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Joshua Palfreman

Joshua Palfreman
Freelance/Independent

MSc. Environmental Management

About

22
Publications
39,964
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16
Citations
Citations since 2016
11 Research Items
16 Citations
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Publications

Publications (22)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Technical Report
Full-text available
Waste recycling in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is not spearheaded by any government, private or civil society initiative but rather by the efforts of an informal army of self-employed, micro-entrepreneurial waste pickers. Such a substantial human resource can play an instrumental role in cleaning up Tanzania's capital if sufficiently understood and map...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dar es Salaam, Africa’s third fastest growing city, has a serious waste problem. Situated on the shores of the Indian Ocean the city has all the potential to be one of the most beautiful in the world, instead, it is the world’s eighth filthiest. This report comprehensively examines Dar es Salaam’s complex waste management and recycling situation....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Every year almost 1.3 million people die worldwide as a result of road crashes. 90% of these road crashes occur in developing countries, despite having less than half of the world’s registered motor vehicles. In developing countries, road crashes are the leading cause of death for persons aged between five and twenty-nine and the number one killer...
Presentation
Full-text available
New rules, thought leadership and guiding principles for expanding solid waste management service provision, in unplanned settlements, employing open-source drone and GIS tools
Preprint
Full-text available
Beyond good intentions and idealism—how to pay for waste management and recycling in developing economies through innovative and unorthodox fiscal instruments.
Preprint
Full-text available
Blanket single use plastic bans and ambitious EPR mechanisms are rarely effectively enforced in developing countries, where a grey and informal economy makes up the vast majority of commerce and enforcement capacity is weak and easily compromised by political bureaucracy. Legal and environmental advocates should instead turn their attention towards...
Preprint
Full-text available
This document seeks to serve as a guide/report on the business model canvas approach to the 'block' collection model. UNHABITAT provides the following as a broad definition of the a block collection model for waste management. "In this system, a collection vehicle travels a predetermined route at prescribed intervals, usually every two to three day...
Preprint
Full-text available
Index insurance, popular in developing world economies for protecting farmers against the perils of weather-related phenomena could provide a more scaled and effective fiscal remedy to the woes of the plastic recycling sector.
Article
Full-text available
This report has demonstrated that the mandated integration of basic vehicle safety technology in new vehicles sold on South Africa’s auto market will not adversely impact the welcoming business environment of South Africa or depress middle class South African’s ability to access affordable mobility solutions. It has additionally demonstrated that m...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle safety standards offer a novel solution to prevent road crashes, and to mitigate their impact. The presence of airbags and electronic stability systems, for example, reduces the risk of fatality by up to 35% in a road crash; the use of a seatbelt for rear-seat passengers reduces this risk by 75%. Unfortunately, South Africa’s lax legislativ...
Article
Full-text available
Although currently the least urbanised continent and often overlooked as a region permanently tainted with war and poverty, local innovators can leapfrog to proud new frontiers in Africa - if they embrace particular qualities, says Joshua Palfreman.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Every year almost 1.3 million people die worldwide as a result of road crashes. 90% of these road crashes occur in developing countries, even though these nations have less than half of the world's registered motor vehicles. In developing countries, road crashes are the leading cause of death for persons aged between five and twenty-nine and the nu...
Article
Full-text available
http://www.cityscapesdigital.net/2015/12/09/rising-dumps/
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Market systems development or M4P is an approach to poverty reduction widely used by many development agencies around the world 1. The approach provides a unique framework for conceptualising 'market systems' which are often complex, dynamic, multi-stakeholder, and multi-functioning systems. Waste management systems in emerging countries are comple...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Situated on the shore of the Indian Ocean, Mombasa—East Africa's largest port and Kenya's second largest city—has the potential to be one of the most economically and environmentally advanced urban areas in Africa. Instead, the rapidly expanding municipality is struggling. With over 40% youth unemployment and a tourist economy jeopardised by region...

Questions

Questions (8)
Question
I am struggling to find any reference or resource online for Index Insurance that could be tailored for the recycling industry (e.g. like rainfall index insurance for farmers).
There is a clear correlation globally with deviations for standard recyclable commodity pricing (e.g. relation between trash bans or the price of crude and the potential trade value of PET/HDPE plastics).
Would appreciate any leads on this, even if non-academic.
Question
Traditional sewerage tech/infrastructure is very energy and water intensive. What are some modified forms of sewage tech/infrastructure, that have lower energy requirements or can source electricity from sewage passively (e.g. methane capture)? Looking for both IP/commercial and public domain examples that are fitting for developing country urban contexts. 
Question
I am a WASH and urban development specialist living and working in East Africa. I am attempting to scope out “temporary” solutions to sanitation and waste challenges in large unplanned settlements in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi and am looking to receive feedback/critique/advice. I understand these solutions do not sound politically/technologically correct, but with local resource limitations, I seek to identify low-cost, non-motorised and intuitive methods that can be implemented quickly on the ground.
What solutions can be sourced locally, easily and affordably to mitigate the risks of high fluoride levels in tap/well water (e.g. bone char, condensation, boiling)? Mechanised and complex solutions (while noted as more effective) are unrealistic in local contexts due to costs, lack of skills, etc. 
Question
I am a WASH and urban development specialist living and working in East Africa. I am attempting to scope out “temporary” solutions to sanitation and waste challenges in large unplanned settlements in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi and am looking to receive feedback/critique/advice. I understand these solutions do not sound politically/technologically correct, but with local resource limitations, I seek to identify low-cost, non-motorised and intuitive methods that can be implemented quickly on the ground.
I am interested in what role a mix of powder soap, sand and ash could play in enabling schools to supply affordable options to their pupils to wash their hands. This is already a common practice in East Africa, but it is unclear what the optimal mix/composition of these three items should be. Does anyone else have recommendations on the optimal composition or an alternative item, that is free/locally sourced that could be mixed?  
Question
I am a WASH and urban development specialist living and working in East Africa. I am attempting to scope out “temporary” solutions to sanitation and waste challenges in large unplanned settlements in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi and am looking to receive feedback/critique/advice. I understand these solutions do not sound politically/technologically correct, but with local resource limitations, I seek to identify low-cost, non-motorised and intuitive methods that can be implemented quickly on the ground.
I am interested in what role EM-1/Bokashi could play, purely as a waste management solution in respect of both organic (market waste) and liquid waste (faecal sludge). The purpose is NOT to produce compost, but to mitigate odour, pests and the transmission of disease.
1. Could EM-1/Bokashi bran be added to large municipal containers (e.g. skips) to mitigate odour, pests, disease transmission? 2.mCould EM-1/Bokashi bran be dropped into pit latrines to mitigate odour, pests, disease transmission?
2. Could EM-1/Bokashi bran be dropped into pit latrines to mitigate odour, pests, disease transmission?
Question
I am trying to develop a waste management model to support and prove the following. I am having difficult sourcing relevant literature. 
1. That source separation/recycling at source results in higher quality paper products and more paper overall that can be recovered/recycled (i.e. as the paper has not decomposed or been damaged). 
2. That various waste paper products rapidly decompose and lose significant value after becoming wet, dirty and compacted. 
For context, the paper waste being recycled is taking place in a tropical country. Humidity rates (70%), paper moisture content rate (50%). 
Question
What impact would a waste/trash boom potentially have if spread across the entire width of a river/waterway? The river/waterway would not be used as a transport artery, by recreational or commercial boats. I am concerned about the impact it may have on animal/bird life along the river. 
Question
Most studies and guidelines I have found provide estimates on waste origin (e.g. from tourists, from ships, from the port, from dumpsites) based on the indexing of materials found and spatial analysis. Is there no way to examine specific waste items in a lab (e.g. chemical, physical analysis) to determine origin? 

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Projects (2)
Archived project