Joseph Constans

Joseph Constans
Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System · Research Service

Doctor of Philosophy

About

59
Publications
18,090
Reads
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2,618
Citations
Citations since 2017
21 Research Items
753 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - January 2015
Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System
Position
  • Associate Chief of Staff for Research
January 1997 - present
Tulane University
Position
  • Professor
August 1995 - September 2005
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Biased appraisal is central to cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress, but little research has examined the potentially distinct meanings of the term. The ongoing process of appraising social information and the beliefs that emerge as products of that process can be distinguished conceptually. This study sought to examine whether these 2 meanin...
Article
Repeat violent injury is common among young urban men and is increasingly a focus of trauma center-based injury prevention efforts. Though understanding risk factors for repeat violent injury may be critical in designing such interventions, this knowledge is limited. This study aims to determine which criminal behaviors, both before and after the i...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated in a sample of Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans how a symptom overreporting response style might influence the association between PTSD diagnostic status and color-naming response latency for trauma-related stimuli during the Modified Stroop Task (i.e., the Modified Stroop Task effect, MST effec...
Article
Full-text available
At Level I trauma centers, psychiatric consultation is readily available to inpatient surgical services. This study sought to characterize the psychiatric symptoms present in the surgical follow-up clinic. Patients aged 18 years and older were assessed over one month for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the Short PTSD Rating In...
Article
Firearm violence causes significant public health burden, but there is a lack of research concerning motivations for firearm access despite clear epidemiological risk. Developing robust tools to measure attitudes toward firearms and firearm-related behaviors can improve our ability to conduct firearm violence research. We aimed to develop a feasibl...
Article
Objective: Despite a robust association between military sexual trauma (MST) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few studies have examined factors that are associated with increased symptom severity. To this end, the current study was designed to examine the unique and interactive effects of gender and race on PTSD symptoms using a sample of...
Article
Objective: Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two highly prevaxlent and comorbid conditions common within veteran populations. Notably, those with comorbid pain and PTSD tend to have more severe presentations and poorer quality of life than those with either disorder alone. Despite this well-established relationship, limited...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a major impact on the world. In the United States, healthcare systems have been taxed, medical supplies depleted, and healthcare providers overburdened by the increased need. Although psychologists cannot provide medical services, we possess a unique skillset that can alleviate some of the st...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a growing body of research examining correlates and consequences of COVID-19, few findings have been published among military veterans. This limitation is particularly concerning as preliminary data indicate that veterans may experience a higher rate of mortality compared to their civilian counterparts. One factor that may contribute to inc...
Article
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To date, the utility of behavioral activation (BA) as a treatment for depression has been primarily demonstrated in an individual therapy format, with few empirical investigations exploring group-based delivery. In addition, little is known about the utility of such interventions within veterans, a population known to have increased rates of depres...
Article
U.S. veterans have a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for which no effective psychotropic medications are indicated. Nearly 25% of veterans have diabetes, for which metformin is a first line treatment. Although metformin is associated with improved neurodegenerative outcomes, there is no evidence on the association between...
Article
The current study sought to explore suicidal concomitants, both demographic and psychological, among former military personal. The sample included 645 veterans who are at increased risk for suicide but have not yet pursued Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. Descriptive statistics revealed that these veterans are primarily young Caucasia...
Article
Gun violence is a serious public health concern that is currently grossly understudied. Gun attitudes are a potential risk factor for gun violence; however, factors related to gun attitudes have not been identified. Mental illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly discussed as a key factor in gun violence, despite research la...
Article
Perfectionism, a trait-like individual difference variable reflecting the tendency to set extremely high standards along with critical evaluations of one's own behavior, has long been regarded as a risk and maintenance factor for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, research exploring the relationship between these constructs is mixed. One...
Article
Objective: Gun violence is a serious public health concern, yet risk factors for gun violence involvement remain understudied. Childhood trauma exposure, such as domestic violence (DV) and community violence (CV), may increase the risk for aggression, although this relationship has not been examined in the context of gun violence. The aim of the c...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction There is a long history of pre-deployment PTSD prevention efforts in the military and effective pre-deployment strategies to prevent post-deployment PTSD are still needed. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled trial included three arms: heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB), cognitive bias modification for interpretatio...
Article
Full-text available
Belief in one's ability to exert power and control over outcomes following trauma has long been understood as protective against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The role of pretrauma beliefs about power and control, however, remains unclear. Though a strong pretrauma belief in power and control may similarly be protective,...
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Objective: The present study aimed to develop a novel, hospital-based motivational interviewing (MI) intervention for victims of armed community violence (MI-VoV) targeting patient-specific risk factors for future violence or violent victimization. Method: This uncontrolled pilot feasibility study examined a sample of patients (n = 71) hospitali...
Article
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Heart rate variability is a physiological measure associated with autonomic nervous system activity. This study hypothesized that lower pre-deployment HRV would be associated with higher post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Three-hundred-forty-three Army National Guard soldiers enrolled in the Warriors Achieving Resilienc...
Article
Full-text available
Physiological assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents an additional avenue for evaluating the severity of PTSD symptoms. We investigated whether the presence of a high number of uncommon symptoms attenuated the relation between self-reported PTSD symptoms and heart rate variability (HRV). Participants were 115 Veterans from the...
Article
To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disord...
Article
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Although risky decision-making has been posited to contribute to the maladaptive behavior of individuals with psychopathic tendencies, the performance of psychopathic groups on a common task of risky decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), has been equivocal. Different aspects of psychopathy (pers...
Article
Full-text available
Although negative cognitions following traumatic experiences have been studied in persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), very little of this work has been conducted in the context of disasters or with individuals with preexisting mental illness. The current study was designed to examine whether negative cognitions would be associated wi...
Article
To date, few hurricane trauma-related studies have focused on racial variations in psychological outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural disaster exposure. Of those that have reported racial differences in postdisaster outcomes, only some have controlled for covariates such as preexisting vulnerability factors (i.e.,...
Article
Individuals with preexisting mental disorders are at increased risk for negative outcomes following a disaster and are one type of vulnerable subpopulation that requires special consideration in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. We describe evidence of the increased risk for individuals with predisaster mental illness as well as tools...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying individuals at risk for mental health problems after a disaster often involves assessing potentially traumatic exposures inherent to the disaster. Survivors of disasters also may have been exposed, both before and during the event, to trauma not directly related to the disaster. A substantial literature suggests exposure to interpersona...
Article
Full-text available
Attributional style is hypothesized to be a causative factor in depression vulnerability; however, no studies to date have examined whether manipulation of attributional style influences depressed mood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether computer-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) procedures could modify attributional style and...
Conference Paper
Veterans in rural areas rely on Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) facilities for their healthcare. Recommendations that the Internet be better utilized to deliver health treatment to rural Veterans are challenged by reports that rural areas have suboptimal Internet access. In addition, there is no research on whether and how rural residents use the Int...
Article
Relationships among a modifiable situational factor (unit cohesion), prior stressful life events, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed in 1,579 U.S. Army soldiers with no history of contemporary war zone deployment. It was predicted that unit cohesion would attenuate the dose-response relationship between past stressor ex...
Article
This study evaluated the quality-adjusted health status in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a cross-sectional study veterans diagnosed with PTSD completed a quality-adjusted health status measure (Quality of Well-Being Self-Administered [QWB-SA] scale), PTSD symptom severity measures (Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD...
Article
Effects of emotional valence on attention have been shown to occur even when stimuli are presented outside awareness. The impact of negative valence on stimulus processing has been demonstrated to be particularly salient in anxiety. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that compared to nonanxious individuals, anxious individuals have an enhanced abi...
Article
Full-text available
Sixty combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder performed an emotional Stroop task under 1 of 4 contextual conditions designed to test theoretical explanations for an attentional bias suppression effect. Results revealed that when the emotional Stroop task was performed under conditions involving a future threat of either watching a combat...
Article
Although there is evidence that specific early hyperarousal, avoidance, and emotional numbing symptoms are associated with later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology among veterans, little is known about predictors of later non-PTSD-related psychological symptoms. One and 2 years after serving in the Gulf War, 348 military reservists...
Article
The stability of worry content was investigated in a sample of 27 individuals diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. During an initial evaluation, participants were asked to describe the content of their current worries, and the examining psychiatrist rated the frequency and intensity of these topics. During the following year, the investigat...
Article
Full-text available
Attention, learning, memory, and estimated intellectual potential were examined in 26 Vietnam veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in 21 Vietnam veterans without mental disorders. Results revealed PTSD-associated cognitive deficits on tasks of sustained attention, working memory, initial learning, and estimated premorbid...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine electrophysiological response to trauma-relevant stimuli in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study design incorporated comparison of 10 Vietnam War veterans with PTSD diagnosis to 10 Vietnam War veterans with no mental disorder diagnosis on P3 components in a series of two oddball tasks...
Article
This paper examines how the tendency to worry impacts risk estimation for an upcoming, stressful event. Students in a statistics class completed worry, anxiety, and subjective risk questionnaires on the first day of class. State-anxiety and subjective risk questionnaires were again administered immediately before their first examination. Subjects s...
Article
Although it is recognized that psychosocial variables influence the expression of psychopathology following trauma exposure, physiological variables have received less attention as potential mediators of psychological outcome in trauma victims. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of head injury to psychological outcome in 171...
Article
Cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between personal and environmental resources and development of emotional distress after war zone service. Less is known about the longitudinal relationship between resources and distress. The authors addressed this issue in a study of 348 Gulf War returnees tested at 2 time points. Resources decreas...
Article
A growing body of literature suggests that individuals with high levels of general anxiety form threatening interpretations of ambiguous events. Although theoretical formulations of pathological social anxiety emphasize the importance of a negative interpretive-style in the etiology and maintenance of the disorder, we are unaware of any study that...
Article
This study investigated the possible development of an attentional bias to cardiac-related words in subjects who recently experienced a myocardial infarction (MI). It was hypothesized that cardiac-related stimuli would have attention-capturing characteristics for post-MI subjects, and this bias would be moderated by level of anxiety, degree of card...
Article
This study investigated the possible development of an attentional bias to cardiac-related words in subjects who recently experienced a myocardial infarction (MI). It was hypothesized that cardiac-related stimuli would have attention-capturing characteristics for post-MI subjects, and this bias would be moderated by level of anxiety, degree of card...
Article
Full-text available
Attention and memory performances were studied in Persian Gulf War veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses. Veterans diagnosed with PTSD showed relative performance deficiencies on tasks of sustained attention, mental manipulation, initial acquisition of information, and retroactive interference. Their performances...
Article
Full-text available
A Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) and psychological testing were administered to 260 combat veterans in order to investigate the relationship between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and melancholic features of depression. Sixty-seven percent of PTSD patients experiencing comorbid major depression acknowledged s...
Article
War stress frequently leads to the subsequent development of psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but recent research has indicated that individual difference factors may alter vulnerability to trauma-related distress. In an effort to examine the potential buffering effects of intellectual resources on PTSD development, t...
Article
Information-processing theorists have suggested that obsessive-compulsive (OC) checking may be a function of either (1) an impaired memory of emotional events, (2) an attenuated ability to distinguish between real and imagined events or (3) a dissatisfaction with one's recall without actual memory impairment. These hypotheses were tested by having...
Article
In three experiments we investigated the relationship between mood and risk estimation. In Experiment 1, mood was changed by having subjects imagine a series of either positive or negative events. Judgements of future event likelihoods were biased in a global fashion; i.e. events which were used in the mood manipulation did not change to a greater...
Article
Behavioral anchors may affect the way that raters process information about ratees, and may in some cases be a source of bias in rating. This study tested the hypothesis that the presence of behavioral anchors that closely matched behaviors actually observed by raters would bias performance ratings. Subjects ( N = 180) viewed videotaped lectures an...
Article
Typescript (photocopy) Thesis (M.S.)--Colorado State University, 1987. Bibliography: leaves [31]-34.
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1993. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 100-106). Abstract.

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