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Joseph Davidovits

Joseph Davidovits
Geopolymer Institute, Saint-Quentin France

Professor
Emeritus Professor, working presently on Geopolymer science applied to archaeology.

About

79
Publications
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Introduction
Joseph Davidovits is known by the scientific community for being the inventor of geopolymer science. The general public recognizes his works on archaeological science and his discoveries regarding building with artificial geopolymer stones in the Egyptian pyramids as well as more recently in pre-Columbian monuments of the Altiplano (Bolivia, Tiwanaku-Pumapunku). He currently works at Institut Géopolymère / Geopolymer Institute, France, Saint-Quentin, www.geopolymer.org , or, www.davidovits.info. He does research in Geochemistry. His current projects are 'Our new projects for 2019 and beyond' ,"Geopolymer Science applied to archaeology", "Geopolymer cement and concrete", "Geopolymer for Toxic Waste Management" and updating his standard book "Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications".

Publications

Publications (79)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The international energy crisis should speed up industrial development of electrically-conductive Geopolymers in large-scale Microbial Fuel Cells technologies for sustainable electricity generation. Currently, Microbial Fuel Cells are recognized as one of the most promising technologies for sustainable energy generation from a variety of waste wate...
Book
Full-text available
Este es un libro de divulgación científica sobre el descubrimiento, en 2017-2018, del uso de las tecnologías de la piedra geopolimérica implementadas en Tiahuanaco (Pumapunku/Tiwanaku) (600-800 d.C.), Bolivia, y sus posibles consecuencias en la construcción de los monumentos y estatuas de la Isla de Pascua. Para mayor información, consulte los dis...
Book
Full-text available
Science popularization book on the discovery in 2017-2018 of the use of the Geopolymer stone technologies implemented at Tiahuanaco (Pumapunku/Tiwanaku) (600-800 AD), Bolivia, and its possible consequences on the monuments and statues of Easter Island. See the several papers in Research Gate published in August - September 2019 and December 2020....
Book
Full-text available
Livre de vulgarisation scientifique sur la Découverte en 2017-2018 de l’emploi des technologies des pierres Géopolymères mises en œuvre à Tiahuanaco (Pumapunku/Tiwanaku) (600-800 apr. J-C.), Bolivie, et ses conséquences possibles sur les monuments et statues de l’Ile de Pâques. Voir les différents articles dans Research Gate publiés en Août - Septe...
Preprint
Full-text available
The studies carried out in 2015-2018 on the monumental stones constituting the Pumapunku site in Bolivia (South America) provide evidence that the stones are ancient artificial geopolymers. The two types of lithics under consideration are large platforms and ‘sculptures’ exhibiting characteristics that would have been extremely difficult, if not im...
Preprint
Full-text available
How to cite this paper: J. Davidovits and F. Davidovits, Geopolymer and Archaeology (2020) 36-43. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.10021.93929/1. The studies carried out in 2017-2018 on the monumental stones constituting the Pumapunku site in Bolivia (South America) provided evidence that the stones are ancient artificial geopolymers (Parts I to III). To make...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Geopolymer Camp 2020 was cancelled due to COVID-19 pandemic. However, we have just recorded Professor J. Davidovits' annual keynote. This keynote is a review on what happened in 2019 and the first semester of 2020 on geopolymer science and applications.
Presentation
Full-text available
Hundreds of thousands of people have read articles and seen videos on the internet dealing with the pyramids of Egypt having been constructed from geopolymer concrete. The arguments of the opponents are always based on the same papers written by American geologists, published 15 to 30 years ago. These three publications are draped in scientific imp...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
A continent is on fire. Both Australia and California have never experienced such an inferno. More and more citizens are blaming the climate change (that is CO2 emissions) responsible for this. But the governments of Australia, along with the U.S., Russia, Brazil, China, India, Poland, South Africa and also Germany - where coal mining and coal-powe...
Preprint
Full-text available
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25792.89608 The implementation in the mass production of geopolymeric cements in the world can no longer be based on coal-fly ashes for different reasons. In addition, Global Warming concerns will inevitably stop the manufacture of this ultimate waste of coal burning, fly ash. Rock-based geopolymer cements are the solution. Yet...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is the exact transcript in English of the conference held at the Geopolymer Camp 2018, in the Session: Ancient Technologies, Tuesday, July 10, 2018, titled: “Joint Research Program Conducted by the Geopolymer Institute and Universidad Catolica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru, First Scientific Results on Tiahuanaco / Pumapunku Megalithic Monuments (T...
Presentation
Full-text available
Le texte original est en anglais. Ceci est la traduction en français. Nous avons découverts que les monuments de Tiahuanaco / Tiwanaku en Bolivie sont en pierres artificielles créées il y a 1400 ans. Une équipe internationale de scientifiques de Universidad Catolica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru et Geopolymer Institute, Saint-Quentin, France ont publié...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Científicos descubren que monumentos de Tiwanaku en Bolivia están hechos de rocas artificiales creadas hace 1400 años. Un equipo internacional de científicos del Institut Geopolymere (Geopolymer Institute), Saint-Quentín, Francia, y de la Universidad Católica San pablo, Arequipa, Perú, publicaron los resultados de un estudio llevado a cabo en roca...
Preprint
Full-text available
For publication in the Geopolymer Institute Library, Technical Paper #26-MK-testing. ABSTRACT The majority of the technical and scientific information pertaining to commercial calcined kaolinitic clays of the type metakaolins (MK) are currently focusing on the pozzolanic reactivity and replacement of Portland cement. It is not adapted for geopolym...
Article
Full-text available
A recent study has shown the presence of artificial construction materials in pre-Columbian monuments at Pumapunku-Tiwanaku, Bolivia. In addition to ancient geopolymer sandstone- concrete megalithic slabs, the Pumapunku site contains puzzling “H” structures made of andesitic volcanic stone. The SEM study of this gray andesite shows the presence of...
Presentation
Full-text available
Script of the Video series available at the Geopolymer Institute, https://www.geopolymer.org/faq/alkali-activated-materials-geopolymers/ and on YouTube). Many scientists and civil engineers are mistaking alkali activation for geopolymers, fueling confusion, using them as synonyms without understanding what they really are. To sum up: Alkali-Activ...
Article
Full-text available
The make-up of the sandstone megalithic blocks, weighing between 130 and 180 tonnes each, from Pumapunku -Tiwanaku, Bolivia, was compared with three geological sandstone sites from the area. The SEM/EDS, XRD and thin section results suggest that the sandstone megalithic blocks consist of sandstone grains from the Kalla-Marka geological site, cement...
Chapter
Full-text available
Much of the original research into geopolymers was conducted on calcined kaolinitic clay precursors known as metakaolins. The chemical formula for kaolinite is Si2O5Al2(OH)4. From a geopolymer standpoint we may write oSi-O-Al-(OH)2 with the covalent aluminum hydroxyl - Al- (OH)2 side groups of the poly(siloxo) hexagonal macromolecule [Si2O5]n. Meta...
Chapter
Full-text available
Les Chapitres 4 et 5 décrivent les différentes analyses scientifiques qui furent entreprises depuis 1984 dans le but de démontrer la nature artificielle (calcaire reconstitué géopolymère) des pierres des pyramides de Gizeh. En 1984, publication dans Science in Egyptology: Analyses chimiques aux rayons X et diffraction aux rayons X des pierres de re...
Article
Full-text available
Geopolymers are ceramic-like inorganic polymers produced at low temperature, generally below 100 °C. They consist of chains or networks of mineral molecules linked with covalent bonds. The raw materials are mainly minerals of geological origin, hence the name "geopolymer". They comprise several molecular units for example: silico-oxide (Na, K)-(-Si...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At the 9th International Congress of Egyptologists, Grenoble, 2004, we presented a paper entitled: Why Djoser's blue Egyptian faience tiles are not blue? Manufacturing Djoser's faience tiles at temperatures as low as 250°C. In the present study, we examine 11 faience tiles pertaining to a private collection of 104 tiles dating from the 2nd and 3rd...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of published Environmental Impact LCA studies are dealing with alkali-activated materials not with Geopolymer Cement/concretes. They ignore the evolution of the formulations for geopolymer cement since its invention in 1983-85 (see Table 1), simply because it pertains to the industrial and commercial implementation, not to "regular" sc...
Article
Full-text available
1. Introduction 2. Portland cement chemistry vs Geopolymer cement chemistry 2.1 Alkali-activated materials vs Geopolymer cements. 2.2 User-friendly alkaline-reagents 3. Geopolymer cement categories 3.1 Slag-based geopolymer cement 3.2 Rock-based geopolymer cement 3.3 Fly ash-based geopolymer cements 3.4 Ferro-sialate-based geopolymer cement 4. CO2...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the differences that occur in the chemical mechanism of "alkali-activated slag" and slag-based geopolymer. The negative aspects of alkali-activation are essentially due to corrosive mixture conditions, coined "user-hostile" when compared with the mild milieu that governs geopolymerisation, coined "user-friendly". Ca-based geopolymer with...
Book
Full-text available
In this book, Professor Joseph Davidovits explains the intriguing theory that made him famous. He shows how the Pyramids were built by using re-agglomerated stone (a natural limestone treated like a concrete), and not with huge carved blocks, hauled on fragile ramps. Archaeology bears him out, as well as hieroglyphic texts, scientific analysis, rel...
Article
Full-text available
This study deals with the use of fly ash as a starting material for geopolymeric matrices. The leachable concentrations of geopolymers were compared with those of the starting fly ash to evaluate the retention of potentially harmful elements within the geopolymer matrix. Geopolymer matrices give rise to a leaching scenario characterised by a highly...
Book
Full-text available
All chapters of the previous editions have been updated. YET, THIS 5th EDITION ADDS TWO NEW CHAPTERS: "Ferro-sialate Geopolymers" and "How to quantify and develop geopolymer formulas". This last new chapter details how to select raw materials, how to calculate a formula, and a description of the process method for optimal results, all in a very pra...
Chapter
How familiar were the pre-Homeric Greeks with Egyptian technology? Accounts of apparent mythological nature and archaeological evidence indicate cultural contacts. To what extent did Greek craftsmen learn their art from Egyptians? At excavations in Djoser's pyramid (3rd dynasty, ca. 2750 BC) some 36000 glazed tiles were found, most with a turqoise-...
Article
How familiar were the pre-Homeric Greeks with Egyptian technology? Accounts of apparent mythological nature and archaeological evidence indicate cultural contacts. To what extent did Greek craftsmen learn their art from Egyptians? At excavations in Djoser’s pyramid (3rd dynasty, ca. 2750 BC) some 36000 glazed tiles were found, most with a turqoise-...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of biomaterials applied in bony restoration, systems based on amorphous silicate network present the ability to link to bone matrix. Amorphous geopolymers of the potassium-poly(sialate)-nanopolymer type with a mole ratio Si:Al=31 were studied for their use as potential biomaterials. This implied a heat treatment at 500°C in order to re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geopolymer Resins and Geopolymer Cements are new advanced mineral binders. In both cases, resins/binders and cements, the same green chemistry is used: geopolymerization. In industrialized countries, for geopolymer applications, emphasis was put on fire and heat resistance, and also in radioactive and toxic-waste management, yielding sophisticated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
30,000 blue faience tiles were found in Djoser's funerary complex at Saqqarah (3. dynasty). It is generally assumed that the tiles underwent a self-glazing process during firing in the range of 800-850°C (C. Kieffer and A. Allibert, 1971) or by dipping in a liquid glaze (S. Schiegel, 1988). SEM microanalysis shows the presence of phosphorus in the...
Book
Full-text available
C'est le deuxième ouvrage de l'auteur sur les pyramides. Ici, il traite le sujet de manière plus directe que dans son premier livre. Et cette fois, l'auteur explique tout. Pourquoi les géologues n'ont rien vu, pourquoi les égyptologues ont peur, pourquoi les autres théories sont de la fumisterie, car elles ne respectent même pas le contexte archéol...
Article
Full-text available
The GEOCISTEM project was focussed to look for an inexpensive natural glassy alkaline substitute of chemical reagents used in a trade registered cement. A complete survey for european resources made up for fragmentary (pyroclastic) alkali-rich glassy volcanic rocks (Na2O+K2O > 10 %, K>>Na) was done in several european volcanic regions (in Italy, Gr...
Article
AN EQUIVALENT FULL-TEXT IS AVAILABLE AND TITLED: Desarrollo de un cemento de base silicatada a partir de rocas volcánicas vítreas alcalinas: interpretación de los resultados preindustriales basada en la composición químico-mineralógica de los precursores geológicos. BY MARINI & al. POSTED APRIL 2003. The GEOCISTEM project was focussed to look for a...
Presentation
Full-text available
The theory has many supporters around the world, but there are still opponents criticizing and repeating the same arguments. These arguments are based on studies carried out on false (or fraudulent) pyramid samples (see the point No 5). This page is here to help supporters counter critics.First, you find below a list of the main opposing ideas, opi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The presentation included 30 slides describing following geopolymer applications developed from 1972 to 2002 in France, Europe and USA. The Geopolymer chemistry concept was invented in 1979 with the creation of a non-for profit scientific organization, the Institut de Recherche sur les Géopolymères (Geopolymer Institute). 1. Fire resistant wood pan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmentally driven geopolymer applications are based on the implementation of (K,Ca)-Poly(sialate-siloxo) / (K,Ca)-Poly(sialate-disiloxo) cements. In industrialized countries (Western countries) emphasis is put on toxic waste (heavy metals) and radioactive waste safe containment. On the opposite, in emerging countries, the applications relate t...
Article
Full-text available
The presentation included 30 slides describing following geopolymer applications developedsince 1972 in France, Europe and USA. The Geopolymer chemistry concept was invented in1979 with the creation of a non-for profit scientific organization, the Institut de Recherche sur lesGéopolymères (Geopolymer Institute).1. Fire resistant wood panels2. Insul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Portland cement based concrete explodes above 300 deg.C, causing the collapse of tunnel concrete vaults, and it devastating consequences by preventing the access of rescue teams to the site: see fire in the Channel Tunnel, Mont-Blanc Tunnel, France (March 1999), Tauern Tunnel, Austria (May 29, 1999). (Na,Ca)-Poly(sialate) and (K,Ca) Poly(sialate-si...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Regular geopolymeric advanced binders produced at laboratory scale are too expensive for mass application. They comprise three ingredients namely: expensive sodium or potassium silicate, calcined kaolinite clay (KANDOXI) , and cheap blast furnace slag. The chemical reaction 2(Si2O5,Al2O2)+K2(H3SiO4)2+Ca(H3SiO4)2 ⇒ (K2O,CaO)(8SiO2,2Al2O3,nH2O) (a) y...
Article
Full-text available
The fire response of a potassium aluminosilicate (Geopolymer) matrix carbon fiber composite was measured and the results compared to organic matrix composites being used for transportation, military, and infrastructure applica- tions. At irradiance levels of 50 kW m~2 typical of the heat flux in a well-developed fire, glass- or carbon-reinforced po...
Article
Full-text available
The fire response of a potassium aluminosilicate matrix (geopolymer) carbon fiber composite was measured and the results compared to organic matrix composites being used for infrastructure and transportation applications. At irradiance levels of 50 kW/sq m, typical of the heat flux in a well developed fire, glass- or carbon-reinforced polyester, vi...
Article
Full-text available
The fundamental objective in the management of nuclear and uranium radioactive waste is to protect current and future generations from unacceptable exposures to radiation from man-made materials. This goal can be achieved by the use of one or more containment barriers to surround and isolate the wastes. The engineered concrete containment must be d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geopolymer cement, high-alkali (K-Ca)-Poly(sialate-siloxo) cement, results from an inorganic polycondensation reaction, a so-called geopolymerisation yielding three dimensional zeolitic frameworks. High-tech Geopolymer K-Poly(sialate-siloxo) binders, whether used pure, with fillers or reinforced, are already finding applications in all fields of in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
CO[sub 2] related energy taxes are focusing essentially on fuel consumption, not on actual CO[sub 2] emission measured at the chimneys. Ordinary Portland cement, used in the aggregates and industries, results from the calcination of limestone and silica. The production of 1 ton of cement directly generates 0.55 tons of chemical-CO[sub 2] and requir...
Article
Full-text available
NASTS award 1994 Published in J. Materials Education Vol.16 (2&3), pp 91-139 (1994) Text of the Gold Ribbon Award paper presented on September 26, 1994 at the National Press Club, Washington, DC, USA, for the most significant real advances in materials research. The NASTS award for the "Development of Very Early High Strength Cement" went to Jos...
Article
THIS ARTICLE WAS WRONGLY DATED OF JAN 1994 BY RESEARCH GATE COMPUTER. IT IS A REPLICA OF THE ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN 1991 WITH THE SAME TITLE. YOU GET THE ABSTRACT AND FULL-TEXT THERE.
Article
Full-text available
If society continues to ignore the huge amount of carbon-dioxide released during chemical reactions, the cernent CO2 emission based on the calcination of limestone could reachBaU (Business as Usual) value of 1800 million tonnes in year 2000, or 9% of today's world total CO2 emissions, and 3500 million tonnes in the year 2015, or 17.5% of today's wo...
Article
Full-text available
Spectacular technological progress has been made in the last few years through the development of new materials such as 'geopolymers', and new techniques, su.ch as 'sol-gel'. New state-of-the-art materials designed with the help of geopolymerisation reactions are opening up new applications and procedures and transjorming ideas that have been taken...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geopolymers of the Poly(sialate-disiloxo) type (-Si-O-Al-Si-O-Si-O), very-low viscosity inorganic resins, harden like thermosetting organic resins, but have use-temperature range up to 1000°C (1830°F). High-temperature techniques are no longer necessary to obtain materials which are ceramic-like in their properties. Geopolymers provide faithful rep...
Article
Full-text available
Spectacular technological progress has been made in the last few years through the development of geopolymers. Testing of geopolymers indicates that they may be extremely useful for preventing environmental contamination. Geopolymers, geopolymeric binders, and geopolymeric concrete can be used to construct barriers, solidify wastes, or construct ca...
Article
PLEASE REFER TO THE ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN 1991 IN THE SAME JOURNAL. Spectacular technological progress has been made in the last few years through the development of new materials such as ‘geopolymers’, and new techniques, such as ‘sol-gel’. New state-of-the-art materials designed with the help of geopolymerisation reactions are opening up new appli...
Article
Introduction How old is concrete? 150 years, 2,000 years or 9,000 years? Since the invention of Portland cement by Aspdin in the early 19th century, concrete has become the most widely used construction material in the world. Yet, concrete durability can pose severe constraints on the concrete engineer and designer. In the search for materials whic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The actual title of the presentation at the Congress was: Pyramids Man-Made Stone, Myths of Facts (III). The Famine Stela Provides the Hieroglyphic Names Of Chemicals and Minerals involved in the Construction. Egyptologists have long claimed that no records exist which describe how the Pyramids were built. A stone stele is engraved on a rock at the...
Article
Full-text available
Geopolymers are semiamorphous three-dimensional networks of polymeric sodium, potassium, lithium and magnesium silico-aluminates of the poly(sialate) type (Si-O-Al-O-) or of the poly(sia1ate-siloxo) type (Si-O-Al-OSi-O-). Geopoly-mers harden at room temperature (between 20 and 120°C) and are rather similar to thermosetting organic resins, but are s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geopolymer solidified waste have a potential as a synthetic geological barrier for use as a capping or lining material. Both cappings and linings can be used alone or combined with a soil barrier. This preliminary study has shown that geopolymer technologies have a great potential for the production of environmentally safe waste disposal bearing hi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The successful transfer of basic scientific information to the realm of industrial exploitation entails the need to create a new terminology accepted by the potential user. The author outlines the reasons for the initial failure of such transfer in the field of reactivity of clay, in the mineralogical sector, and then describes how, as a result of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Après une présentation succinte des principes chimiques régissant la réticulation géopolymérique (LTGS) des principaux constituants minéralogiques des sols, terres et argiles, les auteurs, présentent leur expérience quant à l'utilisation rationnelle des matériaux de type latérite. Les différents essais ont porté sur des terres africaines d'origine...
Article
This is a doublon of the Article: Ancient and modern concretes: what is the real difference? 1987 that is on Research Gate. Go there and download it. JD
Article
Full-text available
Many observers of ancient architecture are struck by the vast difference in quality between original structures and more recent repairs. Recent studies have attempted to determine why ancient mortars and concretes are so much more durable than their modern counterparts. Many of these materials have been found to be geopolymeric concrete which has b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The hypothesis that the limestone that constitutes the major pyramids of the Old Kingdom of Egypt is man-made stone, is discussed. Samples from six different sites at the traditionally associ- ated quarries of Turah and Mokattam have been studied using thin-section, chemical X-Ray analy- sis and X-Ray diffraction. The results were compared with pyr...
Patent
Full-text available
This is a US Patent: US 4,472,199 (1984). See excerpt in Full Text below from my standard book: Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications (4th edition, 2015). (go to www.geopolymer.org/shop/ )
Patent
Full-text available
This is a US Patent: US 4,349,386 (1982). See excerpt in Full Text below from my standard book: Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications (4th edition, 2015). (go to www.geopolymer.org/shop/ )
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The successful transfer of basic scientific information to the realm of industrial exploitation entails the need to create a new terminology accepted by the potential user. The author outlines the reasons for the initial failure of such transfer in the field of reactivity of clay, in the mineralogical sector, and then describes how, as a result of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract from Archaeometry 21: It is now agreed, that the TIHUANACO civilisation is modeled on the pre-incan HUANKA civilisation revealed by an extraordinary skill in fabricating objects in stone. A recent ethnological discovery shows that some witch-doctors in the HUANKA tradition, use no tools to make their little stone objects, but still use a c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A low temperature ceramic material is obtained with curing temperature ranging from 250 to 500° C, using a chemical reaction, a polycondensation into a geopolymer, between a clayish mineral and caustic soda. Caustic soda is easily obtained by reacting a lime solution with sodium carbonate (salt natron of Egypt and Africa). With the different types...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is demonstrated that geo-polymers, such as kaolinite and its derivatives are transformed under low-temperature and in an astonishingly short time, into three-dimensional polysialates, polysialatesiloxo, using techniques very close to the thermosetting methods based on the polycondensation of organic resins. The polysialates and their correspondi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The work exposed here comes from an attempt to transfer our knowledge of organic polymers and the technologies associated with it to the yet unknown, or hardly known field of the synthesis and transformation of inorganic polymers. In order to develop new materials and new industrial processes, we propose the following terminology, based on the amph...
Article
Full-text available
The models of structure which propose a crystalline and amorphous alternation, or those involving a folding of the macro-molecular chain, do not help to understand the mechanisms which govern the formation of the synthetic filament. lt is known that the macromolecular chain, in the molten state or in solution, builds a statistical ball. Yet, the ma...
Article
Full-text available
A theoretical discussion of the quaternary and fibrillar structure of the native collagen molecule is based on a macromolecular micelle model. The macromolecular micelle is a macromolecular chain wound into a spiral which consists of straight lengths of chains and curves, the general form being in the solid state a planar ovoid disk which is able t...
Article
Full-text available
We have recently proposed (4) as a structural model of linear polymers, the so-called "macromolecular micelle" model represented by a spirally wound macromolecular chain, and consisting of rectilinear and curved chains, the general shape of which is is in the solid state an ovoid disk, and in solution an ellipsoid of revolution. In this model, the...
Article
Full-text available
Two homologous polymeric series of diol-oligo-urethanes were studied by X-rays, particularly in the small-angle range. Up to a certain chain Iength (diol-octa-urethanes) the observed long periods are a function of the molecular weight. Then they remain con­stant over a wide range up to the polymer inclusively.

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
Some of you are aware of my ongoing research on Ancient geopolymer stone monuments. We published several articles (see the Research Project: Geopolymer Science applied to archaelogy) on our recent discovery of organic matter in volcanic andesite. But we also found other artifacts in the same volcanic stone, which we did not publish because we cannot figure what they are. It is the purpose of this present question.
I am including a series of pictures numbered 1 to 6:
1): the already published organic matter in andesite stone.
2): sample PP1C, Pumapunku, sponge/foam like (open cells) and plagioclase crystals. The scale is in the microns range and the objects are so small that they rather look like remains of plant cell skeletons (like the phytoliths for bamboos) instead of volcanic ash glass particles (pumice).
3): a close-up of Picture (2).
4): another SEM view in the same sample PP1C, Pumapunku with "leaf-like foam", open cells with walls in the 100 nanos range (close-up).
5): EDS analysis of the "leaf".
6): This is another example of organic inclusions in volcanic stone, this time micro-organisms which could be: pollen ? Diatoms ? Bacteria ? Phytoliths ?
Joseph Davidovits, Geopolymer Institute, 20-04-2020.
Question
Our goal is to freeze-dry a geopolymer liquid binder and stop geopolymerization for production of a dry powder. This has been already done by several researchers, but in tiny quantities (our need is in the 500 g range). We are looking for a lab which has such equipment, located in Europe, best not to far from our Geopolymer Institute, Saint-Quentin (France).

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Projects (6)
Project
There exists no specific standards for geopolymer technologies and applications. The current cement, concrete and ceramic standards are sometimes inappropriate. Therefore, we have decided to create the Geopolymer Institute Standards. This issue will be discussed at the Geopolymer Camp 2019, July 8-10, www.geopolymer.org/, on Tuesday, July 9, Afternoon, Second Session. Any suggestion is welcome.