Joseph Ciarrochi

Joseph Ciarrochi
Australian Catholic University | ACU · Institute of Positive Psychology and Education

Ph.D.

About

261
Publications
267,820
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
14,131
Citations
Introduction
see Josephciarrochi.com Positive psychology and Acceptance Commitment Therapy I seek to understand how to help young people develop flexible strength (also termed psychological flexibility): the ability to utilize psychological skills in a way that promotes personal growth and builds vitality and valued action. Such skills include: mindfulness, emotional awareness, value clarity, self-compassion, growth mindset, creativity, willpower, resilience, persistence, and grit.
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - January 2011
University of Wollongong
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (261)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Although research in self-compassion has been rapidly growing, there is still substantial controversy about its meaning and measurement. The controversy centers on Neff’s popular Self- Compassion Scale (SCS) and the argument that compassionate self-responding (CSR) and uncompassionate self-responding (UCS) are a single dimension versus t...
Article
Full-text available
The wide variety of “third wave” cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods (e.g., Acceptance and Commitment Therapy or “ACT”, Compassion Focused Therapy, Meta-Cognitive therapy, Functional Analytic Therapy, Dialectic Behavior Therapy, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy) have left a mark on the field that appears to be growing. As ACT enters its 4...
Article
Full-text available
Background Syndromal classification has failed to produce a progressive science of case conceptualization for mental and behavioral health issues. An idiographic application of processes of change can provide a viable empirical functional analytic alternative if it could be linked to an idionomic approach, modeling idiographic effects first, and re...
Article
Full-text available
Internationally, there is a gap in high‐school completion rates for Indigenous and non‐Indigenous students. In Australia, gap estimates are commonly based on lag indicators, precluding examination of underlying mechanisms. Using two longitudinal representative samples of Australian youth, we explored differences in high‐school completion between Au...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2000, research within positive psychology has exploded, as reflected in dozens of meta-analyses of different interventions and targeted processes, including strength spotting, positive affect, meaning in life, mindfulness, gratitude, hope, and passion. Frequently, researchers treat positive psychology processes of change as distinct from each...
Article
Full-text available
Process-based therapy (PBT) focuses on treatment elements that target biopsychosocial processes of relevance to individual treatment goals. This focus requires new, more integrative and idionomic models that identify key processes of change, using high temporal density measurement applied at the level of the person. Standard measurement validation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current victimization studies and meta-analyses are based mainly on a unidimensional perspective in a few developed OECD countries. This provides a weak basis for generalizability over multiple victimization (relational, verbal, physical) components and different countries. We test the cross-national generalizability (594,196 fifteen-year-olds; 77...
Preprint
The “protocols for syndromes” approach to evidence-based psychological intervention has failed the test of scientific progressivity. Process-based therapy provides an alternative model that is focused on treatment elements that target biopsychosocial processes of relevance to individual treatment goals. That shift in focus requires new, more integr...
Article
Full-text available
Executive Summary Throughout its history the strategy and tactics of contextual behavioral science (CBS) research have had distinctive features as compared to traditional behavioral science approaches. Continued progress in CBS research can be facilitated by greater clarity about how its strategy and tactics can be brought to bear on current challe...
Chapter
The last five decades have seen a proliferation of psychological packages designed to treat psychiatric syndromes. Despite millions of dollars invested evaluating and comparing complex interventions, progress has been limited. Increasingly, research is shifting toward evaluating evidence-based processes of change instead of packages. There is also...
Article
We conducted a person-centered analysis of the Aspiration Index to identify subgroups that differ in the levels of their specific (wealth, fame and image, personal growth, relationships, community giving, and health) and global intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. In a Hungarian (N = 3,370; 77% female; age: M = 23.57), an Australian (N = 1,632; 51%...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a person-centered analysis of the Aspiration Index to identify subgroups that differ in the levels of their specific (wealth, fame and image, personal growth, relationships, community giving, and health) and global intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. In a Hungarian (N=3370; 77% female; age: M = 23.57), an Australian (N=1632; 51% femal...
Article
For half a century, the dominant paradigm in psychotherapy research has been to develop syndrome-specific treatment protocols for hypothesized but unproved latent disease entities, as defined by psychiatric nosological systems. While this approach provided a common language for mental health problems, it failed to achieve its ultimate goal of conce...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Nonattachment involves a flexible way of relating to ideas without clinging to them and is hypothesized to be beneficial to mental health. However, no longitudinal research has examined this hypothesis. We conducted a three-wave longitudinal study to examine the extent that nonattachment was an antecedent to improvements in mental health...
Preprint
Internationally there is a gap in high school completion rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. In Australia, gap estimates are commonly based on lag indicators, precluding examination of underlying mechanisms. Using two longitudinal and representative samples of Australian youth, we explored differences in high school completion between...
Preprint
To what extent does a psychosocial intervention (PSI) improve return-to-work rates for welfare-receiving jobseekers who differ in ethnicity, length of unemployment, physical location, gender, and readiness for change? Two large-scale studies (Study 1: 2,459 jobseekers, Study 2: 20,057 jobseekers) across a diverse Australian sample sought to assess...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about how compulsive Internet use (CIU) relates developmentally to different aspects of emotion regulation. Do young people engage in CIU because they have difficulty regulating emotions (the "consequence" model), does CIU lead to emotion regulation problems (the "antecedent" model), or are there reciprocal influences? We examined t...
Preprint
High reappraisal and low suppression are generally seen as desirable outcomes of therapy, but this combination may not benefit those who typically use reappraisal and suppression together. A daily diary study (N=187; Mage = 23.9; 71% females; 3,852 days; M=20.59 days/person) showed that the group-level correlation between reappraisal and suppressio...
Preprint
Background. How are parents perceived by their children to develop during the high school years, and what are the consequences of this development for youth well-being? Methods. Each year from Grade 8 to 12, we administered measures of parenting style and well-being across 16 schools (Time 1 M age = 13.7, SD age = .45; N = 2043; 49.6% Male). Utiliz...
Preprint
There is a growing literature on nonattachment, defined as a flexible, balanced way of relating to experiences without clinging to or suppressing them. We developed a 7-item Nonattachment Scale (NAS-7) by shortening a previously validated 30-item measure (NAS; Sahdra, Shaver & Brown, 2010). NAS-7 was found to display strong psychometric properties...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives. Using an experimental design, we tested whether a short mindfulness intervention led to improvements in state mindfulness and golf putting performance.Design. This study was a registered, double-blind, randomised crossover design.Method. Experienced golfers (N = 116) were randomly allocated to receive either a mindfulness or attention-c...
Preprint
To what extent does a psychosocial intervention (PSI) improve employment rates for welfare-receiving jobseekers who differ in ethnicity, length of unemployment, physical location, gender, and readiness for change? Two large-scale studies (Study 1: 2,459 jobseekers, Study 2: 20,057 jobseekers) across a diverse Australian sample sought to assess fact...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored parenting styles and values internalization. Perceived parenting styles were measured in Grade 7 (n = 749) and Grade 12 (n = 468), and values were measured in Grade 12 (n = 271) and one year postschool (n = 291). We measured three aspects of valuing: priority (extrinsic, intrinsic importance); regulation (controlled, autonomous)...
Preprint
We conducted a person-centered analysis of the Aspiration Index to identify subgroups that differ in the levels of their specific (wealth, fame and image, personal growth, relationships, health, and community giving) and global intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. In a Hungarian (N=3370; 77% female; age: M = 23.57), an Australian (N=1632; 51% femal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mindfulness has been shown to have varied associations with different forms of motivation, leading to a lack of clarity as to how and when it may foster healthy motivational states. Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study proposes a theoretical model for how mindfulness supports different forms of human motivation, and then tests t...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness has been shown to have varied associations with different forms of motivation, leading to a lack of clarity as to how and when it may foster healthy motivational states. Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study proposes a theoretical model for how mindfulness supports different forms of human motivation, and then tests t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Contextual Behavioural Science (CBS) interventions focus on activating value-consistent behaviours, yet the outcomes measured in these interventions often focus on internal states. Building on past CBS work, personal strivings research, and self-determination theory, we developed a new behaviour-focused measure of valued action, the Six Ways to Wel...
Preprint
Full-text available
Experiments suggest that people who believe their attributes are malleable should be more resilient in the face of failure. Does this mean that incremental theorists maintain higher self-esteem? We explore this question meta-analytically. We synthesised research from 34 studies to show that the relationship between self-esteem and incremental theor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Intervention-related research suggests that there are two ways to combat the negative consequences of low self-esteem: improving the level of self-esteem, or reducing the links between low self-esteem and negative outcomes (L. Hayes & Ciarrochi, 2015). Incremental theories tend to prevent low-self-esteem from occurring in response to fa...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents experience high rates of mental health problems but are reluctant to seek professional help. Parents play an integral role in the help seeking process for their adolescent children. Parental authoritativeness and support have been identified as contributing to better mental health outcomes and a reduction in help seeking barriers in the...
Article
Objectives To demonstrate the use of machine-learning for reducing questionnaire response burden, we created multiple, shorter versions of the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport. We then tested the reliability and validity of scores derived from these shorter versions in athletic populations. Design We used genetic algorithms to shorten the measure,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives. To demonstrate the use of machine-learning for reducing questionnaireresponse burden, we created multiple, shorter versions of the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport. We then tested the reliability and validity of scores derived from these shorter versions in athletic populations.Design. We used genetic algorithms to shorten the measure, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Recent technological advances have led to the proliferation of ambulatory devices for non-invasively assessing cardiac activity. While these devices have exciting implications for conducting research outside the laboratory, it is critical that this increased mobility does not compromise data quality. As a test case, we assess the efficac...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To what extent is the frame of reference of overlapping friendship communities important for young people's feelings of discrimination and subjective well-being? That is, do youth feel better or worse to the extent that they feel less or more discrimination than their friends? Method: Participants (N = 898; Mage = 14.13; SDage = 3.37...
Article
Both self‐compassion and empathy have been theorized to promote prosociality in youth, but there is little longitudinal data examining this possibility. We assessed self‐compassion, empathy, and peer‐rated prosociality yearly, in a cohort of 2,078 youth across 17 schools (M age at T1 = 14.65 years; 49.2% female), as they progressed from Grade 9–12....
Article
This study i⁠nvestigated if an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention (ACT-Adjust) can facilitate psychological adjustment and reduce psychological distress following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study design comprised a single centre, two-armed, Phase II pilot randomized controlled trial. Nineteen individuals with severe...
Article
Full-text available
Resource control theory (RCT) posits that both antisocial and prosocial behaviors combine in unique ways to control resources such as friendships. We assessed students (N = 2,803; 49.7% male) yearly from junior (grades 8–10) to senior high school (11–12) on antisocial (A) and prosocial (P) behavior, peer nominated friendship, and well-being. Non-pa...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Compulsive internet use (CIU) has been linked to decrements in mental health and well‐being. However relatively little is known about how CIU relates to evaluations of the self, and in particular, whether CIU is antecedent to or is a consequence of negative evaluations of one's social worth (self‐esteem) and general efficacy (hope). To ex...
Article
Full-text available
For decades the development of evidence-based therapy has been based on experimental tests of protocols designed to impact psychiatric syndromes. As this paradigm weakens, a more process-based therapy approach is rising in its place, focused on how to best target and change core biopsychosocial processes in specific situations for given goals with...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness‐based meditation practices have received substantial scientific attention in recent years. Mindfulness has been shown to bring many psychological benefits to the individual, but much less is known about whether these benefits extend to others. This meta‐analysis reviewed the link between mindfulness – as both a personality variable and...
Preprint
There is a plethora of research showing that empathy promotes prosocial behavior among young people. We examined a relatively new construct in the mindfulness literature, nonattachment, defined as a flexible way of relating to one’s experiences without clinging to or suppressing them. We tested whether nonattachment could predict prosociality above...
Article
Full-text available
Background Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients’ maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients’ relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the tho...
Data
Study 1 Adolescent de-identified data set. (SAV)
Data
Study 2 Adult de-identified data set. (SAV)
Data
Output record of the primary moderation analyses controlling for covariates. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mindfulness and experiential acceptance approaches have been suggested as a method of promoting athletic performance by optimally managing the interplay among attention, cognition, and emotion. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for these approaches in the sporting domain. Method: Studies of any design exploring mindfulne...
Article
This study examines the development of self-esteem in a sample of 138 Australian adolescents (90 males; 48 females) with cognitive abilities in the lowest 15% (L-CA) and a matched sample of 556 Australian adolescents (312 males; 244 females) with average to high levels of cognitive abilities (A/H-CA). These participants were measured annually (Grad...
Article
Body image concerns are typically linked with negative outcomes such as disordered eating and diminished wellbeing, but some people can exhibit psychological flexibility and remain committed to their valued goals despite being dissatisfied about their bodies. Such flexibility is most frequently measured by the Body Image-Acceptance and Action Quest...
Article
To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Self-compassion has been framed as a healthy alternative to self-esteem, as it is non-evaluative. However rather than being alternatives, it may be that the two constructs develop in a mutually-reinforcing way. The present study tested this possibility among adolescents. Method: A large adolescent sample (N = 2,809; 49.8% female) repo...
Article
Full-text available
"This study examines the development of self-esteem in a sample of 138 Australian adolescents" "(90 boys; 48 girls) with cognitive abilities in the lowest 15% (L-CA) and a matched sample of 556" "Australian adolescents (312 boys; 244 girls) with average to high levels of cognitive abilities (A/H-" "CA). These participants were measured annually (Gr...
Conference Paper
Young people who have a parent with cancer experience significant unmet needs and elevated distress, however support to this vulnerable group is significantly lacking. An ACT-based manualised 7-session group program called Truce was developed for adolescents and young adults impacted by parental cancer. ACT was considered to be appropriate given it...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study reports the rate of unmet needs for professional mental health care in a large multi-state sample of adolescents. We also sought to describe barriers to professional help, informal help seeking and future help-seeking intentions among adolescents with wholly unmet needs for counselling for mental illness. Methods: We colle...
Article
Öst's (2014) systematic review and meta-analysis of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has received wide attention. On the basis of his review, Öst argued that ACT research was not increasing in its quality and that, in contradiction to the views of Division 12 of the American Psychological Association (APA), ACT is “not yet well-established f...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to disambiguate the quantitative and qualitative components of mindfulness profiles, examine whether including 'nonattachment' as a subcomponent of mindfulness alters the profiles, and evaluate the extent to which the person-centred approach to understanding mindfulness adds predictive power beyond a more parsimonious variable-centred app...
Article
Full-text available
Past research suggests that perceived social support from parents, teachers, and peers are all positively associated with wellbeing during adolescence. However, little longitudinal research has examined the implications of distinctive combinations of social support for developing adolescents. To address this limitation, we measured multiple dimensi...
Article
Full-text available
Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreas