Joseph Cesario

Joseph Cesario
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

61
Publications
81,619
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3,236
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - present
Michigan State University
August 2000 - August 2006
Columbia University
August 1995 - August 2000
Loyola University Chicago

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
Are the landscapes of real-world decisions adequately represented in our laboratory tasks? Are the goals and expertise of experimental participants the same as real-world decision-makers? Are we neglecting crucial forces that lead to group outcomes? Are the contingencies necessary for producing experimental demonstrations of bias present in the rea...
Article
Full-text available
This article questions the widespread use of experimental social psychology to understand real-world group disparities. Standard experimental practice is to design studies in which participants make judgments of targets who vary only on the social categories to which they belong. This is typically done under simplified decision landscapes and with...
Preprint
In this reply, I address three aspects of Ross et al.'s (2020) paper: (1) that the results presented in Ross et al. in fact replicate the central findings of Cesario et al.; (2) that Ross et al. provide a very important corrective and approach, but one that has its own assumptions and which may have overestimated anti-Black disparity in shootings o...
Article
Stereotypes linking Black Americans with guns can have life-altering outcomes, making it important to identify factors that shape such weapon identification biases and how they do so. We report 6 experiments that provide a mechanistic account of how category salience affects weapon identification bias elicited by male faces varying in race (Black,...
Preprint
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We recently requested PNAS retract our article, “Officer characteristics and racial disparities in fatal officer-involved shootings” (Johnson et al., 2019). This statement serves as explanation for this decision.
Article
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The current study examines the effect of sleep deprivation and caffeine use on racial bias in the decision to shoot. Participants deprived of sleep for 24 hr (vs. rested participants) made more errors in a shooting task and were more likely to shoot unarmed targets. A diffusion decision model analysis revealed sleep deprivation decreased participan...
Article
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A widespread misconception in much of psychology is that (a) as vertebrate animals evolved, “newer” brain structures were added over existing “older” brain structures, and (b) these newer, more complex structures endowed animals with newer and more complex psychological functions, behavioral flexibility, and language. This belief, although widely s...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
The authors describe two research experiments exploring the influence of race on the Köhler motivation gain effect with exercise tasks. Experiment 1 tested whether partner racial dissimilarity affects individual performance. Experiment 2 created a team identity recategorization intervention to potentially counter the influence on performance observ...
Preprint
Full-text available
A widespread misconception in much of psychology holds that (1) as vertebrate animals evolved, "newer" brain structures were added over existing "older" brain structures and (2) these newer, more complex structures endowed animals with newer and more complex psychological functions, behavioral flexibility, and language. This belief, though widely s...
Article
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We present a consensus-based checklist to improve and document the transparency of research reports in social and behavioural research. An accompanying online application allows users to complete the form and generate a report that they can submit with their manuscript or post to a public repository.
Preprint
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Recently Cesario et al. (2019) published research in Social Psychological and Personality Science showing no anti-Black disparity in fatal police shootings when shootings were benchmarked against violent crime rates. In a formal critique submitted for publication to SPPS, Schimmack critiqued this work in a number of ways.Here I show that Schimmack...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently Cesario, Johnson, & Terrill (2019) published a report showing that, when benchmarking on various violent crime rates, there was no evidence of anti-Black disparity in police use of deadly force, at the nationwide level for 2015-2016. In response, Schimmack (2019) criticized several aspects of the methods used by Cesario et al., claiming "T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently we published a report showing that officer race did not predict the race of a civilian shot and, additionally, there was no evidence of anti-Black racial disparities among those fatally shot by police (Johnson, Tress, Burkel, Taylor, & Cesario, 2019). In response, Knox and Mummolo (2019) produced a critique of this work centering around tw...
Article
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Despite extensive attention to racial disparities in police shootings, two problems have hindered progress on this issue. First, databases of fatal officer-involved shootings (FOIS) lack details about officers, making it difficult to test whether racial disparities vary by officer characteristics. Second, there are conflicting views on which benchm...
Article
Full-text available
Social psychologists have relied on computerized shooting tasks to test whether race influences decisions to shoot. These studies reveal that under some conditions untrained individuals shoot unarmed Black men more than unarmed White men. We modeled the decision to shoot as a sequential sampling process in which people start out with prior biases a...
Article
Full-text available
Is there evidence of a Black–White disparity in death by police gunfire in the United States? This is commonly answered by comparing the odds of being fatally shot for Blacks and Whites, with odds benchmarked against each group’s population proportion. However, adjusting for population values has questionable assumptions given the context of deadly...
Article
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Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with an intelligent category (“professor”) subsequently performed 13.1% better on a trivia test than participants primed with an unintelligent category (“soccer hooligans”). Two unpublished replications of this study by the original authors, designed to verify the appropriate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010) found that --compared to participants who adopted constrictive body postures-- participants who adopted expansive body postures reported feeling more powerful, showed an increase in testosterone and a decrease in cortisol, and displayed anincreased tolerance for risk. However, these power pose effects have recently com...
Article
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The biasing role of stereotypes is a central theme in social cognition research. For example, to understand the role of race in police officers’ decisions to shoot, participants have been shown images of Black and White males and instructed to shoot only if the target is holding a gun. Findings show that Black targets are shot more frequently and m...
Article
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Strong claims have been made that power poses can significantly improve one's life. Starting from an evolutionary perspective, we reason that expansive poses will have no impact in more realistic situations, as in the presence of an interaction partner or when participants are aware of what the pose should accomplish. Across four dyadic studies inc...
Preprint
Full-text available
After several decades of research on message framing, there is still no clear and consistentanswer to the question of when emphasizing positive or negative outcomes in a persuasive message will be most effective. Whereas early framing research considered the type of recommended behavior (health-affirming vs. illness-detection) to be the determining...
Preprint
We outline an array of journal policies that JPSP:ASC could adopt to further promote transparent and responsible research practices; in turn, these practices will increase the reliability of research findings published in JPSP:ASC.
Article
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We provide a primer on a hierarchical extension of the drift diffusion model (DDM). This formal model of decisions is frequently used in the cognitive sciences but infrequently used in social and personality research. Recent advances in model estimation have overcome issues that previously made the hierarchical DDM impractical to implement. Using e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010) found that --compared to participants who adopted constrictive body postures-- participants who adopted expansive body postures reported feeling more powerful, showed an increase in testosterone and a decrease in cortisol, and displayed an increased tolerance for risk. However, these power pose effects have recently co...
Article
Full-text available
Earlier work found that – compared to participants who adopted constrictive body postures – participants who adopted expansive body postures reported feeling more powerful, showed an increase in testosterone and a decrease in cortisol, and displayed an increased tolerance for risk. However, these power pose effects have recently come under consider...
Article
Full-text available
Y.JennyXiao,G eraldineCoppin,andJayJ.VanBavel(this issue) propose the perceptual model of intergroup relations (PMIR), which describes the association between social groups, perception, and intergroup relations. The model integrates findings from a diverse set of topics related to perception and group processes. Integrating widely different phenome...
Article
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Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology (CRSP) is a novel journal for preregistered research (so-called registered reports, RR) in the field of social psychology. It offers RR-only publications, with the possibility of adding exploratory analysis and data as well. After submission of introduction, hypotheses, methods, procedure, and analysis pla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most research on adaptive decision-making takes a strategy-first approach, proposing a method of solving a problem and then examining whether it can be implemented in the brain and in what environments it succeeds. We present a method for studying strategy development based on computational evolution that takes the opposite approach, allowing strat...
Article
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Given the importance of reproductive choice in female mating strategies, women may be equipped with a threat-management system that functions to protect reproductive choice by avoiding individuals and situations that have historically posed an increased threat of sexual coercion. Previous research suggests that bias against outgroup men may be one...
Article
Shalev and Bargh (2014) replied to our work and summarized results from 3 new studies concerning the associations between trait loneliness and showering/bathing habits. We clarify a few issues and provide a foundation for future work by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant studies. The inclusion of new data does little to change our basic con...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we argue that whether or not a replication attempt is informative is dependent on the accuracy of one's underlying model to explain the effect, as it is the explanatory model that enumerates the contingencies necessary for producing the effect. If the model is incorrect, then a researcher may unknowingly change variables that the m...
Article
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Bargh and Shalev (2012) hypothesized that people use warm showers and baths to compensate for a lack of social warmth. As support for this idea, they reported results from two studies that found an association between trait loneliness and bathing habits. Given the potential practical and theoretical importance of this association, we conducted nine...
Article
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Concerns have been raised recently about the replicability of behavioral priming effects, and calls have been issued to identify priming methodologies with effects that can be obtained in any context and with any population. I argue that such expectations are misguided and inconsistent with evolutionary understandings of the brain as a computationa...
Article
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Across two studies, we investigate how perceptions of distances to out-group threats may be critically regulated by the presence or absence of one’s in-group and by beliefs regarding the potential for danger from the out-group. Threat regulation includes biases in the distance one perceives a threat, such that threats are perceived as relatively mo...
Article
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One perspective on embodiment proposes that bodily states exert direct, context-free effects on psychological states, as in the research on “power poses.” We propose instead that bodily states influence psychology by pro- viding information about what actions are possible. If such an assessment is to be effective, however, it must consider the body...
Article
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Automatic responses play a central role in many areas of psychology. Counter to views that such responses are relatively rigid and inflexible, a large body of research has shown that they are highly context-sensitive. Research on animal learning and animal behavior has a strong potential to provide a deeper understanding of such context effects by...
Article
Full-text available
After several decades of research on message framing, there is still no clear and consistent answer to the question of when emphasizing positive or negative outcomes in a persuasive message will be most effective. Whereas early framing research considered the type of recommended behavior (health-affirming vs. illness-detection) to be the determinin...
Article
Full-text available
Research on skin tone and Afrocentric features provides evidence that people use phenotypes (visible phys-ical characteristics) to make inferences about the degree to which stereotypes about the racial group apply to the individual (i.e., to make impressions of others). However, skin tone and Afrocentric features have been confounded in prior resea...
Article
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Two experiments investigated the effects of musicality and motivational orientation on auditory category learning. In both experiments, participants learned to classify tone stimuli that varied in frequency and duration according to an initially unknown disjunctive rule; feedback involved gaining points for correct responses (a gains reward structu...
Article
Research shows that women more positively evaluate targets evincing cues of high male genetic quality as a function of fertility across the menstrual cycle. Recently, a link between fertility and anti-black race bias has also been documented, an effect that is argued to serve a sexual coercion avoidance function. Here we demonstrate that both effec...
Article
Full-text available
What is the role of ecology in automatic cognitive processes and social behavior? Our motivated-preparation account posits that priming a social category readies the individual for adaptive behavioral responses to that category-responses that take into account the physical environment. We present the first evidence showing that the cognitive respon...
Article
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What makes people's interest in doing an activity increase or decrease? Regulatory fit theory (E. T. Higgins, 2000) provides a new perspective on this classic issue by emphasizing the relation between people's activity orientation, such as thinking of an activity as fun, and the manner of activity engagement that the surrounding situation supports....
Article
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This article examines how the subjective experiences of "feeling right" from regulatory fit and of "feeling wrong" from regulatory non-fit influence the way people process persuasive messages. Across three studies, incidental experiences of regulatory fit increased reliance on source expertise and decreased resistance to counterpersuasion, whereas...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE Besides informing patients about the benefits and harms of available options, decision aids often include guidelines for the decision making process itself. These guidelines typically involve complex procedures such as weighing and adding of a number of considerations. It has been shown, in other decision contexts, that simple decision stra...
Article
Full-text available
Nonverbal cues are an inherent component of most persuasive appeals. We use regulatory-fit theory as a framework for understanding the effect of nonverbal cues on a message's effectiveness, and as a foundation for developing a new persuasion technique. We propose that when the nonverbal cues of a message source sustain the motivational orientation...
Article
Full-text available
How can researchers and practitioners use regulatory fit theory to increase the effectiveness of their attempts to change attitudes and behavior? In this article, we extract from the literature a set of basic processes by which fit can influence persuasion and describe different methods for inducing fit. Regulatory fit can influence persuasion by:...
Article
Full-text available
Regulatory Focus has been demonstrated to influence human behavior in a number of domains, such as object valuation and readiness to commit time or money to social projects. It has also been demonstrated to influence an individual’s approach to mistakes; and a person’s preference for global or local processing of information. The present work seeks...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose that automatic social behavior may result from perceivers preparing to interact with primed social group members. In Study 1, participants primed with a disliked outgroup (gay men) showed evidence of interaction preparation (aggression) rather than direct stereotypic trait expression (passivity). In Study 2, participants with im...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose that when a message recipient "feels right" from regulatory fit (E. T. Higgins, 2000), this subjective experience transfers to the persuasion context and serves as information for relevant evaluations, including perceived message persuasiveness and opinions of the topic. Fit was induced either by strategic framing of message arg...
Article
This study investigated the effect of sexual orientation on perceptions of persuasiveness and trustworthiness. Subjects were told that a university was considering adding either an International Studies Minor or a Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Studies minor to its curriculum. Subjects then viewed a videotape of a male professor, introduced as either h...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Columbia University, 2006. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 80-90). Department: Psychology.

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Projects (7)
Project
Understand whether and how bodily expansiveness impacts the psychology of power.