Joshua M Byrnes

Joshua M Byrnes
Griffith University · Centre for Applied Health economics

B Econ, B Comm, M Econ, M Health Econ, Phd

About

164
Publications
19,214
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1,571
Citations
Citations since 2017
115 Research Items
1370 Citations
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Publications

Publications (164)
Article
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Objectives The association of joint replacement registries with outcomes such as revision burden is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate whether joint replacement registries are associated with the burden of revision changes while controlling for confounders that could affect the association. Design A longitudinal study involving a combination...
Article
Objectives: Increased demand for gastroenterology services has resulted in growing waitlists, with patients at risk of exceeding clinically recommended wait-times. Given limited healthcare resources, expanded scope models of care are an option to help address this demand, but little is known about patient preferences for these models of care. Met...
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Globally, Indigenous populations experience poorer health but use less primary healthcare than their non‐Indigenous counterparts. In 2010, the Australian government introduced a targeted reform aimed at reducing these disparities. The reform reduced, or abolished prescription medicine co‐payments and provided financial incentives for GPs to better...
Preprint
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Background: Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are essential for successful administration of intravenous treatments. However, insertion failure and PIVC complications are common and negatively impact patients’ health-outcomes and experiences. We aimed to assess whether generic (established) quality of life and experience measures were suitab...
Preprint
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Background Behavioural support via mobile health (mHealth) is emerging. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, cost, and effect on weight of a mHealth follow up program in bariatric surgery. Methods This was a prospective single-arm cohort study with mixed methods conducted in a Tertiary bariatric surgery service in Australia....
Article
Objective The harmful use of alcohol is a global issue. This study aimed to describe and compare the profiles, emergency department (ED) clinical characteristics, and outcomes of alcohol-related ED presentations (ARPs) and non-alcohol-related ED presentations (NARPs).MethodsA multi-site observational study of all presentations to four EDs between 4...
Article
Background: One-third of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) fail from inflammatory or infectious complications, causing substantial treatment interruption and replacement procedures. Objectives: We aimed to compare complications between integrated PIVCs (inbuilt extension sets, wings, and flattened bases) and traditional nonintegrated PIVC...
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Separating selection bias from moral hazard in private health insurance (PHI) markets has been a challenging task. We estimate selection bias and moral hazard in Australia's mixed public‐private health system, where PHI premiums are community‐rated rather than risk‐rated. Using longitudinal cohort data, with fine‐grained measures for medical servic...
Article
Purpose: There is poor reporting of the cost of simulation and greater transparency is needed. The primary study aim was to conduct a financial analysis of the university/training institution costs associated with a 5-day simulation-based learning program for speech–language pathology students. The secondary aim was to consider the economic costs o...
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Background Two-stage exchange arthroplasty remains the gold standard for the management of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the knee, but several studies have demonstrated that one-stage exchange is as effective as two-stage exchange. This study aimed to support decision making via an economic evaluation of one-stage compared to two-stage exchan...
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Introduction Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and regarded as one of the most frequent genetic causes of infant mortality. The aim of this study is to develop a cost-effectiveness analysis of AVXS-101 (Onasemnogene Abeparvovec/Zolgensma ® ) and nusinersen (Spinraza ® ) for SMA to inform decision-making on reimbur...
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Introduction There is currently no clear indication in the literature regarding a single or double hamstring tendon (single bundle) autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the paediatric patient. The primary aim of this single blind randomised controlled trial is to determine whether a single or double hamstring tendon graf...
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Objective To understand healthcare worker and patient experience with peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) insertion in patients with difficult intravenous access (DIVA) including the use of ultrasound (US). Methods Descriptive study using 1-on-1 semi-structured interviews conducted between August 2020 and January 2021. Purposeful sampling was u...
Preprint
Background The Bedside Ultrasound Conducted in Kids with distal upper Limb fractures in the Emergency Department (BUCKLED) trial is a multicentre, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study comparing point-of-care ultrasound to x-ray as the initial imaging modality in children with clinically non-angulated distal forearm injuries. Objective The...
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Objective This study sought whether higher risk patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) benefit more from intensive disease management. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting State-wide public hospitals (Queensland, Australia). Participants This longitudinal study included 20 426 patients hospitalised in 2010 with CHD as the principal diag...
Article
Rationale, aims and objectives: The need to improve patient access, offer increased choice and improve patient outcomes whilst maintaining safe care is driving the healthcare workforce to evolve. Extending allied-health scope of practice by integrating models of care that traverse traditional professional boundaries has been one such strategy. Thi...
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Background Our study aims to explore the experience of having a central venous access device (CVAD) from the perspective of the child and family and how movements within and outside of hospital environments influence this experience. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted across Children’s Health Queensland (Australia), including inpatient an...
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Objectives Rates of unused ( ‘ idle’) peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are high but can vary per setting. Understanding factors that influence the decision-making of doctors, nurses and paramedics in the emergency setting regarding PIVC insertion, and what factors may modify their decision is essential to identify opportunities to reduce un...
Article
Background Although presoaking grafts in vancomycin has been demonstrated to be effective in observational studies for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) infection prevention, the economic benefit of the technique is uncertain. Purpose To 1) determine the cost-effectiveness of vancomycin presoaking during primary ACLR to prevent post...
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Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Australia. Longitudinal record linkage studies have the potency to influence clinical decision making to improve cardiac health. This paper describes the baseline characteristics of the Queensland Cardiac Record Linkage Cohort study (QCard). Methods International Clas...
Article
Background: Central venous access devices (CVADs) are integral to cancer care provision. Despite the high prevalence of CVAD complications in children with cancer, preventative strategies are understudied. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess study feasibility, occlusive events, thrombolytic use, adverse events, and direct costs of cat...
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Aim This study aims to test the feasibility of the PainChek app to assess pain for people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). It will also identify the optimal dosage and efficacy of a social robot (personal assistant robot [PARO]) intervention on chronic pain for people with dementia. Design This is a feasibility ran...
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Background Healthcare delivery is reliant on a functional central venous access device (CVAD), but the knowledge surrounding the burden of pediatric CVAD-associated harm is limited. Methods A prospective cohort study at a tertiary-referral pediatric hospital in Australia. Children <18 years undergoing insertion of a CVAD were screened from the ope...
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Background Pressure injuries are a leading hospital adverse event, yet they are mostly preventable. Understanding their financial costs will help to appreciate the burden they place on the health system and assist in better planning and management of health expenditures to prevent pressure injuries. Objective To estimate the cost of pressure injur...
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Introduction Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) frequently fail during therapy administration, resulting in infusates pooling in the surrounding tissue. These extravasation injuries can cause significant pain, tissue destruction and scarring. ivWatch is a biosensor that uses visible and near-infrared light to measure tissue changes surroundin...
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PurposeThe MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life Instrument (MacNew) is a validated, clinically sensitive, 27-item disease-specific questionnaire. This study aimed to develop a new heart disease-specific classification system for the MacNew amenable for use in health state valuation.Methods Patients with heart disease attending outpat...
Article
Objectives Preference-based quality-of-life measures (PBMs) have been developed in many clinical areas to aid estimation of more accurate utility values for economic evaluations. Existing oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments are non-PBM and hence, cannot be used to generate utility values. The objective of this study was to deve...
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Background Unused ('idle') peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) are those not used within 24 hours of insertion. There is little data on cannulation practices and idle PIVC rates in emergency settings, especially the pre-hospital environment. Methods This was an observational cohort study set in south-east Queensland, Australia using data from...
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Background Hospital-acquired complications (HACs) are costly and associated with adverse health outcomes, although they can be avoided. Administrative linkage health data have become more accessible and can be used to monitor and reduce HAC. Aims This study aims to use linkage administrative data to benchmark the safety performance of hospitals an...
Article
The history of humankind witnessed a continual improvement of living standards. The introduction of agriculture stabled our food supplies. The industrial revolution eradicated hunger and reduced poverty across the globe. During the development process, human also reached the capacity to create substantial impacts on the environment, which has creat...
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Purpose The purpose of this scoping review is to conduct a systematic search and establish the current state of evidence for tools and instruments used to measure self-reported outcomes and experiences, including satisfaction scores, specifically for peripheral venous access devices (PVADs). Methods A systematic search of the literature will be co...
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Introduction: Autosomal recessive (AR) and x-linked (XL) conditions are rare but collectively common which impact millions of people globally on morbidity, mortality and costs. Advanced medical technologies allow prospective parents to make informed reproductive decisions to avoid having affected children. Economic evaluations targeting on reprodu...
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Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of hospitalisations and deaths in Australia. This study estimates the excess CVD hospitalisations and deaths across seasons and during the December holidays in Queensland, Australia. Methods: The study uses retrospective, longitudinal, population-based cohort data from Queensland, Austral...
Preprint
BACKGROUND An ageing population, accompanied by the prevalence of age-related diseases, present significant burden to health systems. This is exacerbated by an increasing shortage of aged care staff due to existing workforce entering their retirement and fewer young people being attracted to work in aged care. In line with consumer preferences and...
Article
Background: An aging population, accompanied by the prevalence of age-related diseases, presents a significant burden to health systems. This is exacerbated by an increasing shortage of aged care staff due to the existing workforce entering their retirement and fewer young people being attracted to work in aged care. In line with consumer preferen...
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Background The increasing incidence of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has led to an increase in both the incidence and the cost burden of revision TKA procedures. This study aimed to review the literature on the cost of revision TKA for septic and aseptic causes and to identify the major cost components contributing to the cost burden. Meth...
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Objectives: To identify outcome measures used to evaluate performance of healthcare professional role substitution against usual medical doctor or specialist medical doctor care to facilitate our understanding of the adequacy of these measures in assessing quality of healthcare delivery. Methods: Using a systematic approach, we searched Medline,...
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Background: Myocardial infarction (MI), remains one of the leading causes of death and disability globally but publications on the progression of MI using data from the real world are limited. Multistate models have been widely used to estimate transition rates between disease states to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of healthcare interventions. W...
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Consumer’s understanding of health risks is a key determinant of effective risk communication about health care options. Individuals make decisions about their health under uncertainty, yet the influence of risk perception, risk preferences and information processing has not been well researched in the health economics literature. Here, a novel ext...
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Feeding disorders can have a significant impact on children and their families. Access to supportive multidisciplinary care is central to improving outcomes; however, there are numerous factors that can impact service access. Using a mixed methods design, the current study examined parents’ experiences and satisfaction with accessing a state-wide g...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain a global health challenge due to number of deaths and use of healthcare services related to the condition. Although a plethora of studies have shown the impact of unemployment on health outcomes, evidence on the unemployment effects on the demand for expensive cardiac healthcare services is rare. This study exp...
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Background: The optimal intravenous device for antibiotic administration for children with respiratory disease is uncertain. We assessed the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing midline catheters with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Methods: Prospective, 2-arm, feasibility RCT in an Australian tertiary, p...
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Background Despite recent evidence on the effect of frailty on health outcomes among those with heart failure, there is a dearth of knowledge on measuring frailty using administrative health data on a wide range of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods We conducted a retrospective record-linkage cohort study of patients with diverse CVD in Queens...
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Introduction Telepractice models of care have the potential to reduce the time and financial burdens that consumers may experience accessing healthcare services. The current study aimed to conduct a time and financial cost analysis of paediatric feeding appointments accessed via telepractice (using videoconferencing) compared to an in-person model....
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Background Children frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with forearm injuries and often have x-rays to determine if there is a fracture. Bedside ultrasound, also known as point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), is an alternative diagnostic test used to rapidly diagnose a fracture at the time of examination, without exposing children to io...
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Introduction Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are vital for the delivery of medical therapies, but up to 30% of PICCs are associated with complications such as deep vein thrombosis or infection. The integration of antimicrobial and hydrophobic catheter materials, and pressure-activated valves, into polyurethane PICCs are innovations...
Article
Background: Economic-evaluations of Cerebral palsy (CP) were based on utility estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) from generic multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUIs). However, generic instruments had limited use as they could not capture some of the important aspects of living with CP. The Cerebral palsy 6 Dimension (CP-6D) is...
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This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-assisted smartphone applications in the treatment of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was performed in two urban outpatient clinics in Hanoi from May to December 2019. A simple random sampling method and a structured questionnaire were used to r...
Article
Background Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and its re-emergence as herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While studies show that VZV vaccination is effective in reducing VZV incidence, many decision makers have not added VZV to their vaccination schedule, largely due to uncertainty surrounding the effect of VZV vac...
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Objectives To estimate the incidence-based, lifetime costs of health care and productivity losses associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) using hospital admission data from Queensland, Australia. Methods Retrospective analysis of data on CVD health care use sourced from Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency...
Preprint
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Background Despite the rapid establishment of joint replacement registries (JRR), its effect on key outcomes such as revision rates is uncertain. While some countries with JRR have recorded reductions in revision rates, other countries without JRR also have reported similar reductions. This study evaluated the impact of JRR on revision rates across...
Article
Health technology assessment (HTA) was introduced in Australia for the reimbursement of pharmaceuticals in 1992 and in the following years for procedures, diagnostic tests, and devices. The Australian health system is largely funded by the government. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme is a national list of prescription pharmaceuticals for which th...
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Aim To assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of an atrial fibrillation disease management program (i.e. the SAFETY program) from the Australian healthcare system perspective. Methods A multistate Markov model was developed based on patient-level data from the SAFETY randomized controlled trial. Predicted long-term survival, dependent on hospital...
Article
Objective Identifying and quantifying the health needs of a population are the basis of evidence-based health policy and workforce planning. The motivation for undertaking the present study was to evaluate whether the current level of medication review services corresponds to population need, as proxied by the rate of polypharmacy, and to undertake...
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BackgroundA major limitation of total knee replacement (TKR), as with other joint replacements, is the risk of revision. Revision TKR is associated with high risk and economic burden to patients, healthcare providers, and societies. It will be worthwhile to assess the economic burden of revision TKR across countries or different study settings. Thi...
Preprint
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Background Unused ('idle') peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) are those not used within 24 hours of insertion. There is little data on cannulation practices and idle PIVC rates in emergency settings, especially the pre-hospital environment. Methods This was an observational cohort study set in south-east Queensland, Australia using data from a...
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Background and Objective In the REFLECT trial, lenvatinib showed superior clinical benefits to sorafenib in terms of progression-free survival and was non-inferior for overall survival in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We assessed the cost-effectiveness of lenvatinib compared with sorafenib for patients with advanced HCC...
Article
Background Assessment of secondary event risk is now recommended for all coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Many risk calculators have been developed for this purpose. However, their contribution to secondary prevention of CAD is limited because it is unknown whether high-risk patients would benefit more from intensive management. This study s...
Article
Background and Objective The CP-6D is a new preference-based measure derived from the CPQOL, a cerebral palsy-specific quality-of-life questionnaire. The CP-6D contains six dimensions, each with five levels. A preference-based value set is required to score the CP-6D on a utility scale and render it suitable for cost-utility analysis. This study ai...
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Objective People detained in police custody are a vulnerable population with complex health needs, sometimes requiring emergency care. This study evaluated the effect of a 24/7 nursing presence in a police watch house on police presentations to the emergency department (ED).Methods This was a retrospective observational study conducted in a regiona...
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Introduction A new health state classification system has been developed for dental caries - Dental Caries Utility Index (DCUI) to facilitate the assessment of oral health interventions in the cost-utility analysis (CUA). This paper reports the protocol for a valuation study, which aims to generate a preference-based algorithm for the classificatio...
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Objectives In recent years, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) have become frequently used to generate utility values, but there are a diverse range of approaches to do this. The primary focus of this systematic review is to summarise the methods used for the design and analysis of DCEs when estimating utility values in both generic and condition-s...
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This study uses longitudinal cohort data to estimate the impacts of air pollution on health outcomes among people first hospitalised with heart diseases. Despite the generally low level of pollution in Australia, we find that acute exposure to pollution increases readmissions to hospitals within 3–12 months after discharge and is more evident among...
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Objectives: This study aims to estimate direct and indirect health economic costs associated with government and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure based on health care service utilization and lost income of participants and carers, as reported by Australian Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patient survey participants. Desig...
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Introduction There is a significant life expectancy gap attributable to physical comorbidities for people living with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) compared with the general population. Medications are a major treatment for SPMI management and physical illnesses, hence pharmacists are well positioned to support mental healthcare and c...