Joseph M. Smith

Joseph M. Smith
Northwest Fisheries Science Center · Fish Ecology Division, Estuarine and Ocean Ecology

PhD, University of Massachusetts - Amherst

About

44
Publications
10,257
Reads
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527
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - March 2017
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
Identifying patterns of organismal distribution can provide valuable insights for basic and applied marine and coastal ecology because understanding where animals are located is foundational to both research and science-based conservation. Understanding variation in distributional patterns can lead to a better assessment of ecological drivers and a...
Article
By merging our specialization silos, fisheries professionals can expand the options that are available to them to address difficult fisheries and aquatic conservation problems, which require an understanding of spatial patterns in geographically large systems. Our purpose is to start a profession‐wide conversation about additional ways to think abo...
Article
Fisheries professionals frequently measure habitat type and amount, but less often measure the importance of where those habitats are located and in what combinations. We address this challenge by testing whether the individual and combined type, quantity, and location of habitat affects fish diversity in the upper Neosho River basin, Kansas, as a...
Article
Full-text available
Programs to control predatory fishes have succesfully increased the survival of imperiled prey fishes in some cases, but efficacy depends on the population dynamics and ecological interactions between the predators, prey, and the rest of the community. In California’s Sacramento‐San Joaquin Delta, extremely low survival of downstream‐migrating juve...
Article
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Predator–prey dynamics can have landscape‐level impacts on ecosystems, and yet, spatial patterns and environmental predictors of predator–prey dynamics are often investigated at discrete locations, limiting our understanding of the broader impacts. At these broader scales, landscapes often contain multiple complex and heterogeneous habitats, requir...
Article
We examined individual variation and the role of sex on the movements of the reef manta ray Mobula alfredi. Specifically, we analysed several movement metrics using 6 years of nightly observations (January 1, 2009–December 31, 2014) of 118 individually identifiable manta rays at two discrete but spatially proximate sites, locally known as Manta Hea...
Article
Tagging protocols that result in high tag retention will benefit fisheries professionals who use telemetry data. Ictalurid catfish historically have had very poor telemetry tag retention. Here, we use these difficult-to-tag taxa to address two research objectives. First, we evaluated our field-based internal tagging methodology by quantifying six t...
Article
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Migration of fishes between habitats influences population dynamics and ecological interactions. Some “partially migratory” populations include both migratory and non-migratory individuals, adding complexity to these dynamics. For partially migratory fishes with diadromous life histories, freshwater and marine habitats can differ greatly in availab...
Article
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The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a major survival bottleneck for imperiled California salmonid populations, which is partially due to a multitude of non-native fish predators that have proliferated there throughout the 20th century. Understanding the diets of salmonid predators is critical to understanding their individual impacts, role in the f...
Article
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Movement dynamics of nonnative species can change in new environments and differ from native populations. It has been more than 100 years since striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were introduced to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California from the US east coast. Acoustic telemetry from 2011 to 2015 was used to examine striped bass seasona...
Article
Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among thre...
Article
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Dams are ubiquitous environmental impacts that threaten aquatic ecosystems. The ability to compare across research studies is essential to conserve the native biodiversity that is impacted by the millions of low-head dams that currently fragment streams and rivers. Here, we identify a previously unaddressed obstacle that impedes this generalization...
Article
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Migratory behavior affects growth, survival, and fitness of individual fish, the dynamics and resilience of populations, and the ecosystems that fish occupy. Many salmonids are anadromous but individuals vary in the duration and spatial extent of marine migrations. We used telemetry to investigate movements of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytsc...
Article
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Telemetry can inform many scientific and research questions if a context exists for integrating individual studies into the larger body of literature. Creating cumulative distributions of post-tagging evaluation metrics would allow individual researchers to relate their telemetry data to other studies. Widespread reporting of standard metrics is a...
Article
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Conserving native biodiversity in the face of human- and climate-related impacts is a challenging and globally important ecological problem that requires an understanding of spatially-connected, organismal-habitat relationships. Globally, a suite of disturbances (e.g., agriculture, urbanization, climate change) degrades habitats and threatens biodi...
Article
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Quantifying physical heterogeneity is essential for meaningful ecological research and effective resource management. Spatial patterns of multiple, co-occurring physical features are rarely quantified across a seascape because of methodological challenges. Here, we identified approaches that measured total site-specific heterogeneity, an often over...
Article
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While Pacific salmon are known for their extensive marine migrations, some species display much more limited alternative patterns, including residence within interior marine waters. To more clearly define the scale of movement of these residents, we used acoustic telemetry to track subadult Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha caught in and rele...
Article
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Abstract—Recent acoustic tagging of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhyn-chus tshawytscha) in the southern portion of California’s Sacramen-to–San Joaquin Delta has revealed extremely low survival rates (<1%), possibly due to predation by piscivo-rous fishes. We evaluated predation as a cause of low survival by design-ing and testing freely floating G...
Article
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Understanding environmental drivers of spatial patterns is an enduring ecological problem that is critical for effective biological conservation. Discontinuities (ecologically meaningful habitat breaks), both naturally occurring (e.g., river confluence, forest edge, drop-off) and anthropogenic (e.g., dams, roads), can influence the distribution of...
Conference Paper
Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can dramatically alter ecological patterns and processes. Aquatic ecologists and fisheries biologists often examine variation in structure and function within and across habitats. Landscape ecologists frequently test questions about habitat mosaics. However, the impacts of within-patch, across-p...
Article
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Many aquatic organisms display seasonal and diel vertical migration (DVM) patterns, which are influenced by complex combinations of biotic and abiotic factors. Here, we examined the vertical distributions of sub-adult coho Oncorhynchus kisutch and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha in Puget Sound, Washington, USA, using acoustic telemetry to (1) compare...
Conference Paper
Habitat is critical for fisheries management, yet quantitative data on many fish-habitat associations are limited. Here, we assess what habitat data are available for blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), an important and popular sport fish. Then, we test if the most commonly cited habitat variables are related to the distribution of acoustically-tagg...
Conference Paper
Habitat heterogeneity is a ubiquitous feature of stream and river ecosystems that can alter biodiversity and change the effectiveness of conservation policies. Although much research invokes heterogeneity as an important ecological driver of biotic patterns, metrics that quantify heterogeneity differ, resulting in ambiguity in across-site compariso...
Conference Paper
Dams fragment ecological, hydrological, and geomorphological aspects of connectivity, which are fundamental characteristics of riverine ecosystems. Of the over 2,770 peer-reviewed papers on dams and fish, only about 6% target low-head dams (< 6 m) even though these small dams are a common and ubiquitous type of in-stream barrier. To increase scient...
Conference Paper
Movement can dramatically change the outcome of ecological interactions and the effectiveness of fisheries management. To integrate consequences of mobility into existing paradigms, researchers and managers need to know how distribution and movement varies within and across fish populations and species. During multiple diel periods, months, and yea...
Article
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Because human impacts and climate change threaten aquatic ecosystems, a need exists to quantify catchment-scale biodiversity patterns and identify conservation actions that can mitigate adverse human impacts on aquatic biota.Whereas many traditional aquatic resource questions can be answered by repeatedly sampling a few target species with limited...
Article
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The paucity of data on migratory connections and an incomplete understanding of how mobile organisms use geographically separate areas have been obstacles to understanding coastal dynamics. Research on acoustically tagged striped bass (Morone saxatilis) at the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) Long Term Ecological Research site, Massachusetts, documents...
Article
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long-term research on freshwater ecosystems provides insights that can be difficult to obtain from other approaches. Widespread monitoring of ecologically relevant water-quality parameters spanning decades can facilitate important tests of ecological principles. Unique long-term data sets and analytical tools are increasingly available, allowing fo...
Article
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Ecological indicators are science-based tools used to assess how human activities have impacted environmental resources. For monitoring and environmental assessment, existing species assemblage data can be used to make these comparisons through time or across sites. An impediment to using assemblage data, however, is that these data are complex and...
Article
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After centuries of disturbance, environmental professionals now recognize the need to restore coastal watersheds for native fish and protect the larger ecosystems on which fish and other aquatic biota depend. Anadromous fish species are an important component of coastal ecosystems that are often adversely affected by human activities. Restoring nat...
Conference Paper
Successful restoration often depends on broad stakeholder involvement and a scientifically literate public. Anadromous fish declines along the Atlantic coast have prompted diverse restoration and conservation efforts from state and federal agencies and concerned non-governmental organizations. In the northeastern United States, river herring (Alosa...
Conference Paper
Conserving and restoring anadromous fish is an important research and management priority. Along most of the Atlantic coast, anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) are declining. An understanding of alewife reproductive behavior is critical for interpreting distributional patterns and improving management efforts to restore populations. Out-of-...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Anthropogenic and natural changes can reduce ecosystem goods and services that coastal watersheds provide to society. To maintain resilient ecosystems in the face of change, we need to understand structure and function. Fragmentation caused by anthropogenic impacts can disrupt connectivity of stream ecosystems. However,...
Article
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Telemetry has allowed researchers to document the upstream migrations of anadromous fish in freshwater. In many anadromous alosine telemetry studies, researchers use downstream movements (“fallback”) as a behavioral field bioassay for adverse tag effects. However, these downstream movements have not been uniformly reported or interpreted. We quanti...
Article
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Successful conservation depends on a scientifically literate public. We developed the Adopt-A-Herring program to educate nonscientists about fisheries and watershed restoration. This interactive educational and outreach project encouraged coastal residents to be involved in local watershed restoration. In the northeastern United States, river herri...
Article
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Anadromous river herring (alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis), which constitute a historically and ecologically important component of coastal rivers, have declined precipitously throughout the Atlantic seaboard. Suggested causes of river herring decline include commercial fishing and predation by striped bass Morone s...
Article
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Temperature is important to fish in determining their geographic distribution. For cool-and cold-water fish, thermal regimes are especially critical at the southern end of a species' range. Although temperature is an easy variable to measure, biological interpretation is difficult. Thus, how to determine what temperatures are meaningful to fish in...

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