Joseph P. Forgas

Joseph P. Forgas
UNSW Sydney | UNSW · School of Psychology

BA(Hons) (Macq), DPhil (Oxford), DSc (Oxford)

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149
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Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Can mood influence people’s ability to produce humorous verbal messages? Based on recent theories linking affect to social cognition and information-processing strategies, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood increased people’s ability to generate more creative, humorous, and elaborate verbal contents. Participants viewed positive...
Article
Can mood influence the way people produce and respond to ingratiating messages? Based on recent affect-cognition theories we demonstrate for the first time that mild negative mood increased communicators' use of ingratiatory tactics such as flattery, conformity and self-promotion (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 further confirmed that ingratiatory messages w...
Article
Can good or bad mood influence how people process verbal information about others? Based on affect-cognition theories, this experiment predicted and found that the way a question is phrased has a greater influence on impressions than actual answers when judges are experiencing a negative rather than a neutral or positive mood. After an audiovisual...
Article
The subtle relationship between feeling and thinking, affect and cognition has fascinated philosophers and writers since time immemorial, yet, empirical research on this topic was relatively neglected by psychologists until recently. There have been many claims emphasising the beneficial cognitive and behavioural consequences of positive affect. Ma...
Article
In response to Palermo (2016, Australian Psychologist, in press) comments, some aspects of the target paper are further elaborated here. In particular, given Palermo's timely emphasis on the potential social and cultural implications of research demonstrating the beneficial consequences of negative affect, the historical background, and practical i...
Book
It is motivation that drives all our daily endeavors, and it is motivation, or the lack of it, that accounts for most of our successes and failures. Motivation, however, needs to be carefully controlled and regulated to be effective. This book surveys the most recent psychological research on how motivational processes are regulated in daily life t...
Article
Can temporary mood influence people's communication strategies? According to Grice's cooperative principle, conversational utterances should ideally conform to the maxims of quantity, relevance, quality, and manner. Three experiments predicted and found that participants in a negative mood complied significantly better with Grice's maxims than did...
Article
Many social decisions involve a basic conflict between selfishness versus fairness. In the ultimatum game, proposers divide resources between themselves and others, and responders can accept or veto such allocations. Two experiments predicted and found that mood influenced the decision-making strategies of both proposers and responders. In Experime...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews recent evidence for the benefits of negative affect for thinking and behavior, consistent with evolutionary theories suggesting an adaptive function for all affective states. Numerous experiments demonstrate that negative affect can improve memory performance, reduce judgmental errors, improve motivation, and result in more eff...
Article
Can negative mood improve language understanding? Two experiments explored mood effects on people’s ability to correctly identify sentences that lack clear meaning in the absence of further contextual information (ambiguous anaphora). Based on recent affect – cognition theories, we predicted and found that negative affect, induced by film clips, im...
Article
Considers the process of social categorization from a cognitive perspective, pointing out the importance of the "value" dimensions of categorizations. Categorizing people as in-group or out-group members may help individuals create a positive social identity and thus feel good about themselves, but it is also a fundamental cause of prejudice. The a...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, the authors discuss some of the influences of affective states on cognitive processes, especially those involved in memory and judgment. An important and influential idea for explaining mood effects on memory and judgment has been the affect priming theory. According to this view, the arousal of a mood or emotion spreads activation...
Chapter
Full-text available
How does affect or mood influence the way people think, remember, and deal with information? Understanding the delicate interplay between feeling and thinking, affect and cognition has for long remained one of the greatest puzzles about human nature. In this chapter we review extensive research documenting the multiple roles that affect plays in in...
Article
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This paper will discuss the importance of concepts such as belief and affect to the theory and practice of health psychology, and the potential contribution of the revised conceptualisation of belief proposed in the target article will be considered. In the first half of the paper a number of important differences between the new approach and estab...
Article
Can mood states influence the perceived truth of ambiguous or novel information? This study predicted and found that mood can significantly influence peoples' reliance on processing fluency when making truth judgments. Fluent information was more likely to be judged as true (the truth effect), and consistent with Bless and Fiedler's (2006) assimila...
Article
Do temporary moods influence people's tendency to blame victims for undeserved negative events? Based on research on the just world effect and recent affect theories, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood decreased and negative mood increased people's motivation to blame innocent victims for their misadventures. Participants (N=70)...
Article
The cognitive representation of social episodes in two intact sports teams, matched for size (n = 15), age, subcultural background, intelligence, SES and longevity of membership was studied. Based on recent approaches to social cognition, and on symbolic interactionist theory, it was expected that three indices of episode perception (differentiatio...
Article
Interest in social cognition is one of the major new developments in social psychology in recent years. This paper argues for a radically expanded view of social cognition as not merely the information-processing analysis of social domains, but as a field genuinely devoted to the study of the relationship between individual cognition and socio-cult...
Article
The role of person prototypes in impression formation was examined in two studies. In the first study, free-response descriptions of naturally occurring person prototypes were subjected to an Individual Differences Multidimensional Scaling (INDSCAL) analysis in order to create a quantified prototype taxonomy. Results showed that three dimensions (a...
Article
Can good or bad mood influence the common tendency for people to form judgments based on first impressions? Based on research on impression formation and recent work on affect and social cognition, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood increased, and negative mood eliminated the primacy effect. After an autobiographical mood induct...
Article
How does mood influence people's willingness to disclose intimate information about themselves? Based on recent affect-cognition theories and research on interpersonal behavior, 3 experiments predicted and found that people in a positive mood disclosed more intimate, more varied, and more abstract information about themselves. In contrast, people i...
Article
Social episodes are shared, consensual cognitive representations about recurring interaction routines within a subculture. Following a review of historical and contemporary approaches to the study of social situations in various branches of psychology, our own empirical research on social episodes is summarized. The following four problem areas wer...
Article
Full-text available
Although environmentalism is now a major social and political issue in most Western democracies, relatively little is known about the psychological and attitudinal correlates of environmental concern. In this study, the relationship between environmental attitudes, political and economic conservatism, and traditional morality were investigated in a...
Article
Full-text available
Are social decisions influenced by mood? In this study, subjects feeling happy, sad, or neutral were asked to select a partner from eight potential candidates, either for themselves (personally relevant condition) or for another subject (personally irrelevant condition). Each target was described in a detailed “personnel file,” covering both task a...
Article
The perception of 20 salient Australian and foreign political personalities was studied using a multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure, with a view towards (a) establishing the dimensions used to differentiate between politicians, and (b) evaluating the relationship between the judges' personality, attitudinal and cognitive characteristics and th...
Article
Attributions of responsibility for outcomes in typical life dilemmas were studied, as a function of the actors' risky or cautious decisions, and success or failure outcomes. Subjects (N=133) read descriptions of eight modified life dilemmas based on Kogan and Wallach's (1964) questionnaire, each concluded by a paragraph describing the risky/cautiou...
Article
Full-text available
Processing of evaluative information is a central theme in social cognition research. Most studies focus on processing advantages associated with negative information. Here, we demonstrate and explain the faster processing of positive information. Building on the "density" hypothesis (Unkelbach et al., 2008), we predicted that this advantage is exp...
Article
Does temporary mood influence how fair or selfish we are in interpersonal situations? These three experiments predicted and found that when people have the power to allocate scarce resources between themselves and others in the dictator game, positive mood increased selfishness, and sad mood produced greater fairness. In a public setting (Experimen...
Article
The present study investigated how mood state and the eye gaze of the target influence ratings of trustworthiness and friendliness in photographs of faces. In a pilot study, participants rated gaze cues as being more applicable to ratings of trustworthiness than friendliness. The main study found that all participants rated faces with averted, comp...
Chapter
Full-text available
Imagine the following scenario. It is a cold, rainy day, and as you enter the local news agency to buy a paper, you briefly notice a number of strange items on the checkout counter – a matchbox car, some plastic toy animals, and a few other trinkets, objects that really do not belong in a shop environment. As you leave the store, a young woman appr...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of co-witness discussion and delay on eyewitness memory. Participants viewed crime videos and then after a delay (20 min or 2 weeks) their memories for the videos were tested using a recognition questionnaire. They were then randomly assigned to one of three conditions: discussion in groups with a confederate pro...
Article
Can good or bad mood induced by the weather influence people’s ability to correctly remember everyday scenes? In this unobtrusive field study, we predicted and found that weather-induced negative mood improved memory accuracy. Randomly selected shoppers on bright, sunny days (good mood) or on cloudy, rainy days (bad mood) saw 10 unusual objects in...
Chapter
The last 25 years have witnessed a surge of research interest in the interplay between affect and memory. Much of this interest has revolved around two general questions, one of which concerns memory in affect: How do affective states or moods influence the acquisition and retention of information? The other question involves memory about affect: W...
Article
Are we more likely to believe or disbelieve another person depending on our mood state? Based on past research on interpersonal communication and recent work on affect and social cognition, we predicted and found that negative mood increased and positive mood decreased people’s skepticism and their ability to detect deception, consistent with the m...
Article
Does mood influence people’s tendency to accept observed facial expressions as genuine? Based on recent theories of affect and cognition, two experiments predicted and found that negative mood increased and positive mood decreased people’s skepticism about the genuineness of facial expressions. After a mood induction, participants viewed images of...
Article
Does Islamic appearance increase aggressive tendencies, and what role does affect play in such responses? In a computer game, participants made rapid decisions to shoot at armed people, some of whom wore Islamic head dress. We predicted and found a significant bias for participants to shoot more at Muslim targets. We also predicted and found that p...
Article
Based on recent theories of affect and cognition, this unobtrusive field experiment predicted and found that induced positive mood improved real-life customer service behaviors by less experienced sales staff, but had no effect on the behaviors of experienced long-term staff in several department stores. Positive or negative mood was unobtrusively...
Article
Does temporary mood inXuence people's tendency to engage in self-handicapping behaviors? Based on past research on self-handicap-ping and recent work on aVect and social behaviors, this experiment predicted and found that positive mood signiWcantly increased the tendency to engage in two kinds of self-handicapping strategies. Participants (N D 94)...
Article
Does temporary mood influence people's ability to engage in effective thought suppression? Based on past research on mental control and recent work on affective influences on social cognition, this experiment predicted and found that negative mood improved and positive mood impaired people's ability to suppress their thoughts when instructed not to...
Article
Based on recent affect-cognition theories and research on social influence strategies, four experiments predicted and found that people in negative mood produced higher quality and more effective interpersonal persuasive messages than did people in positive mood. This effect was obtained for messages advocating both popular and unpopular positions...
Article
What role can computers play in the study of strategic interpersonal behaviours, and research on affective influences on social behaviour in particular? Despite intense recent interest in affective phenomena, the role of affect in social interaction has rarely been studied. This paper reviews past work on affective influences on interpersonal behav...
Article
Full-text available
The hypothesis was explored that, as a consequence of the asymmetrical relationship that exists between Australia and New Zealand, Australians will more consistently support New Zealand against third-party sports teams than will New Zealanders support Australia. The hypothesis was supported in two studies in which participants in each country rank-...
Article
The explanations people give for wealth, or financial success, are not only of considerable political importance, but also offer an opportunity to assess some of the implications of attribution theory in a real-lie setting. In the present study, 324 subjects from all walks of life and a variety of socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds were aske...
Article
Implicit cognitive representations of 20 salient political personalities (10 domestic, 10 foreign) were studied in two samples (N1= 121; N2= 129) over a 1-year interval. The aim of the study was to elaborate multidimensional models of voting preference by (a) representing the cognitive dimensions used by subjects in perceiving politicians, (b) cont...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between personality variables and the way an individual cognitively represents and interprets various interaction situations. A sample of typical and recurring interaction episodes within a student milieu was first elicited using a free response diary method. In the main study, subjects from...
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Full-text available
Frontiers of Social Psychology is a new series of domain-specific handbooks. The purpose of each volume is to provide readers with a cutting-edge overview of the most recent theoretical, methodological, and practical developments in a substantive area of social psychology, in greater depth than is possible in general social psychology handbooks. (P...
Article
Does mood influence the accuracy of eyewitness recollections, and people’s susceptibility to misleading information in particular? Based on recent affect-cognition theories and research on eyewitness memory, three experiments predicted and found that positive affect promoted, and negative affect inhibited the incorporation of misleading information...
Article
Does the narrative perspective people adopt when describing important life events convey any hidden information to audiences about their social identities? In this experiment, participants (who were either professional psychotherapists, or laypersons) formed impressions about, and judged the identities of narrators who described important identity-...
Article
Full-text available
How does mood influence verbal communication? Based on recent affect-cognition theories and communication research on message production, this experiment predicted and found (a) a significant affect-congruent influence on performance feedback messages, that (b) was significantly greater for inexperienced rather than expert communicators. Participan...
Chapter
IntroductionThe Associative Network ModelBasic Predictions and the Empirical EvidenceCritical EvaluationBeyond Network Theories: The Affect Infusion Model (AIM)Summary and Conclusions AcknowledgementsReferences
Chapter
INTRODUCTION, The influence of affective states on motivated action has long been supported by anecdotal evidence as well as in literature. A well-known short story on chess by Thomas Mann describes how upbeat or downbeat background music can produce sudden shifts in mood, motivating chess players to shift their strategies from aggressive to defens...
Book
This book presents ground-breaking research by leading international researchers on the nature, functions and characteristics of social motivation. Its contributors focus on a variety of issues, such as the functions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the subtle roles that habits and goals play in producing and maintaining motivated social...
Article
What are the adaptive evolutionary mechanisms, and the specific cognitive strategies that allow people to manage and maintain their daily mood fluctuations within reasonable limits? Despite intense recent interest in affective phenomena, spontaneous changes over time in mood effects have rarely been studied. This paper outlines a homeostatic theory...
Article
Does mood influence people’s tendency to engage in evasive, equivocal communication when facing conflict situations? Based on recent affect–cognition theories and research on verbal communication, this experiment predicted that negative mood should increase, and positive mood decrease the level of verbal evasiveness in conflict situations, and that...
Article
INTRODUCTION, One of the most striking characteristics of human behavior that has fascinated philosophers and writers since antiquity is its purposive, intentional quality. Nearly everything we do is done for a reason. In everyday social life, people are constantly pursuing goals and trying to satisfy their desires and wants. It could even be argue...
Chapter
The interplay between feeling and thinking, affect and cognition, has been a subject of scholarly discussion and spirited debate since antiquity. Within the past 25 years, the affect/cognition interface has also emerged as one of the most active and rapidly developing areas within psychological science. Two phenomena that have attracted much modern...
Article
This article reviews and integrates recent research in experimental social psychology and organizational behavior demonstrating the pervasive influence that affective states or moods have on judgments, decision making, and behavior in organizations. An information processing theory, the Affect Infusion Model (AIM) is described that can account for...
Article
What role do affective states play in everyday social behavior? This article presents an overview of recent research on the influence of affective states on the way people think and act in social situations, with a special emphasis on the applied and preventive implications of this work. We review psychodynamic, conditioning, and cognitive explanat...
Article
Evaluations of consumer items may often be based on affective reactions, and many marketing strategies rely on affective manipulations to influence a desire of ownership. Surprisingly, there has been relatively little empirical work investigating the influence of short-term mood states on how people evaluate their material possessions. In particula...
Article
How does temporary mood influence the way people think and behave in social situations? Although most people are intuitively aware that feelings can have a profound influence on their thoughts, judgments and behaviors, we do not yet fully understand how and why these influences occur. This paper presents an integrative review of past and present id...
Article
Full-text available
What is the role of affect in language use, and the production of requests ini particular? Two experiments predicted and found that (a) sad moods increase and happy moods decrease request politeness, and (b) these mood effects are greater when considering more risky and unconventional requests that require more elaborate processing. In Experiment 1...
Article
Full-text available
How does mood influence verbal communication, such as the use of requests? On the basis of the Affect Infusion Model (J. P. Forgas, 1995a), 3 experiments predicted and found that (a) negative moods increase and positive moods decrease request politeness and (b) they do so most in difficult situations that require more substantive processing. In Exp...
Article
Does temporary mood influence the occurrence of the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Based on recent affect-cognition theorizing and research on attributions, 3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the FAE, because of the information-processing consequences of these affective states. In Experi...
Article
a number of literatures in what is an unusually eclectic endeavor of model building. Her case often rests on selective references to preceding theorizing (such as psychoanalytic speculations), whereas more recent experimental work probing the subtle interdependence among affect, cognition, and behavior receives relatively less attention. Our commen...
Article
Receiving requests presents people with complex strategic choices. How does mood influence reactions to more or less polite requests? Based on the affect infusion model (AIM), it was predicted and found that (a) reactions to requests show a significant mood-congruent bias that (b) is greater for impolite requests that recruit more substantive proce...
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Presents a detailed theory of mood management that focuses on the various situational, task, and individual difference factors that facilitate or hinder effective emotional self-regulation. The authors argue that the major goal of the mood management system is affective equilibrium and that mild affective states give rise to one of two subtle and o...
Chapter
The dual nature of the human mind, comprising a combination of rational and emotional characteristics, has been a source of fascination to philosophers and laymen since time immemorial (Hilgard, 1980). How does affect influence a person’s cognitive processes, and how does cognition impact on affective states? Although this question lies at the hear...
Article
Full-text available
What is the role of mood in intergroup discrimination? In 3 experiments, people in happy, sad, or neutral moods made reward allocation decisions and formed impressions about in-group and out-group members. When the personal relevance of the group was low, positive mood resulted in faster, more heuristic processing and greater intergroup discriminat...
Article
This is a review of the book, "The Heart's Eye: Emotional Influences in Perception and Attention" (see record 1994-97332-000 ). The editors hope that the volume will take psychology as a field some distance "in answering two major questions: Does emotion play an important and distinctive role in low-level cognitive processes? And who cares if it do...
Article
What sorts of features define people's implicit cognitive representations about the political domain in a newly emerging democracy, with no previous experience of multi-party politics? This study used a multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach to investigate the dimensional structure of, and individual differences in, cognitive representations of th...
Article
Do feelings have a disproportionate impact on the way we perceive and remember unusual, atypical people? Based on the author's recent Affect Infusion Model (AIM), four experiments found that extended processing recruited by atypical targets significantly enhanced both negative and positive mood effects on judgments (Experiment 1) as well as on memo...
Article
Two experiments investigated the role of short-term affective states on the way people perceive various aspects of their personal relationships. Using an unobtrusive mood induction in a field setting, Experiment 1 found significant mood congruency in evaluative judgments about well-established intimate relationships. Experiment 2 used a controlled...
Article
This paper presents an overview of current evidence for the role of affect in social judgments, and the work represented in this Special Issue in particular A new integrative theory, the Affect Infusion Model (AIM) IS outlined as a comprehensive and parsimonious explanation of these effects. The model assumes that the degree of affect infusion into...

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