Joshua Jessel

Joshua Jessel
City University of New York - Queens College | QC CUNY · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

48
Publications
37,418
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761
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - July 2016
Child Study Center
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (48)
Chapter
The practical functional assessment (PFA) is a three-step process designed to evaluate problem behavior’s sensitivity to individualized contingencies informed by caregivers in an efficient manner. The PFA begins with an open-ended interview collecting qualitative information from caregivers used to inform the development of a synthesized contingenc...
Article
Behavioral assessment allows a clinician to identify environmental events that are contributing to challenging behavior to inform effective treatment. Recent developments in behavioral assessment and treatment have been devoted to creating practical procedures that can be conducted by clinicians in socially relevant settings. However, the extent to...
Article
Functional analysis is the primary assessment used to determine the function of inappropriate mealtime behavior in children with feeding disorders. Based on single-case experimental design studies and recent reviews, the prevalence of negative reinforcement alone in the maintenance of inappropriate mealtime behavior appears to be much greater than...
Article
Lay abstract: Functional communication training, an intervention for challenging behavior rooted in principles of applied behavior analysis, has copious empirical support dating back to the mid-1980s for autistic individuals. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to thin reinforcement delivery during functional communication training using c...
Article
Visual analysis is the primary method used to interpret single-case experimental design (SCED) data in applied behavior analysis. Research shows that agreement between visual analysts can be suboptimal at times. To address the inconsistent interpretations of SCED data, recent structured visual-analysis technological advancements have been developed...
Article
Noncompliance with adult instruction is a common problem exhibited by individuals diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The high-probability (high-p) request sequence was designed to increase compliance with low-probability (low-p) instructions by rapidly presenting high-p instructions immediately prior to the targeted low-p i...
Article
Jessel et al. (Behavior Analysis & Practice, 13(1), 205–216, 2020a) conducted a review of the functional analysis literature between the years 1965 and 2016. The authors found an increasing trend in analyses replicating the components of Iwata et al. (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197–209, 1982/1994a) and determined that those component...
Article
Full-text available
Computerized programs have been specifically developed in the field of applied behavior analysis for the purpose of automating data collection. Although they can potentially improve practicality of data collection for applied researchers and clinicians, program features of existing computerized programs do not include graphs and data interpretation...
Preprint
Visual analysis is the primary method used to interpret single-case experimental design (SCED) data in applied behavior analysis. Research shows that agreement between visual analysts can be suboptimal at times. To address the inconsistent interpretations of SCED data, recent structured visual analysis technological advancements have been developed...
Chapter
Full-text available
Revisamos a literatura atual sobre um modelo de análise funcional recentemente desenvolvido denominado de análise de contingência sintetizada por entrevista (IISCA), com intuito de melhorar a disseminação dos procedimentos entre a população brasileira. A IISCA tem potencial para ser uma avaliação comportamental viável que pode ser usada em todos os...
Chapter
Single case methods include small n applied designs that allow for causal claims. Single case research designs (SCRDs) involve the manipulation of an independent variable and direct observation of the dependent variable for individual cases. The purpose is to determine whether a functional relation is present between the independent variable and de...
Article
Full-text available
Functional analyses are often conducted by behavior analysts to understand the environmental variables contributing to an individual's problem behavior to better inform treatment implementation. While functional analyses are integral for designing function-based interventions, they often arrange contingencies to evoke and reinforce dangerous proble...
Article
The interrupted chain procedure is used to teach children with limited verbal repertoires to independently mand for missing items required to complete a task. Previous research has used interrupted chains to teach children with autism autoclitic mand frames for information on the location of missing items and persons in possession of the missing it...
Preprint
Full-text available
Revisamos a literatura atual sobre um modelo de análise funcional recentemente desenvolvido denominado de análise de contingência sintetizada por entrevista (IISCA), com intuito de melhorar a disseminação dos procedimentos entre a população brasileira. A IISCA tem potencial para ser uma avaliação comportamental viável que pode ser usada em todos os...
Article
Full-text available
A practical functional assessment format was recently developed that informed a skill-based treatment for the problem behavior of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Since its inception there have been multiple replications of the procedures; however, the comprehensive model has rarely been applied to populations with more complex com...
Article
Schedule thinning is an essential step in treating problem behavior, yet little research has been conducted to determine the method associated with sustained treatment effects. A frequently used method for thinning reinforcement is contingency‐based progressive delay, which requires the individual to meet some criteria before the reinforcers are re...
Article
Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) is a common function-based treatment in which an alternative form of communication is taught to reduce problem behavior. FCT has been shown to result in substantial reductions of a variety of topographically and functionally different types of problem behavior in children and adults (effi...
Article
As individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) transition to adulthood, problem behavior may present restrictions to an independent lifestyle. In addition, problem behavior may interfere with performance of daily routines necessary for independent living. We developed a successful treatment for automatically reinforced toilet lid destruction of...
Article
Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is a ubiquitous tool used by practitioners in early intervention programs. A common approach to correcting errors during DTI involves providing a single prompt of the target response when a mistake is made (i.e., single-response repetition). Modifications to the single-response repetition approach have been develope...
Article
Tummy time involves placing an infant in a prone position to help build muscle strength. Pediatricians recommend tummy time because it helps with infant development related to milestones such as crawling, rolling over, and sitting up. However, parents sometimes avoid tummy time due to whining or crying when the infant is placed in the prone positio...
Chapter
Applied research is an extension of basic behavioral principles and methodology to behaviors of social significance. Applied researchers arrange environmental variables to reduce behaviors in excess or to increase deficits, and evaluate the outcomes using a combination of single‐subject experimental designs and social validation tools. As a child a...
Presentation
Full-text available
Many children with autism engage in problem behaviors such as aggression, tantrum, and self-injurious behaviors. Treatments for problem behavior are often recommended to be designed following a functional analysis; however, clinicians may find the assessment process time-consuming. We conducted a consecutive case series design evaluating the effect...
Article
A believable demonstration of control over problem behavior is a necessary component of the functional analysis process. Control during a functional analysis has traditionally been defined in a binary manner: Differentiated outcomes point to an identifiable function and undifferentiated outcomes do not. However, it might be beneficial to characteri...
Article
The functional analysis procedures described in the seminal Iwata et al. (1982/1994) study are prominent in the applied behavior analytic literature, having been replicated hundreds of times over the past 30 years (Beavers, Iwata, & Lerman, 2013; Hanley, McCord, Iwata, 2003). However, the extent to which particular components of this functional ana...
Article
Full-text available
The functional analysis (FA) methodology was developed to provide an empirical basis for understanding the reinforcers contributing to the maintenance of problem behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that multiple formats have been established to address some areas, such as practicality, efficiency, and safety. We reviewed the research on a...
Article
Children diagnosed with a feeding disorder often exhibit inappropriate mealtime behavior such as throwing or swiping food, which can exacerbate feeding difficulties during treatment. We conducted a meta‐analysis of 86 behavioral treatments for inappropriate mealtime behavior from 23 studies to assess the extent to which treatments based on a pretre...
Article
Response efficiency plays an important role in the initial success of functional communication training (FCT). Although low‐effort functional communication responses (FCRs) have been shown to be most effective in replacing problem behavior; more developmentally advanced FCRs are favored later in the treatment process. Attempts to teach these more c...
Article
Using a latency measure during a functional analysis of problem behavior increases the brevity of the assessment period and decreases risks resulting from exposure to contexts intended to evoke problem behavior. In addition, latency‐based functional analyses may be especially suitable for discrete behaviors such as elopement, which require resettin...
Article
Jessel, Hanley, and Ghaemmaghami (2016) reported the results of 30 interview-informed, synthesized contingency analyses (IISCAs) and found the IISCAs to be an effective tool for identifying the functions of problem behavior across a variety of topographies, participants, and settings. Jessel et al. did not, however, include data on the effectivenes...
Article
The properties of operant reinforcers are dynamic and dependent on a number of variables, such as schedule and effort. There has been sparse research on the generalized conditioned properties of token reinforcement. We evaluated leisure items, edible items, and tokens using a progressive ratio schedule with three children with diagnoses of ASD and...
Article
Research on error correction procedures often includes the manipulation of prompting strategies or reinforcement schedules during discrete-trial instruction (DTI). We extended this research by incorporating rich-to-lean reinforcement transitions following incorrect responses with four boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. With the rich-to-l...
Article
Compliance is often defined as the completion of a discrete task specified by a preceding instruction. However, compliance could also require the completion of a cluster of tasks, such as cleaning a room, getting ready for bed, or doing homework. We conducted this study to determine if a momentary differential reinforcement schedule would increase...
Article
The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgenc...
Article
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) has been applied to reduce problem behavior in various forms across different populations. We review DRO research from the last 5 years, with a focus on studies that enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DRO. We also discuss implications for practitioners and applied researchers...
Article
Promoting socially important behaviors is a challenge frequently faced by clinicians, health professionals, educators, employers, doctors, parents, governments, and others. Incentive interventions have proven to be effective in promoting a wide range of socially valuable behaviors in diverse populations and settings. This article introduces the cur...
Article
The speed with which a functional analysis (FA) provides a convincing demonstration of the variables that influence problem behavior may be termed efficiency. Multiple FA formats have been developed to improve analytic efficiency while the core components of the Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1982/1994) procedures are maintained. We at...
Article
Transitions with nonhuman animals are typically framed as inescapable changes in signaled reinforcement schedules that result in a pause in responding unique to switches from rich to lean schedules. Pausing is considered to be a function of the aversive qualities of the contrasting reinforcement schedules. Transitions are typically framed in applie...
Article
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a commonly used technique for behavior reduction, yet there has been little to no emphasis on the possible strengthening effects on other behavior. We included 2 responses (target and other) across 3 treatment schedules (DRO, extinction, and fixed time [FT]) in a human-operant procedure to deter...
Article
We compared 2 variations of differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) procedures: spaced-responding DRL, in which a reinforcer was delivered contingent on each response if a specified interval had passed since the last response, and full-session DRL, in which a reinforcer was presented at the end of an interval if the response rate was below cri...
Article
False-positive outcomes of functional analyses exist when exposure to the consequences in a condition strengthens a relation that did not previously exist. Two functional analyses (aggression and spitting) were conducted with a child with an intellectual disability. High rates of problem behavior occurred immediately in the attention condition of t...
Article
Functional communication training (FCT) is an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Hagopian, Fisher, Sullivan, Acquisto, and LeBlanc (1998) analyzed 25 applications of FCT and showed that extinction was a necessary component of FCT, but sometimes punishment was needed to maint...
Article
Full-text available
The functional analysis (FA) described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1982/1994) delineated not only a set a specific procedures, but also a model that involves the use of analogue conditions wherein antecedent and consequent variables are systematically manipulated. This consecutive case-series analysis describes FAs of 176 individ...
Article
Full-text available
When we evaluated variables that influence the effectiveness of the high-probability (high-p) instruction sequence, the sequence was associated with a precipitous decrease in compliance with high-p instructions for 1 participant, thereby precluding continued use of the sequence. We investigated the reasons for this decrease. Stimuli associated with...

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Projects (2)
Project
This project aims to replicate the study by Roscoe, E. M., Phillips, K. M., Kelly, M. A., Farber, R., & Dube, W. V. (2015) adding to this data a survey conducted with behavior analysts in Brazil.
Project
To adapt the IISCA project to the Brazilian reality, thus facilitating the application of functional analysis in poor populations. To verify whether the training of non-specialist Brazilian teachers in ABA, in the application of IISCA, will produce accurate functional analysis data of inappropriate behaviors in children with ASD and the reduction of these behaviors through FCT and to compare the efficiency of the two IISCA models presented.