Joshua A Mott

Joshua A Mott
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | CDC · Bangkok, Thailand

PhD

About

148
Publications
23,791
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4,407
Citations
Introduction
Influenza Program Director, CDC SE Asia Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand
Additional affiliations
June 2017 - present
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Position
  • Managing Director
August 2011 - June 2015
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Kenya
Position
  • Managing Director
August 2011 - July 2015
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Position
  • Influenza Program Director, CDC-Kenya

Publications

Publications (148)
Article
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Carbon monoxide (CO) has been reported to contribute to more than 2000 poisoning deaths per year in the United States. To evaluate the influence of national vehicle emissions policies and practices on CO-related mortality and to describe 31 years (1968-1998) of CO-related deaths in the United States. Longitudinal trend analysis using computerized d...
Article
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Background In Kenya, detailed data on the age-specific burden of influenza and RSV are essential to inform use of limited vaccination and treatment resources. Methods We analyzed surveillance data from August 2009 to July 2012 for hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) at two health facilit...
Article
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Among 11 patients in Thailand infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, we detected viral RNA in upper respiratory specimens a median of 14 days after illness onset and 9 days after fever resolution. We identified viral co-infections and an asymptomatic person with detectable virus RNA in serial tests. We describe implications...
Article
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Background Thailand was the first country outside China to report SARS-CoV-2 infected cases. Since the detection of the first imported case on January 12th, 2020 to the time this report was written, Thailand experienced two waves of community outbreaks (March-April 2020 and December 2020-March 2021). We examined prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositi...
Article
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Background: We examined SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike 1 IgG antibody levels following COVID-19 vaccination (AstraZeneca [AZ], Sinovac [SV], Pfizer-BioNTech [PZ]) among Thai healthcare providers. Methods: Blood specimens were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analyzed seven vaccination regimens: (1) one dose of AZ or SV, (2) two doses of h...
Article
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Background Low global influenza circulation was reported during the coronavirus-19 pandemic. We explored relationships between non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and influenza in tropical Asian countries. Methods Using World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance data from 2015 to 2019 and the WHO shiny app, we constructed expected seasonal i...
Article
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Background : We examined the characteristics of healthcare providers’ (HCPs) encounters, and the frequency of worker absenteeism/presenteeism, among HCPs in inpatient wards at a tertiary-level public hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. The wards were stratified by risk of respiratory virus transmission: low-risk (Surgery, Rehabilitation, Orthopedic, and...
Article
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Background: Pregnant women, healthcare workers (HW), and adults >= 60 years have shown an increased vulnerability to seasonal influenza virus infections and/or complications. In 2012, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) initiated a national influenza vaccination program for these target groups. A cost-effectiveness evaluation of this pro...
Article
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In March 2021, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) reported an avian influenza A(H5N6) virus infection in a 5-year-old child identified through sentinel surveillance. This was the first human A(H5N6) infection reported outside of China. A multidisciplinary investigation undertook contact tracing and enhanced human and animal surveillance in sur...
Article
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In February 2021, routine sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illness in Cambodia detected a human avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Investigations identified no recent H9N2 virus infections in 43 close contacts. One chicken sample from the infected child's house was positive for H9N2 virus and genetically similar to the human virus.
Article
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Introduction: During the 2019 novel coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020, limited data from several countries suggested reduced seasonal influenza viruses' circulation. This was due to community mitigation measures implemented to control the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used sen...
Article
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Background Seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among young children in Thailand is low despite national recommendation for vaccination. We implemented a knowledge, attitude/perception, and practice survey to understand determinants of influenza vaccination in children aged six months to two years.Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we intervi...
Article
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Background We compared influenza antibody titers among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant and non-pregnant women.Methods During 1st June- 30th September 2018, four groups of cohort participants-vaccinated pregnant, unvaccinated pregnant, vaccinated non-pregnant, and unvaccinated non-pregnant women were selected by matching age, gestational age, a...
Article
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Objective: Estimates of the burden of influenza are needed to inform prevention and control activities for seasonal influenza, including to support the development of appropriate vaccination policies. We used sentinel surveillance data on severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to estimate the burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations in th...
Article
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Background: In resource-limited settings, acute respiratory infections continue to be the leading cause of death in young children. We conducted postmortem investigations in children <5 years hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory disease at Kenya's largest referral hospital. Methods: We collected respiratory and other tissues pos...
Preprint
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Background: We compared influenza antibody titers among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: During 1st June to 30th September 2018, four groups of cohort participants - vaccinated pregnant, unvaccinated pregnant, vaccinated non-pregnant, and unvaccinated non-pregnant women were selected by matching age, gestational...
Article
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Despite recommendations, few children aged 6–35 months in Thailand receive seasonal influenza vaccination. Using previously estimated incidence and vaccine effectiveness data from the period 2012–2014, we estimate that up to 121 000 medical visits could be prevented each year with 50% coverage and expanded recommendations to children aged <5 years.
Article
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Background Adults with cardiopulmonary conditions may be at increased risk of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, but it is not well‐established and few data are available from middle‐income countries. Methods Using data from a prospective cohort study of influenza vaccine effectiveness, we estimated and compared the inciden...
Article
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We reviewed WHO influenza surveillance outputs from May 1 to December 31, 2020 (epidemiologic weeks 18-53) from tropical Asian countries that have land mass between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.4 We excluded China and Australia, which have influenza seasons that generally follow temperate seasonal patterns. We identified countries that teste...
Article
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Introduction: We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to influenza and influenza vaccination among pregnant women in three selected countries. Methods: During 2017, pregnant women seeking antenatal care at hospitals at participating sites were enrolled. We described characteristics and responses to KAP questions. We also eval...
Preprint
Global influenza virus circulation declined and has been below traditional seasonal levels during the COVID-19 pandemic.1-3 We reviewed WHO influenza surveillance outputs from May 1-December 31, 2020 (epidemiologic weeks 18-53) from tropical Asian countries. For each country we report influenza surveillance specimens tested, and the percentage posi...
Article
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Background: We assessed performance of participant-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs compared to study staff-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses among pregnant women in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods: We enrolled pregnant women aged ≥18 years and followed them throughout the 2018 influenza season. Women wit...
Article
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Background We evaluated molecular-based point-of-care influenza detection systems in a laboratory prior to the field evaluations of on-site specimen testing. Methods Performance of 1) insulated isothermal PCR on the POCKITTM device and 2) real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) on a MyGo Mini device were evaluated using human clinical specim...
Article
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Background Coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic, global influenza virus circulation decreased, possibly due to widespread community mitigation measures. Cambodia eased some COVID-19 mitigation measures in June and July 2020. On Aug 20th a cluster of respiratory illnesses among residents of a pagoda included persons that had tested positive for in...
Article
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Background We compared cord blood antibody titers in unvaccinated pregnant women to those vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2nd and the 3rd trimesters. Methods Pregnant women had cord blood collected at delivery for hemagglutination inhibition assay against vaccine reference viruses: A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)pdm09, A/Switzerl...
Article
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Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends case definitions for influenza surveillance that are also used in public health research, though their performance has not been assessed in many risk groups, including pregnant women in whom influenza may manifest differently. We evaluated the performance of symptom-based definitions to dete...
Article
Background Influenza vaccination during pregnancy prevents influenza among women and their infants but remains underused among pregnant women. We aimed to quantify the risk of antenatal influenza and examine its association with perinatal outcomes. Methods We did a prospective cohort study in pregnant women in India, Peru, and Thailand. Before the...
Article
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Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends case definitions for influenza surveillance that are also used in public health research, though their performance has not been assessed in many risk groups, including pregnant women in whom influenza may manifest differently. Â We evaluated the performance of symptom-based case definitions...
Article
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Background The World Health Organization recommends influenza vaccination for pregnant women. However, few data exist on influenza incidence and clinical course among pregnant women in middle-income countries where influenza vaccine use during pregnancy is often limited. We conducted a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to estimate incidenc...
Article
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Molecular diagnostic methods are becoming increasingly available for assessment of acute lower respiratory illnesses (ALRI). However, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs may not accurately reflect etiologic agents from the lower respiratory tract where sputum specimens are considered as a more representative sample. The pathogen yields from...
Article
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Influenza vaccination remains the most effective tool for reducing seasonal influenza disease burden. Few Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) have robust, sustainable annual influenza national vaccination programs. The Partnership for Influenza Vaccine Introduction (PIVI) was developed as a public-private partnership to support LMICs to develop...
Article
Objectives: We compared minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) with conventional autopsy (CA) in detection of respiratory pathology/pathogens among Kenyan children younger than 5 years who were hospitalized with respiratory disease and died during hospitalization. Methods: Pulmonary MITS guided by anatomic landmarks was followed by CA. Lung t...
Article
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Seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) have been recommended since 2008 for people ≥65 years of age in Thailand. While two distinct antigenic lineages of influenza B virus, namely, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria, often co- circulate in Thailand, TIV contains only one influenza B lineage. Little is known regarding cross-protection among older Thai p...
Article
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Background: We estimated the cost-per-episode and the annual economic burden associated with influenza in Kenya. Methods: From July 2013-August 2014, we recruited patients with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) or influenza-like illness (ILI) associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza from 5 health facilities. A structured questionnair...
Article
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Despite global recommendations for influenza vaccination of high-risk, target populations, few low and middle-income countries have national influenza vaccination programs. Between 2012 and 2017, Lao PDR planned and conducted a series of activities to develop its national influenza vaccine program as a part of its overall national immunization prog...
Article
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Background: Frailty is associated with increased risk of mortality and decline in functional status among older adults. Older adults are at increased risk of severe disease from acute respiratory illness (ARIs), but ARI effects on frailty status among older adults are not well understood. We evaluated how ARIs affect short‐term frailty status among...
Article
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Background We conducted a two-year prospective cohort study to measure the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza among community-dwelling Thai adults aged ≥65 years during 2015–16 and 2016–17 influenza seasons. Methods In 2015, we enrolled a cohort of 3220 participants. Trained he...
Chapter
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This chapter defines field epidemiology as investigations initiated in response to urgent public health problems. The key characteristics of field epidemiology remain unchanged over time in that a timely response is required to an unexpected problem, and public health epidemiologists must work rapidly in the field to gather enough evidence needed t...
Article
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Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of respiratory disease-related deaths is the highest, information on the cause of death remains inadequate because of poor access to health care and limited availability of diagnostic tools. Postmortem examination can aid in the ascertainment of causes of death. This manuscript describes the study...
Article
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Background: Influenza disease burden varies by age and this has important public health implications. We compared the proportional distribution of different influenza virus types within age strata using surveillance data from twenty-nine countries during 1999-2014 (N=358,796 influenza cases). Methods: For each virus, we calculated a Relative Ill...
Article
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OBJECTIVE Limited English proficiency can be a barrier to asthma care and is associated with poor outcomes. This study examines whether pediatric patients in Ohio with limited English proficiency experience lower asthma care quality or higher morbidity. METHODS We used electronic health records for asthma patients aged 2–17 years from a regional,...
Article
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Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of respiratory disease-related deaths is the highest, information on the cause of death remains inadequate because of poor access to health care and limited availability of diagnostic tools. Postmortem examination can aid in the ascertainment of causes of death. This manuscript describes the stud...
Article
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Background Influenza A virus subtypes in non-human hosts have not been characterized in Kenya. We carried out influenza surveillance in selected domestic animals and compared the virus isolates with isolates obtained in humans during the same period. Methods We collected nasal swabs from pigs, dogs and cats; oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from po...
Article
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The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnosti...
Article
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Background Recent influenza surveillance data from Africa suggest an important burden of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. In tropical countries where influenza virus transmission may not be confined to a single season alternative strategies for vaccine distribution via antenatal care (ANC) or semiannual campaigns should be considered....
Article
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Background Respiratory diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with sub-Saharan Africa bearing the greatest burden. Identifying etiologies of respiratory disease is important to inform cost effective treatment, prevention and control strategies. Testing for all of the different pathogens that are potentially associated with re...
Article
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Background: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated mortality has not been well-established in tropical Africa. Methods: We used the negative binomial regression method and the rate-difference method (i.e. deaths during low and high influenza/RSV activity months), to estimate excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV...
Article
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Background We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. Methods Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)...
Article
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Background: Information on the timing of influenza circulation remains scarce in Tropical regions of Africa. Objectives: We assessed the relationship between influenza activity and several meteorological factors (temperature, specific humidity, precipitation), and characterized the timing of influenza circulation, and its implications to vaccina...
Article
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Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities.
Data
Figure S1. Figures showing the time series of the average weekly temperature, specific humidity and percent influenza positive cases by site, 2007 to 2013.
Data
Additional information on statistical analysis for secondary infections with Ebola virus in rural communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015.
Article
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Background: In order to better understand respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemiology and burden in tropical Africa, optimal case definitions for detection of RSV cases need to be identified. Methods: We used data collected between September 2009 - August 2013 from children aged <5 years hospitalized with acute respiratory Illness at Siaya Coun...