collapse and nonrecovery of civilization. Using Monte Carlo (probabilistic) models, we analyze the long-term cost-effectiveness of resilient foods (alternative foods) - roughly those independent of sunl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Free and open source hardware (FOSH) development has been shown to increase innovation and reduce economic costs. This article reviews the opportunity to use FOSH like a sanction to undercut imports and exports from a target criminal country. A formal methodology is presented for selecting strategic national investments in FOSH development to impro...
Article
Full-text available
Well-intentioned regulations to protect Canada’s most productive farmland restrict large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) development. The recent innovation of agrivoltaics, which is the co-development of land for both PV and agriculture, makes these regulations obsolete. Burgeoning agrivoltaics research has shown agricultural benefits, including incr...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring climatic conditions is a fundamental task for a wide array of scientific and practical fields. Weather variables change depending on position and time, especially in tropical zones without seasons. Additionally, the increasing development of precision or smart agriculture makes it necessary to improve the measurement systems while widely...
Article
Full-text available
Earlier research found that 3D morphologies developed using a low‐cost microwave synthesis technique were not retained during the transformation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) by annealing titanium glycerolate (TGy) powder resulting in low photoelectron conversion efficiencies in dye‐sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) devices. This study overcame the challe...
Article
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Terminal lakes are disappearing worldwide because of direct and indirect human activities. Floating photovoltaics (FPV) are a synergistic system with increased energy output because of water cooling, while the FPV reduces water evaporation. This study explores how low-cost foam-based floatovoltaic systems can mitigate the disappearance of natural l...
Article
Full-text available
The measurement of outdoor environmental and climatic variables is needed for many applications such as precision agriculture, environmental pollution monitoring, and the study of ecosystems. Some sensors deployed for these purposes such as temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and carbon dioxide sensors require protection from clim...
Article
Full-text available
Abrupt sunlight reduction scenarios (ASRS) following catastrophic events, such as a nuclear war, a large volcanic eruption or an asteroid strike, could prompt global agricultural collapse. There are low-cost foods that could be made available in an ASRS: resilient foods. Nutritionally adequate combinations of these resilient foods are investigated...
Article
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Harvesting solar energy using photovoltaic (PV) cells is the simplest, efficient, and reliable approach to power marine electronics. Installing PV above or under water provides cooling and cleaning to sustain the power conversion efficiency. Previous work on commercially available silicon-based PV quantified the performance of PV with different sub...
Article
Full-text available
Multichannel pipettes are used widely to accelerate research and testing in life sciences laboratories and within the biomedical industry. Commercial multichannel pipettes cost several hundred to thousand U.S. dollars and are not accessible in many areas. This study utilizes an open source and digital distributed manufacturing model to design a USD...
Article
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This study presents a life cycle analysis (LCA) of a 10 MW foam-based floatovoltaics (FPV) plant installed on Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.