Joshua Foster

Joshua Foster
University of South Alabama | USA · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

113
Publications
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Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Full-text available
Covert spatial attention allows us to prioritize processing at relevant locations. Perception is generally poorer when attention is distributed across multiple locations than when attention is focused on a single location. However, while divided attention typically impairs performance, recent work suggests that divided attention does not seem to im...
Article
Functional MRI (fMRI) plays a key role in the study of attention. However, there remains a puzzling discrepancy between attention effects measured with fMRI and with electrophysiological methods. While electrophysiological studies find that attention increases sensory gain, amplifying stimulus-evoked neural responses by multiplicatively scaling the...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how forgiveness relates to mental health outcomes may improve clinical care. This study assessed 248 adult psychiatric inpatients, testing associations of forgiveness, religious comfort (RC), religious strain (RS), and changes in depressive symptomatology from admission to discharge. Experiencing divine forgiveness and self-forgivenes...
Preprint
Functional MRI (fMRI) plays a key role in the study of attention. However, there remains a puzzling discrepancy between attention effects measured with fMRI and with electrophysiological methods. While electrophysiological studies find that attention increases sensory gain, amplifying stimulus-evoked neural responses by multiplicatively scaling the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The three goals of this chapter are to introduce readers to construct of narcissism, to review the literature on the evolutionary origins of narcissism, and to review the literature on narcissism and emotions. Narcissism will be discussed as both a personality trait that is comprised by grandiose and vulnerable expressions, as well as a personality...
Article
Intro Prior literature indicates that nontraditional attitudes are linked to higher intelligence. However, such attitudes in adolescence often accompany counter-normative, delinquent-type behaviors, which are themselves negatively linked with intelligence. This points to the possibility of suppression in the relationship between intelligence and no...
Article
Scholars posit that economically prosperous times should produce higher individualism and narcissism, and economically challenging times lower individualism and narcissism. This creates the possibility that narcissism among U.S. college students, which increased between 1982 and 2009, may have declined after the Great Recession. Updating a cross-te...
Article
Current theories propose that the short-term retention of information in working memory (WM) and the recall of information from long-term memory (LTM) are supported by overlapping neural mechanisms in occipital and parietal cortex. However, the extent of the shared representations between WM and LTM is unclear. We designed a spatial memory task tha...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal attention, the allocation of attention to a moment in time, improves perception. Here, we examined the computational mechanism by which temporal attention improves perception, under a divisive normalization framework. Under this framework, attention can improve perception of a target signal in three ways: stimulus enhancement (increasing g...
Article
Objective: Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death, so research identifying protective factors is essential. Research suggests gratitude and life hardships patience are character strengths that might protect against the deleterious association of struggles with ultimate meaning and suicide risk. However, no studies have evaluated...
Preprint
Here, we examined the computations by which temporal attention, the allocation of attention to a moment in time, improves perception, under a divisive normalization framework. Under this framework, attention can improve perception of a target signal in three ways: stimulus enhancement (increasing gain across all sensory channels), signal enhancemen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current theories propose that the short-term retention of information in working memory (WM) and the recall of information from long-term memory (LTM) are supported by overlapping neural mechanisms in occipital and parietal cortex. Both are thought to rely on reinstating patterns of sensory activity evoked by the perception of the remembered item....
Article
Objective: Military veterans often encounter events with chronic or repeated traumas of an interpersonal nature that might lead to emotional, relational, and spiritual suffering. Research is needed to assess whether and/or how emerging conceptions of moral injury (MI) align with existing trauma-related conditions. Method: Focusing on 173 veteran...
Preprint
Full-text available
Covert spatial attention has a variety of effects on the responses of individual neurons. However, relatively little is known about the net effect of these changes on sensory population codes, even though perception ultimately depends on population activity. Here, we measured the electroencephalogram (EEG) in human observers (male and female), and...
Article
Are only children more narcissistic than individuals with siblings? Prior research on the topic has produced conflicting and/or inconclusive results. Dufner et al. (2019) published a recent and widely reported empirical test of this hypothesis and concluded that only children are not more narcissistic than non-only children. One of their acknowledg...
Article
Covert spatial attention has long been thought to speed visual processing. Psychophysics studies have shown that target information accrues faster at attended locations than at unattended locations. However, with behavioral evidence alone, it is difficult to determine whether attention speeds visual processing of the target or subsequent postpercep...
Preprint
Are only children more narcissistic than individuals with siblings? Dufner et al. (2019) recently published a large empirical test of this hypothesis and concluded that only children are not more narcissistic than non-only children. One of their acknowledged limitations was that their study was limited to the German population. They called for addi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Covert spatial attention has long been thought to speed visual processing. Psychophysics studies have shown that target information accrues faster at attended locations than at unattended locations. However, with behavioral evidence alone, it is difficult to determine whether attention speeds visual processing of the target, or subsequent post-perc...
Article
Prior research suggests that narcissism is positively associated with risk-taking behavior (e.g., gambling). The present study sought to test a contextual factor that may moderate this association. Specifically, we hypothesized that, because narcissists are generally less concerned with whether others approve of their behavior, narcissism would be...
Preprint
Working memory (WM) is an online memory system that allows us to hold information “in mind” in service of ongoing cognitive processing. Here, we emphasize that short-term retention of information typically involves an interplay between WM and long-term memory (LTM), especially when task demands or interruptions divert our focus from remembered item...
Preprint
This is a comment on Orben, A., Dienlin, T., & Przybylski, A. K. (2019). Social media’s enduring effect on adolescent life satisfaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 201902058. Comment addresses problems with how social media usage was measured in study.
Article
A hallmark of episodic memory is the phenomenon of mentally reexperiencing the details of past events, and a well-established concept is that the neuronal activity that mediates encoding is reinstated at retrieval. Evidence for reinstatement has come from multiple modalities, including functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalograph...
Article
Few studies in positive psychology have examined associations between virtues and mental health in highly distressed samples. This study demonstrates the relevance of the virtue of patience, conceptualized as the capacity to calmly face frustration and suffering, within a spiritually integrated treatment program offering inpatient psychiatric hospi...
Article
Full-text available
Persistent neural activity that encodes online mental representations plays a central role in working memory (WM). However, there has been debate regarding the number of items that can be concurrently represented in this active neural state, which is often called the “focus of attention.” Some models propose a strict single-item limit, such that ju...
Data
Empirically approximated sampling distribution of mean CTF selectivity for each condition (left) and for the mean difference in CTF selectivity (one-item minus two-item) (right) for Simulation 1 (A), Simulation 2 (B), and Simulation 3 (C). Dashed lines mark the mean for each sampling distribution. Data available at https://github.com/AwhVogelLab/IE...
Article
Narcissism can be conceptualized as a combination of maladaptive variants of Five-Factor Model facets which load onto three of the five factors—antagonism (i.e., low agreeableness), agentic extraversion, and narcissistic neuroticism. Much research examines approach and avoidance motivations in narcissism; however, few studies assess these processes...
Article
Low empathy is a key feature of the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Nevertheless, prior research, which has used mostly small samples with single measures of each construct, has produced mixed findings. The present study tested associations between Dark Triad traits and empathy using (a) a large sample (N = 1035)...
Article
War-related traumas can lead to emotional, relational, and spiritual suffering. Drawing on two community samples of war zone veterans from diverse military eras (Study 1, N = 616 and Study 2, N = 300), the purpose of this study was to examine patterns of constellations between outcomes related to moral injury (MI) and common ways in which veterans...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Persons contending with serious mental health difficulties often experience struggles with religious faith and/or spirituality that may also demand clinical attention. However, research has not examined the relative importance of specific forms of spiritual struggles in mental health status or treatment outcomes of psychiatric patients....
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the role of religion in mental illness has always been complicated, as some people turn to religion to cope with their illness, whereas others turn away. The overarching purpose of this study was to draw on quantitative and qualitative information to illuminate ways in which religiousness might be associated with changes in depressive...
Article
Personality traits play a key role in understanding optimism, but few studies have examined how “darker” aspects of personality relate to individual differences in trait-level optimism. We examined whether the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) were associated with individual differences in optimism in three con...
Article
Covert spatial attention allows us to prioritize visual processing at relevant locations. A fast growing literature suggests that alpha-band (8–12 Hz) oscillations play a key role in this core cognitive process. It is clear that alpha-band activity tracks both the locus and timing of covert spatial orienting. There is limited evidence, however, for...
Article
Full-text available
In samples from America, Brazil, and Hungary (N = 937), we examined the associations between the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) and individual differences in excitement (i.e., valuing personal enjoyment), promotion (i.e., valuing achievements), existence (i.e., valuing physical survival), suprapersonal (i.e....
Book
Full-text available
This unique reference surveys current theoretical and empirical advances in understanding individual differences in narcissistic personality, as well as the latest perspectives on controversies in the field. Wide-ranging expert coverage examines the many manifestations of narcissism, including grandiose, vulnerable, communal, and collective varieti...
Chapter
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of measures available to researchers who study grandiose narcissism (GN). The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of some of the more popular measures of GN. Some of these measures attempt to capture GN as a single dimension, some as a multidimensional construct, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
A longstanding view holds that information is maintained in working memory (WM) via persistent neural activity that encodes the content of WM. Recent work, however, has challenged the view that all items stored in WM are actively maintained. Instead, “activity-silent” models propose that items can be maintained in WM without the need for persistent...
Preprint
A hallmark of episodic memory is the phenomenon of mentally re-experiencing the details of past events, and a well-established concept is that the neuronal activity that mediates encoding is reinstated at retrieval. Evidence for reinstatement has come from multiple modalities, including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and electroenceph...
Article
Full-text available
Current theories assume a functional role for covert attention in the maintenance of spatial information in working memory. Consistent with this view, both the locus of attention and positions stored in working memory can be decoded based on the topography of oscillatory alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity on the scalp. Thus far however, alpha modulation...
Article
An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced...
Article
Research shows that grandiosity and vulnerability are distinct aspects of narcissism. The Contemporary Clinical Model (CCM) of narcissism suggests that individuals fluctuate between grandiose narcissism (GN) and vulnerable narcissism (VN). The authors examine the relative contributions of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), the Behavioral Inhibit...
Article
Full-text available
Work on the Dark Triad traits has benefited from the use of a life history framework but it has been limited to primarily Western samples and indirect assessments of life history strategies. Here, we examine how the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) relate to two measures of individual differences in life histo...
Preprint
Working memory is the function by which we temporarily maintain information to achieve current task goals. Models of working memory typically debate where this information is stored, rather than how it is stored. Here we ask instead what neural mechanisms are involved in storage, and how these mechanisms change as a function of task goals. Particip...
Article
In a sample (N = 1969) drawn from six countries, we examined the relationships between individual differences in independent and interdependent self-construals and the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism). Overall, the Dark Traits were largely unrelated to interdependence whereas Machiavellianism and narcissism, i...
Article
Covert spatial attention is essential for humans’ ability to direct limited processing resources to the relevant aspects of visual scenes. A growing body of evidence suggests that rhythmic neural activity in the alpha frequency band (8–12 Hz) tracks the spatial locus of covert attention, which suggests that alpha activity is integral to spatial att...
Article
Religion and/or spirituality (R/S) can play a vital, multifacted role in mental health. While beliefs about God represent the core of many psychiatric patients’ meaning systems, research has not examined how internalized images of the divine might contribute to outcomes in treatment programs/settings that emphasize multicultural sensitivity with R/...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has shown the ability to decode working memory contents from EEG measurements. Here we investigate to what extent the type of representation underlying this decoding ability changes for different types of tasks. We employed two working memory tasks with identical items, but different task requirements. The memoranda always consisted of...
Article
This study examined the role of working memory in the relationship between Need for Cognition (NFC) and intelligence. We previously reported that NFC is associated with intelligence but not working memory. This was unexpected as working memory has a strong relationship with fluid intelligence. 167 participants completed the NFC short scale, WAIS-II...
Article
Full-text available
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used measure of narcissism in the social-personality psychology literature. It contains 40 items that tap into a variety of traits that theoretically comprise narcissism, such as feelings of superiority and willingness to exploit others. Most researchers focus on the total score produc...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between daily spiritual experiences and meaning making in a sample of 254 Salvadoran teachers with histories of exposure to violence and potential trauma. When controlling for rates of lifetime community violence exposure and demographic factors (age, gender), teachers with higher daily spiritu...
Article
In a recent study, Bianchi (2014) showed that macroeconomic conditions (i.e. average unemployment rate) during the years of emerging adulthood (ages 18 to 25) are inversely related to adult narcissism. Fletcher (2015) called into question the robustness of the results and Grijalva et al. (2015) presented meta-analytic support for real gender differ...
Article
Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha-band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance but the exact contributions...
Article
Full-text available
The present study builds upon previous findings by examining parental psychological control in relation to two distinct traits of the self (i.e., authenticity and contingent self-worth) and internalized aggression. A model was proposed with authenticity and contingent self-worth as serial mediators of the relationship between parental psychological...
Conference Paper
Numerous studies have demonstrated a link between spatial attention and alpha (8-13 Hz) activity measured with electroencephalography (EEG). In spatial cueing studies, a posterior alpha desynchronization is seen contralateral to the cued visual hemifield relative to the ipsilateral side (e.g., Thut, Nietzel, Brandt, Pascual-Leone, 2006). In light o...
Article
Full-text available
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of origin...
Article
Full-text available
An understudied area of personality psychology is how personality traits might facilitate structuring of one’s environment toward goals like mating. In four studies (N = 1325), we examined (1) self-reports of where individuals go to find long-term and short-term mates, (2) how personality traits are associated with the use of these locations, and (...
Article
Full-text available
The State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES) measures transient feelings of self-worth. The SSES has been hypothesized to possess a number of latent structures, ranging from one to three factors. The present study compared these putative structures along with a newly hypothesized bifactor structure (i.e., one global factor, three subfactors). Results offered...
Article
Full-text available
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the primary measure of grandiose narcissism (GN) despite possessing numerous limitations. Here we present a new 33-item measure of GN called the Grandiose Narcissism Scale (GNS) that exhibits a reproducible seven-factor structure that maps on to Raskin and Terry’s (1988) seven factor model. GNS subsca...
Article
Full-text available
Community violence has reached concerning proportions in El Salvador, possibly affecting all sectors of society. To date, little attention has focused on the effects of violence exposure on educators in Central American countries. This study examined the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing consensus that mourners' general attachment security and ongoing sense of connectedness to the deceased figure prominently in adjustment to bereavement. However, the interplay between these variables has not been investigated thoroughly. We therefore studied 195 young adults who were bereaved by violent causes (homicide, suicide...
Article
Full-text available
It is well documented that many relationships form via mate poaching (i.e., stealing someone’s partner), but almost nothing is known about how these relationships function. Across three studies, we observed reliable evidence that individuals who were poached by their current romantic partners were less committed, less satisfied, and less invested i...
Article
Objective: Intelligence measures have a high-moderate correlation with academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine if anxiety on the day of testing moderates the relationship between intelligence and academic achievement. Method: Six hundred sixty-five participants (mean age = 22.77, SD = 5.99; 51% female; 87% white) at a large s...