Joshua C Cochran

Joshua C Cochran
University of Cincinnati | UC · School of Criminal Justice

PhD

About

80
Publications
66,652
Reads
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1,826
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - May 2016
University of South Florida
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This article examines the impact of distal prison placements on inmate social ties. Specifically, we test whether distance adversely affects inmates by reducing their access to family and friends and then test whether the effects are amplified for minorities and inmates who come from socially disadvantaged areas. Methods These questions...
Article
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Objectives Despite the dramatic expansion of the US correctional system in recent decades, little is known about the relative effectiveness of commonly used sanctions on recidivism. The goal of this paper is to address this research gap, and systematically examine the relative impacts on recidivism of four main types of sanctions: probation, intens...
Article
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Objectives Drawing on theories that emphasize the salience of social ties, this study examines the different kinds of experiences prisoners have with visitation and the implications of those experiences for behavior after release. Method This study uses data from a release cohort of prisoners to (1) explore how visitation experiences unfold for di...
Article
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Prior research has consistently demonstrated the salience of minority status in understanding racial and ethnic differences in perceptions of the police. This research has overwhelmingly shown that Blacks and Latinos hold lower levels of trust and confidence in the police than do Whites and other racial minorities. The increased skepticism of the p...
Article
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Objectives In light of empirical findings suggesting no substantive main effects of an incarcerated person’s (IP’s) race or ethnicity on the odds of placement in restrictive housing (RH) for rule violations, we investigated whether these effects are dependent on offense severity and context, including characteristics of facilities that could theore...
Article
Propensity score matching and regression analyses of the National Inmate Survey are used to examine individuals’ experiences and perceptions of environmental quality in public versus private prisons across key domains of prison life, with an emphasis on needs, behaviors, victimization, and attitudes. No differences are identified for women. Males i...
Article
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This study assesses whether racial and ethnic disparities exist in prison industry employment and whether seemingly race‐ and ethnicity‐neutral eligibility requirements contribute to any such disparities. We examine whether there are racial/ethnic disparities in industrial prison work, the extent to which disparities are explained by administrative...
Article
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This paper aims to advance theory and knowledge about prison visitation by organizing prior studies within a framework of visitation enablers and barriers and examining how practical, relational, and experiential factors explain variation in prison visiting among 773 adult males across eight Dutch prisons. Findings suggest that all three domains pl...
Article
This study examined whether and how discretionary sentencing add-ons (i.e., secondary charges, victim injury points, firearms/weapons points, drug trafficking enhancements) contribute to disparities. We examined add-ons that increase sentencing points and so contribute to a defendant “scoring to prison.” We analyzed: (1) the degree to which add-ons...
Article
The present study investigated whether race moderates the effect of age on juvenile court dispositions in ways that illuminate a subtler form of racial disparities than has been previously identified. Drawing on prior theory and research, we hypothesize that at young ages, virtually all youth are perceived as children and met with treatment-oriente...
Article
Despite concerns and debates about the policy of using extended solitary confinement for managing individuals deemed to be too violent or disruptive to be controlled any other way—for the broader goal of system order and safety—empirical assessments of disparities in placements into this form of incarceration are limited. Prior studies typically ha...
Article
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This paper examines how social capital prior to incarceration may contribute to experiences during incarceration and whether visitation allows social capital to have protective effects. We investigate, too, whether disadvantages experienced during incarceration by racial and ethnic minorities, women, and individuals in poverty can be explained in p...
Article
Objectives This article tests two theoretical ideas: (1) that social concerns about particular “dangerous classes” of offenders shift over time to influence court sanctioning practices and (2) that, since the 1990s, sex offenders in particular came to be viewed by courts as one such “dangerous class.” Methods We examine sanctioning trends in Flori...
Article
The current study examines how academic achievement-measured as verbal and math performance-is associated with prison programming and reentry. We assess how academic achievement might be directly associated with recidivism and whether this occurs indirectly by moderating the effectiveness of in-prison programs. Using a statewide subsample of incarc...
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Objectives This paper tests theoretical arguments that suggest court actors hold gendered views of sex offenders that result in a gender gap in sex offender punishment, where women who commit sexual offenses are treated more leniently than their male counterparts. Methods We test this argument with precision matching analyses using 15 years of dat...
Article
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As part of the rise of “get tough” punishment in recent decades, prison systems increasingly have relied on solitary confinement and what many contemporary accounts have termed “restrictive housing.” The latter includes an emphasis on some form of isolation and restrictions on privileges. Use of solitary-like confinement has engendered considerable...
Article
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Research Summary More rigorous comparisons of private and public corrections are needed to improve our understanding of the effects of privatization. We develop a three‐step procedure for assessing equivalence and then performance measures. To illustrate these arguments, we provide an empirical descriptive analysis of two private prisons and five s...
Article
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Scholarship suggests that prison visitation is beneficial and may be especially so for children and their incarcerated parents. However, economically disadvantaged families face unique challenges during incarceration, which may include greater difficulties visiting incarcerated family members. This study uses survey data from a nationally represent...
Article
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Prior research exploring the effects of racial and ethnic threat has largely focused on the threat posed by minority males, with little attention devoted to understanding how threat accounts for variations in punishment among racial and ethnic female defendants. Using 2003-2012 data from Florida sentencing guidelines, we examine the odds of receivi...
Article
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Prison scholarship suggests that individuals’ experiences during incarceration are diverse and contribute to the impacts of a prison sentence. This article seeks to advance this line of theory and research by shedding light on a specific aspect of prison life—prison facility transfers—that has theoretical linkages to social and behavioral outcomes,...
Book
Cambridge Core - Research Methods in Sociology and Criminology - Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears https://www.amazon.com/Fundamentals-Criminological-Criminal-Justice-Inquiry/dp/1316645134
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
Chapter
Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
Article
Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
Chapter
Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
Chapter
Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
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Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
Chapter
Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
Chapter
Fundamentals of Criminological and Criminal Justice Inquiry - by Daniel P. Mears February 2019
Article
Full-text available
Scholarship suggests that prison inmates who are visited may be less likely to recidivate. Questions exist, however, about whether the observed relationship is causal and, if so, whether it is consistent for different groups of inmates. To address these questions, this study employs two methodological approaches – first, conventional regression ana...
Article
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Objectives This study examines sentencing patterns for environmental crimes and tests the assumption that “green” offenders receive more lenient treatment from criminal courts than non-environmental offenders. Methods We present two sets of analyses. First, we present an empirical portrait of environmental felony offenses convicted in a single stat...
Article
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Although prior research links parental incarceration to deleterious outcomes for children during the life course, few studies have examined whether such incarceration affects the social exclusion of children during adolescence. Drawing on several lines of scholarship, the authors examined whether adolescents with incarcerated parents have fewer or...
Article
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Scholarship suggests that individuals' experiences in pretrial detention are especially straining. Relative to state prisons, local jails have high rates of inmate and officer turnover, more limited resources, and provide fewer services. Pretrial detention also constitutes an individual's initial period of incarceration, during which social isolati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Drawing on theory and research on prisoner behavior, this study examines whether spatial distance from home influences inmates' likelihood of engaging in misconduct. Three hypotheses are developed: distally-placed inmates will engage in more misconduct, distance will have a greater effect on misconduct among younger inmates, and visitation will med...
Article
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Objectives The study tests two related hypotheses about recidivist sentencing premiums and the progressive sanctioning logic on which they rest: (1) among first-time felons, punitive sanctions will more effectively reduce recidivism than will less severe sanctions and (2) among second-time felons, progressively tougher sanctions will more effective...
Article
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Drawing on prior sentencing and prison scholarship, this study examines the use of solitary confinement as a form of punishment. Specifically, it assesses whether, given a prison infraction, minority inmates—and young, male, minority inmates in particular—are more likely to be placed in solitary and to be placed in it for longer durations. Multilev...
Article
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Objectives An enduring legacy of the 1980s “war on drugs” is the increased use of imprisonment for drug offenders. Advocates anticipated, in part, that prison is more effective than community sanctions in reducing recidivism. Despite the contribution of drug offender incarceration to prison growth nationally, and debates about whether this approach...
Article
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The “get-tough” era of punishment led to exponential growth in the rate of incarceration in the United States. Recent reviews of the literature indicate, however, that limited rigorous research exists examining the effect of imprisonment on the likelihood of future offending. As a result, scholars have called for assessment of this relationship, wh...
Article
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Although the privatization of corrections has a long history in America, debates about its merits have intensified in recent decades. The goals of this article are (a) to argue that privatized corrections is more prevalent than recognized and yet little is known about how it compares with public corrections, and (b) to provide a conceptual framewor...
Article
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Scholars have speculated that inmate behavior may provide a signal about the probability of desistance. One such signal may be the successful avoidance of prison infractions or the cessation of them during the course of incarceration. Drawing on studies of prison socialization, recidivism, and desistance, we assess whether patterns of inmate miscon...
Article
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A justification for lengthier stays in prison stems from the belief that spending more time in prison reduces recidivism. Extant studies, however, have provided limited evidence for that belief and, indeed, suggest the effect of time served may be minimal. Few studies have employed rigorous methodological approaches, examined time spans of more tha...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on theory and research on prisoner behavior, this study examines whether spatial distance from home influences inmates’ likelihood of engaging in misconduct. Three hypotheses are developed: distally placed inmates will engage in more misconduct, distance will have a greater effect on misconduct among younger inmates, and visitation will med...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars and policy makers have expressed concern that observed minority differences in processing (e.g., arrest, detention, conviction) and sentencing stem not from the legal merits of cases but rather from intentional or unintentional discrimination. An additional concern is that there may be disparities in society that lead to offending differen...
Article
Full-text available
Scholarship has shown that visitation helps individuals maintain social ties during imprisonment, which, in turn, can improve inmate behavior and reduce recidivism. Not being visited can result in collateral consequences and inequality in punishment. Few studies, however, have explored the factors associated with visitation. This study uses data on...
Article
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Justice Quarterly Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to an...
Article
Full-text available
Age is the only factor used to demarcate the boundary between juvenile and adult justice. However, little research has examined how age guides the juvenile court in determining which youth within the juvenile justice system merit particular dispositions, especially those that reflect the court's emphasis on rehabilitation. Drawing on scholarship on...
Article
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Objectives Drawing on focal concerns theory, as well as scholarship on the juvenile court’s mandate to consider youth culpability and amenability to treatment, we develop hypotheses that seek to examine whether the court will (1) punish Whites less severely and (2) be more likely to intervene with Whites through rehabilitative intervention and, sim...
Article
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High rates of foreclosures during the "Great Recession" raised concerns about the potential harmful effects of the housing crisis not just on the economy, but also on levels of crime. Grounded primarily in theories of social disorganization and incivility, a growing body of empirical research has been directed at exploring whether the foreclosure c...
Article
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Mass incarceration has led to increased interest in understanding the effects of imprisonment. Reviews of criminological theory and research report mixed evidence that incarceration reduces recidivism; indeed, some studies report criminogenic effects. We argue that a better understanding of the heterogeneity of incarceration—including the types and...
Article
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The aim of this study is to advance scholarship on the IQ–offending relationship by examining the functional form of this relationship and whether confounding introduced by socioeconomic status (SES) and other factors can be adequately addressed. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are analyzed using generalized propensity score and...
Chapter
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The goal of this chapter is to argue both that prisoner reentry research may be improved by systematically drawing on life-course perspectives and, conversely, that life-course theoretical perspectives may be improved by systematically investigating reentry. The salience of these arguments stems from the fact that reentry populations in the USA hav...
Article
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PurposeScholarship suggests that prison visitation is important because it allows inmates access to social ties that, in turn, can offset social isolation and help inmates cope with the transition back into society upon release. Only a small number of empirical assessments of visitation exist, however, and existing studies have typically overlooked...
Article
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PurposePrior theory and research suggest that inmate visitation can reduce misconduct in prison. However, prior studies have not accounted for the longitudinal and heterogeneous nature of these experiences. This paper addresses this research gap by examining variation in visitation experiences and the relationship between patterns of visitation and...
Article
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Objectives This paper examines Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1990) self-control theory and develops theoretical arguments for why self-control may have a differential effect on offending depending on the level of self-control. Methods We test the argument that the association between sel...
Article
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More than 735,000 inmates are released from U.S. prisons annually, many of whom have mental and physical health problems that go largely unaddressed during incarceration and on return to society. That has led some scholars and policy makers to imply this is specific to the United States and to call for reducing the health needs–services gap among i...
Article
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PurposeThe past decade has been witness to a proliferation of calls for evidence-based juvenile court sanctions—including various programs, interventions, services, and strategies or approaches—that reduce recidivism and improve mental health, drug dependency, and education outcomes. At the same time, an emerging body of work has identified “proven...
Article
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Scholars and policymakers have called for greater attention to understanding the causes of and solutions to improved prisoner reentry outcomes, resulting in renewed attention to a factor—prison visitation—long believed to reduce recidivism. However, despite the theoretical arguments advanced on its behalf and increased calls for evidence-based poli...
Article
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Prior research examining punitive attitudes has typically focused on the United States and citizens’ support for the death penalty or American “gettough” criminal policies. Yet, little is known as to how punitive attitudes and their sources vary internationally. Using Germany as a case study, this article expands the scope of punitiveness research...
Article
Social threat theory is a commonly used framework to explain the positive relationship between minority group size and discriminatory attitudes by members of the dominant group. A contrasting theory put forth in Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis suggests the opposite relationship; that growth in minority group size will decrease racial tension by...

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