Joseph S Malik Peiris

Joseph S Malik Peiris
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · School of Public Health

MBBS; DPhil; FRCPath; HKAM

About

1,280
Publications
434,126
Reads
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114,166
Citations
Citations since 2016
322 Research Items
65452 Citations
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Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Member

Publications

Publications (1,280)
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction COVID-19 causes global health and psychosocial devastation, particularly to high-risk patients such as those with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). The mRNA-based BNT162b2 and inactivated whole-virus CoronaVac are two novel COVID-19 vaccines widely used across the world that confer immune protection to healthy individuals. However, hesita...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has demonstrated enhanced transmissibility and escape of vaccine-derived immunity. While current vaccines remain effective against severe disease and death, robust evidence on vaccine effectiveness (VE) against all Omicron infections (i.e. irrespective of symptoms) remains sparse. We addressed this knowledge-gap using...
Article
Full-text available
Vaccines that are broadly cross-protective against current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) or across the sarbecoviruses subgenus remain a priority for public health. Virus neutralization is the best available correlate of protection. To define the magnitude and breadth of cross-neutralization in individuals with different exposure t...
Article
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COVID-19 is the latest zoonotic RNA virus epidemic of concern. Learning how it began and spread will help to determine how to reduce the risk of future events. We review major RNA virus outbreaks since 1967 to identify common features and opportunities to prevent emergence, including ancestral viral origins in birds, bats, and other mammals; animal...
Article
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Influenza vaccination is an important intervention to prevent influenza virus infection. Our previous analysis suggested that indirect protection is limited in an influenza B epidemic in Hong Kong. We further analyzed six influenza A epidemics to determine such potential. We applied a statistical model to estimate household transmission dynamics in...
Article
Full-text available
Our study (NCT04800133) aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity in patients with IEIs receiving a 3-dose primary series of mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (age 12+) or inactivated whole-virion vaccine CoronaVac (age 3+) in Hong Kong, including Omicron BA.1 neutralization, in a nonrandomized manner. Intradermal vaccination was also studied. Thirty-ni...
Article
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Background The Omicron BA.2 sublineage has replaced BA.1 worldwide and has comparable levels of immune evasion to BA.1. These observations suggest that the increased transmissibility of BA.2 cannot be explained by the antibody evasion. Methods Here, we characterized the replication competence and respiratory tissue tropism of three Omicron variant...
Article
Zoonotic and pandemic influenza continue to pose threats to global public health. Pandemics arise when novel influenza A viruses, derived in whole or in part from animal or avian influenza viruses, adapt to transmit efficiently in a human population that has little population immunity to contain its onward transmission. Viruses of previous pandemic...
Preprint
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Background: There are few trials comparing homologous and heterologous third doses of COVID-19 vaccination with inactivated vaccines and mRNA vaccines. Methods: We conducted an open-label randomized trial in adults >=18 years of age who received two doses of inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac) or mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) >=6 months earlier, randomised i...
Preprint
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High effectiveness of the third dose of BNT162b2 in healthy adolescents against Omicron BA.1 has been reported, but immune responses conferring this protection are not yet elucidated. In this analysis, our study (NCT04800133) aims to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses against wild-type and Omicron (BA.1, BA.2 and/or BA.5) SARS-CoV-2 before...
Preprint
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Viral and host factors can shape SARS-CoV-2 within-host viral diversity and virus evolution. However, little is known about lineage-specific and vaccination-specific mutations that occur within individuals. Here we analysed deep sequencing data from 2,146 SARS-CoV-2 samples with different viral lineages to describe the patterns of within-host diver...
Article
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(247 words) Background BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 subvariants of SARS-CoV-2 variant-of-concern (VOC) Omicron (B.1.1.529) are spreading globally. They demonstrate higher transmissibility and immune escape. Objectives Determine BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 virus plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) antibody titres in individuals recently vaccinate...
Article
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Background The protective effect of T cell-mediated immunity against influenza virus infections in natural settings remains unclear, especially in seasonal epidemics. Methods To explore the potential of such protection, we analyzed the blood samples collected longitudinally in a community-based study and covered the first wave of pandemic H1N1 (pH...
Preprint
Introduction Third doses of COVID-19 vaccination provide an important boost to immunity, reducing the risk of symptomatic infection and the risk of severe disease. Third doses have been particularly important for improving protection against variants. However, waning of clinical protection particularly against Omicron has been noted after receipt o...
Article
Full-text available
Following detection of a novel virus, rapid characterization efforts (both in vitro and in vivo ) are undertaken at numerous laboratories worldwide to evaluate the relative risk posed to human health. Aggregation of these data are critical, but the use of nonstandardized protocols can make interpretation of divergent results a challenge.
Article
Several zoonotic influenza A viruses detected in humans contain genes derived from avian H9N2 subtypes. We uncovered a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with polymerase basic 1 and matrix gene segments derived from the H9N2 subtype, suggesting that H9N2 viruses are infecting pigs and reassorting with swine influenza viruses in China.
Article
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Background The epidemiological advantage of Omicron variant is evidenced by its rapid spread and the ability to outcompete prior variants. Among Omicron sub-lineages, early outbreaks were dominated by BA.1 while BA.2 has gained dominance since February 2022. The relative pathogenicity and transmissibility of BA.1 and BA.2 have not been fully define...
Article
The last influenza pandemic in 2009 emerged from swine and surveillance of swine influenza is important for pandemic preparedness. Movement of swine during husbandry, trade or marketing for slaughter provide opportunities for transfer and genetic reassortment of swine influenza viruses. Over 90% of the swine slaughtered at the central swine abattoi...
Article
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We present an interim analysis of a registered clinical study (NCT04800133) to establish immunobridging with various antibody and cellular immunity markers and to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 2-dose BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in healthy adolescents as primary objectives. One-dose BNT162b2, recommended in some localities for risk red...
Preprint
Background Safety and immunogenicity of 3 doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in adult and pediatric patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) remain unknown. Intradermal vaccination may improve immunogenicity in immunocompromised patients. Our study (NCT04800133) aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity in patients with IEIs receiving a 3...
Article
Full-text available
Antigenic imprinting, which describes the bias of the antibody response due to previous immune history, can influence vaccine effectiveness. While this phenomenon has been reported for viruses such as influenza, there is little understanding of how prior immune history affects the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. This study provides evidence for an...
Preprint
Vaccines that are broadly cross-protective against current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) or across the sarbecoviruses subgenus remain a priority for public health. Virus neutralization is the best available correlate of protection. We used sera from cohorts of individuals vaccinated with two or three doses of RNA (BNT162b2) or ina...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a rapid surge of hospitalization due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variants globally. The severity of Omicron BA.2 in unexposed, unvaccinated, hospitalized children is unknown. We investigated the severity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection during the Omicron wave in uninfected,...
Article
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Background: Limited data exist on antibody responses to mixed vaccination strategies involving inactivated COVID-19 vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants. Methods: We conducted an open label trial of a third vaccine dose of an mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Fosun Pharma/BioNTech) in adults aged ≥30 years who had previously received...
Article
We studied 2780 adults in Hong Kong who received CoronaVac inactivated virus vaccine (Sinovac) and BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (“Comirnaty”, BioNTech/Fosun Pharma). We compared rates of antibody waning over time using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for spike receptor binding domain and a surrogate virus neutralization test. We found stronger and mo...
Article
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The antibody response magnitude and kinetics may impact clinical severity, serological diagnosis and long-term protection of COVID-19, which may play a role in why children experience lower morbidity. We therefore tested samples from 122 children in Hong Kong with symptomatic (n = 78) and asymptomatic (n = 44) SARS-CoV-2 infections up to 200 days p...
Article
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Sewage surveillance is increasingly employed as a supplementary tool for COVID-19 control. Experiences learnt from large-scale trials could guide better interpretation of the sewage data for public health interventions. Here, we compared the performance of seven commonly used primer-probe sets in RT-qPCR and evaluated the usefulness in the sewage s...
Article
As of April 2022, the Omicron BA.1 variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 was spreading quickly around the world and outcompeting other circulating strains. We examined its stability on various surfaces and found that this Omicron variant is more stable than its ancestral strain on smooth and porous surfaces.
Article
Zoonotic influenza infections continue to threaten human health. Ongoing surveillance and risk assessment of animal viruses are needed for pandemic preparedness, and population immunity is an important component of risk assessment. We determined age-stratified hemagglutinin inhibition seroprevalence against 5 swine influenza viruses circulating in...
Article
Background Omicron subvariant BA.2 circulation is rapidly increasing globally.AimWe evaluated the neutralising antibody response from vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection against symptomatic infection by BA.2 or other variants.Methods Using 50% plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT50), we assessed neutralising antibody titres to BA.2, wi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sewage surveillance, by detecting SARS-CoV-2 virus circulation at the community level, has the potential to supplement individual surveillance for COVID-19. However, to date, there have been no reports about the large-scale implementation and validation of sewage surveillance for public health action. Objective: Here, we developed a...
Article
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Global sequencing and surveillance capacity for SARS-CoV-2 must be strengthened and combined with multidisciplinary studies of infectivity, virulence and immune escape, in order to track the unpredictable evolution of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
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We studied SARS-CoV-2 genomes from travelers arriving in Hong Kong during November 2021-February 2022. In addition to Omicron and Delta variants, we detected a BA.1/BA.2 recombinant with a breakpoint near the 5' end of the spike gene in 2 epidemiologically linked case-patients. Continued surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 recombinants is needed.
Article
We explored the potential for a biphasic pattern in waning of antibody titers after influenza vaccination. We collected blood samples in a randomized controlled trial of influenza vaccination in children, and tested them with hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays for influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B/Victoria lineage. Using piecewise log-linear...
Preprint
Full-text available
We studied SARS-CoV-2 genomes from travelers arriving in Hong Kong from November-2021 to February-2022. Apart from detecting Omicron (BA.1, BA1.1. and BA.2) and Delta variants, we detected a BA.1/BA.2 recombinant in two epidemiologically linked cases. This recombinant has a breakpoint near the 5' end of Spike gene (nucleotide position 20055-21618).
Preprint
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Ferrets represent the preferred animal model for assessing the transmission potential of newly emerged zoonotic influenza viruses. However, heterogeneity among established experimental protocols and facilities across different laboratories may lead to variable results, complicating interpretation of transmission experimental data. Between 2018-2020...
Article
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Background Stimulation of immunity by vaccination may elicit adverse events. There is currently inconclusive evidence on the relationship between herpes zoster related hospitalization and COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inactivated virus (CoronaVac, Sinovac) and mRNA (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Fosun Pharma) COVID-19 vaccin...
Article
Full-text available
Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) with progressively increased transmissibility between humans is a threat to global public health. The omicron variant also evades immunity from natural infection or vaccines1, but it is unclear whether its exceptional transmissibility is due to immune evasion or intrinsic virological properties. We...
Article
Full-text available
For >70 years, a 4-fold or greater rise in antibody titer has been used to confirm influenza virus infections in paired sera, despite recognition that this heuristic can lack sensitivity. Here we analyze with a novel Bayesian model a large cohort of 2353 individuals followed for up to 5 years in Hong Kong to characterize influenza antibody dynamics...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern spreads quickly around the world and outcompetes other circulating strains. We examined the stability of this SARS-CoV-2 variant on various surfaces and revealed that the Omicron variant is more stable than its ancestral strain on smooth and porous surfaces.
Article
Full-text available
The Omicron variant is rapidly becoming the dominant SARS-CoV-2 virus circulating globally. It is important to define reductions in virus neutralizing activity in serum of convalescent or vaccinated individuals to understand potential loss of protection against infection by Omicron. We have previously established that a 50% plaque reduction neutral...
Article
Full-text available
Background Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to other mammals, including pet animals, has been reported. However, with the exception of farmed mink, there is no previous evidence that these infected animals can infect humans, resulting in sustained human-to-human transmission. Following a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection of a pet shop worker, an...
Preprint
Full-text available
We studied 2864 adults in Hong Kong who received CoronaVac inactivated virus vaccine (Sinovac) and BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, BioNTech/Fosun Pharma). We found stronger and more durable antibody responses to two doses of the mRNA vaccine, and slightly stronger initial antibody responses to each vaccine in younger adults and women.
Article
Full-text available
Hong Kong employed a strategy of intermittent public health and social measures alongside increasingly stringent travel regulations to eliminate domestic SARS-CoV-2 transmission. By analyzing 1899 genome sequences (>18% of confirmed cases) from 23-January-2020 to 26-January-2021, we reveal the effects of fluctuating control measures on the evolutio...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariant BA.2 is increasing in some areas of the world and it is important to assess how well current vaccines may protect against this infection. BioNTech Pfizer (BNT162b2) and CoronaVac are widely used COVID-19 vaccines globally. We determined the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) and PRNT90 antibody titres to...
Preprint
Full-text available
For SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, efficacy data for BNT162b2 but not CoronaVac are available in adolescents. Phase II/III studies focused on neutralizing antibody responses in adolescents, neglecting binding antibody and cellular responses that are also important against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we conducted a registered clinical study (NCT04800133) to establ...
Article
Full-text available
Our results showed that adolescents with kidney diseases who are receiving immunosuppression or KRT could respond to 2 doses of BNT162b2 reasonably, but their antibody level was lower than that in healthy adolescents. As these patients are at increased risk of mortality from Covid, it is important to protect them with a robust antibody response fro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Limited data exist on antibody responses to mixed vaccination strategies involving inactivated COVID-19 vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants. Methods We conducted an open label trial of a third vaccine dose of an mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Fosun Pharma/BioNTech) in adults aged ≥30 years who had previously received two...
Article
To determine the effects of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for coronavirus disease on pediatric hospitalizations for infection with respiratory viruses other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, we analyzed hospital data for 2017-2021. Compared with 2017-2019, age-specific hospitalization rates associated with respiratory v...
Chapter
Impact evaluation is increasingly requested from research for both donor and social accountability (Faure et al., Agric Syst 165, 128–136; 2018). Conducting it properly is difficult, especially in the context of a developing country. Quantitative studies are often biased toward expected and tangible impacts. Complementary and more qualitative appro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Omicron, a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant has emerged and is rapidly becoming the dominant SARS-CoV-2 virus circulating globally. It is important to define reductions in virus neutralizing activity in serum of convalescent or vaccinated individuals to understand potential loss of protection from infection or re-infection. Two doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaV...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was done to identify the viral diversity, seasonality and burden associated with childhood acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in Sri Lanka. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of hospitalized children (1 month—5 years) with ARTI were collected in 2 centers (wet and dry zones) from March 2013 to August 2014. Respiratory viral anti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac; Sinovac) and mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty/BNT162b2; Fosun-Pharma/BioNTech) are available in Hong Kong's COVID-19 Vaccination Programme. We reported waning antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) among 850 fully vaccinated blood donors (i.e., receive...