Joseph Rathner

Joseph Rathner
University of Melbourne | MSD · Department of Physiology

About

31
Publications
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541
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (31)
Article
Full-text available
Objective Centrally administered estrogen can increase sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue, resulting in thermogenesis. The central thermogenic effects of estrogen have not been investigated in males. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effects of peripherally and centrally administered estrogen on thermogenesis, heart ra...
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-regulated learning (SRL) encompasses the strategies and behaviours that allow students to transform cognitive abilities into task-specific academic skills. Research in higher education has found a relationship between SRL and academic outcomes. However, whether SRL improves as students gain educational experience in undergraduate sc...
Article
Full-text available
Undergraduate science courses are particularly challenging for students transitioning into university. The departure from supportive high school environments can be difficult for students lacking self-directed and self-motivated learning skills. Many high-achieving school graduates entering higher education are surprised to discover they are ill-pr...
Article
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The impact of brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism on understanding energy balance in humans is a relatively new and exciting field of research. The pathogenesis of obesity can be largely explained by an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure, but the underlying mechanisms are far more complex. Traditional non-selective sympatheti...
Article
Full-text available
The role of central orexin in the sympathetic control of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis has been established in rodents. Stimulatory doses of caffeine activate orexin positive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, a region of the brain implicated in stimulating BAT thermogenesis. This study tests the hypothesis that central...
Article
Full-text available
Functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) was identified in adult humans only in 2007 with the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between obesity and BAT presence in humans. It is proposed that BAT possesses the capacity to increase metabolism and aid weight loss. In...
Article
Flipped classroom teaching has been used by many educators to promote active learning in higher education. This andragogy is thought to increase student engagement by making them more accountable for their learning and increase time on task in the classroom. While there are several systematic reviews that point to improved student results, it remai...
Article
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"Only teach me what I need to know!" This commonly heard refrain is often spoken by allied health students while studying preclinical sciences (physiology, anatomy, pharmacology). Here we use a clinical scenario undertaken by second-year Bachelor of Paramedic Practice students of acute coronary syndrome to demonstrate the difference in clinical dec...
Article
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Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive experience which immerses the user in a digital environment through a sense of presence. In the context of providing an active learning experience, virtual reality has the potential to improve learning outcomes for biomedical science students as it allows the visualisation of and interaction with digital repre...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmacological interventions to aid weight loss have historically targeted either appetite suppression or increased metabolic rate. Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) possesses the capacity to expend energy in a futile cycle, thus increasing basal metabolic rate. In animal models, estrogen has been implicated in the regulation of body weight and it is hyp...
Article
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Bioscience is a foundational unit (subject) of undergraduate allied health degree programs, providing students the scientific basis underpinning their clinical practice. However, despite its significance, bioscience is a difficult academic hurdle for many students to master. The introduction of active learning strategies, including small team-based...
Article
Evidence shows that factors contributing to success in physiology education for allied health students at universities include not only their high school achievement and background but also factors such as confidence with their teachers and quality of their learning experience, justifying intensive and continued survey of students' perceptions of t...
Article
The study of human bioscience is viewed as a crucial curriculum in allied health. Nevertheless, bioscience (and particularly physiology) is notoriously difficult for undergraduates, particularly academically disadvantaged students. So endemic are the high failure rates (particularly in nursing) that it has come to be known as "the human bioscience...
Article
Full-text available
In an era of rationalization and emphasis on economies of scales (Hare, 2011; Johnson, 2009; Trounson & Ross, 2011), many allied health and nursing programmes are finding the need to develop Core Subjects that can cater to the needs of a diverse range of students. Historically, human bioscience (anatomy and physiology) has been a major stumbling bl...
Article
Resistin is an adipokine, originally identified in adipose tissue, and its plasma levels are elevated in obesity. Characteristics of obesity include impaired metabolic regulation and cardiovascular dysfunction, such as increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the kidney and skeletal muscle vasculature. Resistin can affect energy homeostasis th...
Article
Full-text available
Resistin, an adipokine, is believed to act in the brain to influence energy homeostasis. Plasma resistin levels are elevated in obesity and are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is a characteristic of obesity, a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized...
Article
Full-text available
A reduction of heat loss to the environment through increased cutaneous vasoconstrictor (CVC) sympathetic outflow contributes to elevated body temperature during fever. We determined the role of neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in increases in CVC sympathetic tone evoked by PGE2 into the preoptic area (POA) in chloralose/urethane-anest...
Data
Effects of IP AM251 on c-Fos and POMC-EGFP co-localization in POMC-EGFP mice. ARH slices were stained for c-Fos and EGFP expression. c-Fos staining indicated in brightfield images and POMC-EGFP neurons shown in fluorescence (FITC-green). Red arrows indicate c-Fos and POMC-EGFP co-localized cells. A, c-Fos activation in response to IP saline; B, c-F...
Data
Representative photomicrographs showing c-Fos IR in response to IP saline, WIN 55212-2 and AM251 administration in Ay mice. A, B, C, c-Fos activation in response to saline in the NAc, PVH and NTS. D, E, F, Increased c-Fos IR in response to IP WIN 55,212-2. G, H, I, c-Fos IR in response to IP AM251. ac, anterior commissure; 3V, third ventricle, AP,...
Data
Effects of WIN 55,212-2 and AM251 on α-MSH release from POMC neurons of the hypothalamus. There was no significant effect on α-MSH release (fmol/ml) from POMC neurons by cannabinoids. All values are expressed as mean±SEM. (0.14 MB TIF)
Data
Representative photomicrographs showing c-Fos IR in response to intra-VTA administration of AM251 in the VMH and DMH in WT mice. Inset diagram is representative of VTA cannulation placement with the arrow indicating the tip of the guide cannula; the injector extends 1 mm further for injections. A, c-Fos IR in response to intra-VTA saline. B, c-Fos...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana, stimulate appetite, and cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R) antagonists suppress appetite and promote weight loss. Little is known about how CB1-R antagonists affect the central neurocircuitry, specifically the melanocortin system that regulates energy balance. Here, we show that peripherally administere...
Article
Central inhibitory pathways play a significant role in determining the level of sympathetic outflow to the cold defense efferents in mammals. We tested the hypothesis that neurons in the rostral ventromedial periaqueductal gray (rvmPAG) are a source of inhibitory regulation of the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to brown adipose tissue (BAT). In u...
Article
1. In a search for sympathetic premotor neurons subserving thermoregulatory functions, medullary raphé-spinal neurons were studied in urethane-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated, paralysed rats. Extracellular unit recordings were made from a region previously shown to drive the sympathetic supplies to tail vessels and brown adipose tissue. Neur...
Article
Sympathetic activity was recorded from the renal nerve and the ventral tail artery of anesthetized rats while neurons in three sympathetic premotor groups, the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), rostroventromedial medulla (RVMM) and medullary raphe, were activated by microinjections of sodium glutamate (1-15 nl, 50 mM). RVLM activation increased r...
Article
The segmental origins of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons which control the circulation of the rat tail were investigated and compared with those that supply the hindpaw. The left ventral roots of the first, second and sometimes the third lumbar segments were stimulated with 2-min pulse trains in 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were anaesth...

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