Josh P. Davis

Josh P. Davis
University of Greenwich · School of Human Scienes

PhD Psychology

About

65
Publications
21,697
Reads
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791
Citations
Introduction
Professor in Applied Psychology in the Face and Voice Recognition Lab, at the Institute of Lifecourse Development at the University of Greenwich. I am currently interested in 'super-recognisers', in particular those in the police, the E-FIT and EFIT-V facial composite systems, the effect of alcohol on identification, the identification and face recognition abilities of children and the use of different types of identification parades.
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
University of Greenwich
Position
  • Theoretical and applied markers to measure holistic face recognition ability
Description
  • Davis, J.P. (2011). Theoretical and applied markers to measure holistic face recognition ability University of Greenwich internal RAE Grant, July 2011, £5,000.
May 2011 - December 2011
University of Greenwich
Position
  • The development of holistic face processing: A variation of the composite face effect.
Description
  • Davis, J.P. & Thorniley, S. (2011). The development of holistic face processing: A variation of the composite face effect. Undergraduate Research Assistantship Scheme, British Psychological Society, £1,600.
April 2011 - present
University of Greenwich
Position
  • Facial Identification from CCTV: Investigating predictors of exceptional performance amongst police officers.
Description
  • Davis, J.P., Lander, K., Evans, R., & Neville, M. (2012). Facial Identification from CCTV: Investigating predictors of exceptional performance amongst police officers. European Association of Psychology & Law, Cyprus, April 2012.
Education
September 2009 - July 2010
University of Greenwich
Field of study
  • Education
September 2002 - January 2007
Goldsmiths, University of London
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 2001 - September 2002
University of Reading
Field of study
  • Research Methods in Psychology

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
During the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption was largely confined to drinking in the home. There has been little research examining variables associated with risk in home drinking. The study employed an online survey of (n = 1128) individuals who had been recruited for their face recognition skills (n = 838, 70.9% females, mean age 45.05 (12.3...
Article
Full-text available
Simultaneous face matching to verify identity is key to security and policing. However, matching is error-prone, particularly when target-item prevalence is low. Two experiments examined whether superior face recognition ability and the use of internal or external facial feature guidance scales would reduce low prevalence effects. In Experiment 1,...
Article
Full-text available
Face recognition skills are distributed on a continuum, with developmental prosopagnosics and super-recognisers at the bottom and top ends, respectively. Holistic processing propensity is associated with face recognition ability and may be impaired in some developmental prosopagnosics and enhanced in some super-recognisers. Across two experiments w...
Article
Full-text available
Unfamiliar simultaneous face matching is error prone. Reducing incorrect identification decisions will positively benefit forensic and security contexts. The absence of viewindependent information in static images likely contributes to the difficulty of unfamiliar face matching. We tested whether a novel interactive viewing procedure that provides...
Article
Full-text available
Face masks present a new challenge to face identification (here matching) and emotion recognition in Western cultures. Here, we present the results of three experiments that test the effect of masks, and also the effect of sunglasses (an occlusion that individuals tend to have more experienced with) on (i) familiar face matching, (ii) unfamiliar fa...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in face identification ability range from prosopagnosia to super‐recognition. The current study examined whether face identification ability predicts voice identification ability (participants: N = 529). Superior‐face‐identifiers (exceptional at face memory and matching), superior‐face‐recognisers (exceptional at face memory...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate simultaneous face matching of photos of unfamiliar faces to verify identity is key to many security and policing operations. However, matching is error-prone, especially when the prevalence of target items is low. In two experiments, the current research examined whether the use of internal or external facial feature guidance scales, and r...
Article
Full-text available
Perceivers generally exhibit better face processing with same-race rather than cross-race faces. To what extent is this deficit attenuated by a perceiver's ability to process faces, and to what extent does that face-processing ability need to be “tuned” by experience with cross-race faces? The current study examined the cross-race recognition defic...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the past ten years, UK and international police, security and other businesses have increasingly drawn on the skills of super-recognisers, who possess exceptionally good face recognition ability. New jobs have been created and workplace practices changed. These innovations were initially driven by London’s Metropolitan Police Service, backed by...
Preprint
Super-recognisers occupy the extreme top end of a wide spectrum of human face recognition ability. Although test scores provide evidence of super-recognisers’ quantitative superiority, their abilities may be driven by qualitatively different cognitive or neurological mechanisms. Some super-recognisers scoring exceptionally highly on multiple short-...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new test-the UNSW Face Test (www.unswfacetest.com) that has been specifically designed to screen for super-recognizers in large online cohorts and is available free for scientific use. Super-recognizers are people that demonstrate sustained performance in the very top percentiles in tests of face identification ability. Because they re...
Article
Full-text available
Recent legal and media reports of contemporary and historical rape and sexual assault cases have focused on the entertainment industry, particularly around the notion of the “casting couch.” This scenario, in which a powerful figure obtains sometimes nonconsensual sexual acts from subordinate actors in exchange for employment, was used to explore t...
Preprint
Unfamiliar face identification ability varies widely in the population. Those at the extreme top and bottom ends of the continuum have been labelled super-recognisers and prosopagnosics, respectively. Here we describe the development of two new tests - the Goldsmiths Unfamiliar Face Memory Test (GUFMT) and the Before They Were Adult Test (BTWA), th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Context: CCTV management and suspect identification in the 21st century CCTV is ‘an utter fiasco’ and ‘not fit for purpose’ were 2008 headlines quoting the head of the London Metropolitan Police Service’s (‘the MET’) CCTV management unit (Bowcott, 2008). At least £4-5 billion of public and private funds (Norris, McCahill, & Wood, 2004) had been i...
Preprint
Unfamiliar simultaneous face matching is error prone. Reducing incorrect identification decisions will positively benefit forensic and security contexts. The absence of view-independent information in static images likely contributes to the difficulty of unfamiliar face matching. We tested whether a novel interactive viewing procedure that provides...
Preprint
Voice identification parades can be unreliable, as earwitness responses are error-prone. Here we vary pre-parade instructions, testing performance across serial and sequential procedures to examine ways of reducing errors. The participants listened to a target voice and later attempted to identify it from a parade. They were either warned that the...
Article
Full-text available
Outstanding long‐term face recognition of suspects is a hallmark of the exceptionally skilled police “super‐recognisers” (SRs). Yet, research investigating SR's memory for faces mainly employed brief retention intervals. Therefore, in Experiment 1, 597 participants (121 SRs) viewed 10 target videos and attempted identification of targets from 10 ta...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate identity judgements are critical in ensuring that suspects can be apprehended by law enforcement and national security agencies, and that identity fraud attacks do not go undetected at border control points. Research has shown that typical human observers are poor at facial recognition in these contexts. However, there is now a decade’s wo...
Preprint
We present a new test – the UNSW Face Test (www.unswfacetest.com) – that has been specifically designed to screen for super-recognizers in large online cohorts and is available free for scientific use. Super-recognizers are people that demonstrate sustained performance in the very top percentiles in tests of face identification ability. Because the...
Preprint
Within the general population there are large individual differences in face identity recognition and facial emotion perception abilities, although tests measuring both skills reveal correlations in the typical-range population. The current study recruited super-recognisers with exceptional face identity processing skills to determine whether the r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individual differences in face identification ability range from prosopagnosia to super-recognition. The current study examined whether face identification ability predicts voice identification ability (participants: N = 529). Superior-face-identifiers (exceptional at face memory and matching), superior-face-recognisers (exceptional at face memory...
Article
Full-text available
The accurate identification of an unfamiliar individual from a face photo is a critical factor in several applied situations (e.g. border control). Despite this, matching faces to photographic ID is highly prone to error. In lieu of effective training measures which could reduce face matching errors, the selection of ‘super‐recognisers’ (SRs) provi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Exceptional long-term face recognition ability is the hallmark of super-recognition. Yet, virtually all research in this area has concentrated on unfamiliar face recognition following very short delays. In two experiments, this research demonstrated that many, but not all super-recognisers possessing exceptional short-term face memory skills mainta...
Preprint
Face processing skills are distributed on a continuum, with developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) at the low end and super-recognisers (SRs) at the top. While impaired holistic processing is one of the factors explaining some DPs’ poor face recognition ability, it is not yet clear whether holistic processing differences are related to SR’s superior fa...
Preprint
Objectives Body-worn videos enable evidence including complainants’ statements filmed at the scene of residential incidents to be presented in court to a jury. Such footage might capture information that is not relevant to the issues in dispute, but which might prejudicially influence juries’ fact-finding processes. The aim of the current research...
Preprint
Recent media reports of contemporary and historical rape and sexual assault cases have focused on the entertainment industry; particularly around the notion of the ‘casting couch’. This scenario in which a powerful figure obtains sexual acts from subordinate actors in exchange for employment was used to explore the influence of rape myths and Sexua...
Article
This case report describes novel methodology used to identify a 43-year-old post-mortem photo of a drowned male recovered from a London river in the 1970’s. Embedded in an array of foils, police super-recognisers (n = 25) possessing superior simultaneous face matching ability, and police controls (n = 139) provided confidence ratings as to the simi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Super-recognisers occupy the extreme top end of a wide spectrum of human face recognition ability. Although test scores provide evidence of super-recognisers' quantitative superiority, their abilities may be driven by qualitatively different cognitive or neurological mechanisms. Some super-recognisers scoring exceptionally highly on multiple short-...
Article
It is suggested that accurate personality judgments of faces are driven by a morphological ‘kernel of truth’ from face shape. We hypothesised that this relationship could lead to those with better face identification ability being better at personality judgments. We investigated the relationship between face memory, face matching, Big Five personal...
Article
Super-recognisers inhabit the extreme high end of an adult face processing ability spectrum in the population. While almost all research in this area has evaluated those with poor or mid-range abilities, evaluating whether super-recognisers’ superiority generates distinct electrophysiological brain activity, and transcends to different age group fa...
Article
Full-text available
Super-recognisers inhabit the extreme high end of an adult face processing ability spectrum in the population. While almost all research in this area has evaluated those with poor or mid-range abilities, evaluating whether super-recognisers' superiority generates distinct electrophysiological brain activity, and transcends to different age group fa...
Conference Paper
Unfamiliar face matching is error-prone. An accurate decision involves correctly assigning between-person variability to different identities and within-person variability to the same identity. To support image-based comparisons we have developed a novel interactive procedure, which involves rotating a facial image to different orientations. We inv...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypical biases about women’s roles in intimate relationships including their marital status and lifestyle choices such as clothing and alcohol use influence juror attributions of rape case defendant guilt, potentially reducing access to justice for victims. Across two mock-juror decision making experiments, participants read identical fictiti...
Preprint
Research has shown that individuals can recognise personality traits from photographs of others’ faces. It is suggested that this is possible as faces contain a biometric ‘kernel of truth’ for personality traits. If biometric facial features facilitate person judgments, then those adept at face memory (super-recognisers) could show heightened abili...
Preprint
Person judgment studies require adequate sampling of both the targets of the judgments (K) and those who judge them (N). Despite person judgment studies being appraised in terms of both the size of N and K, there has been little research looking for the ‘right’ number of targets. The current study uses two datasets to investigate the effect of incr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The deployment of police super-recognisers (SRs) with exceptional face recognition ability, has transformed the manner in which some forces manage CCTV evidence. In London, SRs make high numbers of suspect identifications, sometimes of suspects in disguise. In two experiments measuring immediate and one-week memory of faces in disguise, SRs were mo...
Article
Full-text available
Police worldwide regularly review closed‐circuit television (CCTV) evidence in investigations. This research found that London police experts who work in a full‐time “Super‐Recogniser Unit” and front line police identifiers regularly making suspect identifications from CCTV possessed superior unfamiliar face recognition ability and, with higher lev...
Article
Full-text available
There are large individual differences in the ability to recognise faces. Super-recognisers are exceptionally good at face memory tasks. In London, a small specialist pool of police officers (also labelled ‘super-recognisers’ by the Metropolitan Police Service) annually makes 1000's of suspect identifications from closed-circuit television footage....
Article
Full-text available
The paradigm detailed in this manuscript describes an applied experimental method based on real police investigations during which an eyewitness or victim to a crime may create from memory a holistic facial composite of the culprit with the assistance of a police operator. The aim is that the composite is recognized by someone who believes that the...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe four experiments evaluating post-production enhancement techniques with facial composites mainly created using the EFIT-V holistic system. Design/methodology/approach – Experiments 1-4 were conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, constructors created between one and four individual composites of unfa...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter provides practical recommendations for best practice of facial identification based on the current state of scientific knowledge and established procedure. Before considering the various procedures individually, an ubiquitous psychological bias that affects all of forensic science and other areas of human judgement is provided. Confirma...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes the manner in which courts, across a number of different jurisdictions, have responded to the use of images for the purposes of identification. It primarily focuses on facial comparison or facial “mapping” analysts. The analysts recognized by courts as experts have tended to rely upon three broad techniques: photo-anthropomet...
Chapter
Full-text available
It has long been known that human memory is fallible, and that this can create legal controversies when a police investigation relies upon eyewitness testimony. Witnesses also regularly fail to identify the true offender from an identity parade or lineup. There are many important forensic and security situations for which no memory is required, and...
Book
Forensic Facial Identification discusses the latest scientific and technical advancements in the field and their implications for practice in psychology, criminology, and law. Provides an up-to-date set of best practices for forensic facial identification. Reviews current procedures for different facial identification methods and their reliability....
Chapter
In an adversarial system, for example in the UK, US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, the defence have the right to test the testimony of prosecution witnesses through cross-examination. Courts have long acknowledged that a mistaken eyewitness may give convincing identification evidence. The problem of distinguishing accurate from inaccurate iden...
Article
Full-text available
When the police have no suspect, they may ask an eyewitness to construct a facial composite of that suspect from memory. Faces are primarily processed holistically, and recently developed computerized holistic facial composite systems (e.g., EFIT-V) have been designed to match these processes. The reported research compared children aged 6-11 years...
Article
Full-text available
A street identification or live show-up provides an eyewitness with an opportunity to identify a suspect shortly after a crime. In England, the majority of suspects identified are subsequently included in a video line-up for the same witness to view. In Study 1, robbery squad data from three English police forces recorded 696 crimes, the identifica...
Article
Full-text available
Witnesses to a crime may be asked to create a facial composite of the offender from memory. They may then view a suspect in a police line-up. Previous research on this topic has found both recognition impairment and enhancement following composite construction. In Experiment 1, creator-participants employed the holistic facial composite system syst...
Article
Full-text available
The use of street identification procedures - informal procedures in which witnesses attempt to identify an offender, usually soon after the commission of a crime and close to where it occurred-has attracted significant concern. These procedures are generally thought to give rise to a greater risk of mistaken identification because they lack the sa...
Article
Full-text available
There are large individual differences in face-recognition ability. Prosopagnosics - or sufferers from face blindness appear at one end of the scale. A large body of research has examined this deficit and considerably enhanced our knowledge of how all human's process faces. Far less research has been conducted on super-recognisers who have the extr...
Chapter
Photographic facial image comparison analysis refers to techniques designed to determine whether two or more photographic images depict the same person or not. One of the images will normally either be the suspect in a police investigation, or the defendant in court. Comparison crime scene evidence will often be images acquired from sources such as...
Article
Full-text available
A live showup (known as a street identification in the UK) allows the perpetrator to be identified shortly after a street crime. If the suspect disputes the identification, a video line‐up often ensues. Four experiments examined the reliability of live showups and their influence on a subsequent video line‐up using realistic procedures and conditio...
Article
Full-text available
SummaryA live showup (known as a street identification in the UK) allows the perpetrator to be identified shortly after a street crime. If the suspect disputes the identification, a video line-up often ensues. Four experiments examined the reliability of live showups and their influence on a subsequent video line-up using realistic procedures and c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An evaluation of individual and morphed composites created using the E-FIT and EFIT-V production systems was conducted. With the assistance of trained police staff, composites of unfamiliar targets were constructed from memory following a Cognitive Interview. EFIT-V composite production followed either a two-day delay, or on the same day as viewing...
Article
Full-text available
Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and prof...
Article
Full-text available
Student participant-witnesses produced 4 composites of unfamiliar faces with a system that uses a genetic algorithm to evolve appearance of artificial faces. Morphs of 4 composites produced by different witnesses (between-witness morphs) were judged better likenesses (Experiment 1) and were more frequently named (Experiment 2) by participants who w...
Article
Full-text available
The experiments reported in this paper investigated simultaneous identity matching of unfamiliar people physically present in person with moving video images typical of that captured by CCTV. This simulates the decision faced by a jury in court when the identity of somebody caught on CCTV is disputed. Namely, “is the defendant in the dock the perso...
Article
It has been previously demonstrated that extensive activation in the dorsolateral temporal lobes associated with masking a speech target with a speech masker, consistent with the hypothesis that competition for central auditory processes is an important factor in informational masking. Here, masking from speech and two additional maskers derived fr...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I have a very large data set in SPSS for which participants completed a series of tests. Some participants took the tests twice due to internet issues - therefore their data appears on two rows. However, I only need to keep their 'best' score on each test for analyses (which sometimes is in Row 1 - sometimes Row 2). I have calculated their scores on each test. I am looking for syntax that can merge the data associated with the highest score on each test into a single row for each of these participants.. Does anyone know if this is possible?

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Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
Funded by the University of Greenwich, the primary aim is to investigate the relationships in face recogniton - particularly those with super-face-recognition ability and social cognition between parents and their children.
Project
The LASIE project aims to design and implement an open and expandable framework that will significantly increase the efficiency of current investigation practices, by providing an automated initial analysis of the vast amounts of heterogeneous forensic data that analysts have to cope with. http://www.lasie-project.eu/