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Joshua Patrick Nixon

Joshua Patrick Nixon
Minneapolis VA Health Care System · Research

Ph.D.

About

26
Publications
2,958
Reads
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1,001
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2021 - present
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2015 - present
Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System
Position
  • Deputy Associate Chief of Staff, Research Service
January 2012 - present
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (26)
Article
Full-text available
Objective Chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) is an idiopathic disease affecting thousands of U.S. Veterans exposed to open-air burn pits emitting aerosolized particulate matter (PM) while serving in Central and Southwest Asia and Africa. Exposure to burn pit PM can result in profound biologic consequences including chronic fatigue, impaired cogniti...
Article
Objective A porcine model was used to study diastolic dysfunction in hibernating myocardium (HM) and recovery with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods HM was induced in Yorkshire-Landrace juvenile swine (n=30) by placing a c-constrictor on left anterior descending (LAD) artery causing chronic myocardial ischemia without infarction. At 1...
Article
Full-text available
The microglial fatty-acid-binding protein 4-uncoupling protein 2 (FABP4-UCP2) axis is a key regulator of neuroinflammation in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed animals, indicating a role for FABP4 in brain immune response. We hypothesized that the FABP4-UCP2 axis is involved in regulating diet-induced cognitive decline. We tested cognitive function in mice l...
Article
Midlife obesity is a risk factor for cognitive decline and is associated with the earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Diets high in saturated fat potentiate the onset of obesity, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. Signaling deficiencies in the hypothalamic peptide orexin and/or orexin fiber loss are linked to neurodegeneration, co...
Article
Full-text available
The brain is the central regulator for integration and control of responses to environmental cues. Previous studies suggest that air pollution may directly impact brain health by triggering the onset of chronic neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that nanoparticle components of combustion-generated air pollution may underlie these effects. To test th...
Article
Orexin A is produced in neurons of the lateral, perifornical and dorsomedial regions of the lateral hypothalamic area, which then project widely throughout the central nervous system to regulate arousal state, sleep-wake architecture, energy homeostasis and cognitive processes. Disruption of orexin signaling leads to sleep disturbances and increase...
Article
Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to metabolic dysregulation and the onset of obesity. Dietary saturated fats activate microglia via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) mediated pathway to release pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in dysfunction or death of surrounding neurons. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones regulating...
Article
Palmitic acid (PA), an abundant dietary saturated fatty acid, contributes to obesity and hypothalamic dysregulation in part through increase in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and neuroinflammation. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of PA exposure contributes to the onset of neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, hi...
Article
Full-text available
Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and...
Article
The ability to multiplex assays in studies of complex cellular mechanisms eliminates the need for repetitive experiments, provides internal controls, and decreases waste in costs and reagents. Here we describe optimization of a multiplex assay to assess apoptosis following a palmitic acid (PA) challenge in an in vitro hypothalamic model, using both...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity has increased in prevalence worldwide, attributed in part to the influences of an obesity-promoting environment and genetic factors. While obesity and overweight increasingly seem to be the norm, there remain individuals who resist obesity. We present here an overview of data supporting the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA;...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance to obesity is becoming an exception rather than the norm, and understanding mechanisms that lead some to remain lean in spite of an obesigenic environment is critical if we are to find new ways to reverse this trend. Levels of energy intake and physical activity both contribute to body weight management, but it is challenging for most to...
Article
Current data support the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OxA; hypocretin 1) mediates resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity. We previously demonstrated that OxA elevates spontaneous physical activity (SPA), that rodents with high SPA have higher endogenous orexin sensitivity, and that OxA-induced SPA contributes to obesity resist...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, we review the feeding and energy expenditure effects of orexin (also known as hypocretin) and neuromedin. Orexins are multifunctional neuropeptides that affect energy balance by participating in regulation of appetite, arousal, and spontaneous physical activity. Central orexin signaling for all functions originates in the lateral h...
Article
We evaluated the EchoMRI-900 combination rat and mouse quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) body composition method in comparison to traditional whole-body chemical carcass composition analysis (CCA) for measurements of fat and fat-free mass in rodents. Live and postmortem (PM) QMR fat and lean mass measurements were obtained for lean, obese and o...
Article
Full-text available
Prior work has shown that adiabatic T(1rho) and T(2rho) relaxation time constants may have sensitivity to cellular changes and the presence of iron, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD). Further understanding of these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods and how they relate to measures of disease severity and progression in PD is needed. U...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides important in integrating autonomic and behavioral functions, including feeding, sleep/wake behavior, arousal, nocioception, respiratory, motor, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular systems. Previous data suggests orexin signaling deficiencies might contribute to obesity. We conducted a pilot study usi...
Article
In the diurnal unstriped Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) access to a running wheel can trigger a shift in active phase preference, with some individuals becoming night-active (NA), while others continue to be day-active (DA). To investigate the contributions of different neural systems to the support of this shift in locomotor activity, we i...
Article
Full-text available
The orexins (hypocretins) are a family of peptides found primarily in neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Although the orexinergic system is generally thought to be the same across species, the orexins are involved in behaviors which show considerable interspecific variability. There are few direct cross-species comparisons of the distributions of...
Article
Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) cells in the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are known to modulate effects of arousal on the mammalian circadian system. However, the route through which this information reaches the IGL has not been established. Here, we provide evidence that the orexins (hypocretins) are uniquely positioned as a potential source of activity sta...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between the orexins and patterns of activity in the diurnal Nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus. Some individuals of this species switch to a more nocturnal pattern when given access to a running wheel, while others continue to be most active during the day. In both day- and night-active grass rats, the pe...
Article
A variety of nonphotic influences on circadian rhythms have been documented in mammals. In hamsters, one such influence, running in a novel wheel, is mediated in part by the pathway extending from neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-containing cells within the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Arvican...
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Michigan State University. Dept. of Zoology and Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Behavior Program, 2005. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 150-167).

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