Joseph R Bennett

Joseph R Bennett
Carleton University · Institute of Environmental Science

PhD, University of British Columbia

About

155
Publications
56,008
Reads
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2,789
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Introduction
I'm an Assistant Professor at Carleton University, in the Institute of Environmental Science and Department of Biology. I work on threatened species, invasive species, spatial statistics, and conservation prioritization.
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - July 2020
Carleton University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 2012 - March 2015
The University of Queensland
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (155)
Article
Full-text available
Finding ways of efficiently monitoring threatened species can be critical to effective conservation. The global proliferation of community science (also called citizen science) programs, like iNaturalist, presents a potential alternative or complement to conventional threatened species monitoring. Using a case study of ~700,000 observations of >10,...
Article
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1. Plans for expanding protected area systems (prioritizations) often aim to facilitate connectivity. To achieve this, many approaches – based on different assumptions and datasets – have been developed. However, little is known about how such approaches influence prioritizations. 2. We examine eight approaches that aim to promote connectivity in p...
Article
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Conservation budgets are limited, requiring strategic prioritization among actions to efficiently protect species. Systematic prioritization approaches typically determine locations for conservation that most effectively balance species protection with cost. Proxies for cost are frequently used in prioritizing land for protection. Here, we combine...
Article
Despite accelerating biodiversity loss, conservation efforts suffer from serious resource deficiencies. This requires conservation managers to strike a challenging balance between direct action, which is needed to avoid further biodiversity loss, and research and monitoring, which provide the information needed for more effective action. Here, we e...
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A seminal report by Peter H. Pearse (1988; Rising to the Challenge: A New Policy for Canadas Freshwater Fisheries, Canadian Wildlife Federation, Ottawa) outlined 62 policy recommendations focused on the management of Canadas inland fisheries. Over three decades later, freshwater ecosystems and inland fisheries in Canada are still facing similar cha...
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Methods for the use of baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) have been tested and refined such that they are now widely used in marine research for assessing fish community structure. There is comparatively less known about the effectiveness of different bait types or bait containers for use with BRUVS in freshwater temperate environments...
Article
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Freshwater biodiversity is in a state of crisis. The recent development of a global emergency recovery plan to “bend the curve” for freshwater biodiversity lacks the necessary details for implementation in a regional context. Using Canada as an example, we describe a toolbox intended to equip decision-makers and practitioners with evidence-based to...
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Many government organizations use recovery planning to synthesize threats, propose management strategies, and determine recovery criteria for threatened wildlife. Little is known about the extent to which physiological knowledge has been used in recovery planning, despite its potential to offer key biological information that could aid in recovery...
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Early definitions of conservation focused largely on the end goals of protection or restoration of nature, and the various disciplinary domains that contribute to these ends. Conservation science and practice has evolved beyond being focused on just issues of scarcity and biodiversity decline. To better recognize the inherent links between human be...
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The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), native to the Black and Caspian Seas, is one of the most wide-ranging invasive fishes, having established in much of Europe and North America. In 2019, round goby were discovered to have colonized a central portion of the Rideau Canal, a 202 km historic waterway in Ontario, Canada. Round goby were found in l...
Article
Predicting the occurrence of rare species is challenging, especially outside of their known ranges. However, this information is critical for assessing conservation status, guiding monitoring efforts, and directing conservation actions for species threatened with extinction. Furthermore, frequent updates are needed under changing climate and landsc...
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Migratory connectivity describes the spatial linkage among migrating individuals through time. Accounting for it is necessary for full annual cycle conservation planning, to avoid uneven protection leading to overall population declines. However, conventional methods used to study migratory connectivity usually demand substantial fiscal and human r...
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Ecosurveillance has proliferated in recent years, generating vast amounts of data on the natural environment. Ecosurveillance also has significant potential impacts on humans; therefore, researchers and policymakers need new conceptual tools to anticipate and mitigate any negative effects. Surveillance studies is an interdisciplinary field in the s...
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1. Neotropical countries receive financing and effort from temperate nations to aid the conservation of migratory species that move between temperate and tropical regions. If allocated strategically, these resources could simultaneously contribute to other conservation initiatives. In this study, we use novel distribution maps to show how those res...
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Given its extensive volume and reach, social media has the potential to widely spread conservation messaging and be a powerful tool to mobilize social change for conserving biodiversity. We synthesized gray and primary academic literature to investigate the effects of social media on wildlife conservation, revealing several overarching benefits and...
Article
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Altering the natural flow regime, an essential component of healthy fluvial systems, through hydropower operations has the potential to negatively impact freshwater fish populations. Establishing improved management of flow regimes requires better understanding of how fish respond to altered flow components, such as flow magnitude. Based on the res...
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American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) were used as a case study to assess whether Ontario’s Endangered Species Act proponent-driven regulatory approach resulted in successful imperilled species management outcomes. American Eel observation databases and proponent-prepared mitigation plans and monitoring data were used to assess whether: ( i) facilities...
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The rate of human-induced environmental change continues to accelerate, stimulating the need for rapid and science-based decision making. The recent availability of cyberinfrastructure, open-source data and novel techniques has increased opportunities to use ecological forecasts to predict environmental change. But to effectively inform environment...
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Invasive alien species (IAS) pose threats to native biodiversity globally and are linked to numerous negative biodiversity impacts throughout Canada. Considering the Canadian federal government’s commitments to environmental stewardship (e.g., the Convention on Biological Diversity), the successful management of IAS requires an understanding of how...
Article
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For better or for worse, authorship is a currency in scholarly research and advancement. In scholarly writing, authorship is widely acknowledged as a means of conferring credit but is also tied to concepts such as responsibility and accountability. Authorship is one of the most divisive topics both at the level of the research team and more broadly...
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Human activities are driving a global biodiversity crisis. In response, a broad range of conservation actions have been implemented. With finite resources available, and a rapidly narrowing window, the scientific and policy communities have acknowledged the need to better understand the effectiveness of interventions for conserving threatened speci...
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The knowledge‐action gap in conservation science and practice occurs when research outputs do not result in actions to protect or restore biodiversity. Among the diverse and complex reasons for this gap, three barriers are fundamental: knowledge is often unavailable to practitioners, challenging to interpret, and/or difficult to use. Problems of av...
Article
Since the implementation of the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) in 2003, deficiencies in SARA and its application have become clear. Legislative and policy inconsistencies among responsible federal agencies and the use of a subjective approach for prioritizing species protection lead to taxonomic biases in protection. Variations in legislation...
Article
Recreational fisheries contribute substantially to the sociocultural and economic well-being of coastal and riparian regions worldwide, but climate change threatens their sustainability. Fishery managers require information on how climate change will impact key recreational species; however, the absence of a global assessment hinders both directed...
Article
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Knowing the distribution of migratory species at different stages of their life cycle is necessary for their effective conservation. For the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), although its overwintering distribution is well known, the available information on premigration distribution is limited to the studies estimating the natal origins of ove...
Article
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• Freshwater biodiversity is declining at an unprecedented rate. Freshwater conservationists and environmental managers have enough evidence to demonstrate that action must not be delayed but have insufficient evidence to identify those actions that will be most effective in reversing the current trend. • Here, the focus is on identifying essential...
Article
Anthropogenic waterways and canal systems have been part of the cultural and natural landscape for thousands for years. As of the late 20th century, more than 63,000-km of canals exist worldwide as transport routes for navigation, many with barriers (e.g., locks, dams) that fragment the system and decrease connectivity. Fragmentation alone can have...
Article
Successful incorporation of scientific knowledge into environmental policy and decisions is a significant challenge. Although studies on how to bridge the knowledge-action gap have proliferated over the last decade, few have investigated the roles, responsibilities, and opportunities for funding bodies to meet this challenge. In this study we prese...
Article
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Little is known about the current state of freshwater biodiversity in Canada, one of the countries with the greatest amount of surface waters in the world. To address this knowledge gap, we compiled a list of all available assessments of conservation status for freshwater species (over 3,000 taxa) and further evaluated the overall status of six dis...
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Abstract Freshwater biodiversity loss is one of the greatest environmental threats in our changing world. Although declines have been reported extensively in the literature, much less attention has been devoted to solving the freshwater biodiversity crisis relative to other ecosystems. The recently proposed Emergency Recovery Plan for Freshwater Bi...
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Many of the plants and animals we love, and even more we do not know about, are in serious danger. Species extinctions are occurring at alarming rates. But how do we prevent extinction from happening? One strategy is to first make people aware of what is going on. If people know which plants and animals are in danger, they will be more likely to su...
Article
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1. To be effective, the next generation of conservation practitioners and managers need to be critical thinkers with a deep understanding of how to make evidence-based decisions and of the value of evidence synthesis. 2. If, as educators, we do not make these priorities a core part of what we teach, we are failing to prepare our students to make an...
Article
Full-text available
Authorship should acknowledge and reward those deserving of such credit. Moreover, being an author on a paper also means that one assumes ownership of the content. Journals are increasingly requiring author roles to be specified at time of submission using schemes such as the contributor roles taxonomy (CRediT) system, which relies on 14 different...
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Holocene climate reconstructions are useful for understanding the diverse features and spatial heterogeneity of past and future climate change. Here we present a database of western North American Holocene paleoclimate records. The database gathers paleoclimate time series from 184 terrestrial and marine sites, including 381 individual proxy record...
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Captive breeding programs are widely applied by conservation practitioners as a means of conserving, reintroducing, and supplementing populations of imperilled freshwater fishes and mussels. We conducted a systematic map to provide an overview of the existing literature base on the effectiveness of captive breeding and release programs. A key findi...
Preprint
Successful incorporation of scientific knowledge into environmental policy and decisions is a significant challenge. Although studies on how to bridge the knowledge-action gap have grown rapidly over the last decade, few have investigated the roles, responsibilities, and opportunities for funding bodies to meet this challenge. In this study we pres...
Article
Public health and safety concerns around the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus and the COVID-19 pandemic have greatly changed human behaviour. Such shifts in behaviours including travel patterns, consumerism, and energy use, are variously impacting biodiversity during the human-dominated geological epoch known as the Anthropocene. Indeed, the dramatic r...
Article
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Practitioners and policymakers working in environmental arenas make decisions that can have large impacts on ecosystems. Basing such decisions on high‐quality evidence about the effectiveness of different interventions can often maximize the success of policy and management. Accordingly, it is vital to understand how environmental professionals wor...
Article
Full-text available
1. To be effective, the next generation of conservation practitioners and managers need to be critical thinkers with a deep understanding of how to make evidence‐based decisions and of the value of evidence synthesis. 2. If, as educators, we do not make these priorities a core part of what we teach, we are failing to prepare our students to make an...
Article
• Cladocera serve as important bio‐ and paleo‐indicators of lake food webs and environmental conditions. The ecological optima of cladocerans are often established by regional‐scale calibration sets, with subsequent comparisons to limnological variables. However, due to logistical constraints when sampling large numbers of lakes, this approach ofte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evidence-based decision-making often depends on some form of a synthesis of previous findings. There is growing recognition that systematic reviews, which incorporate a critical appraisal of evidence, are the gold standard synthesis method in applied environmental science. Yet, on a daily basis, environmental practitioners and decision-makers are f...
Article
Full-text available
To remain effective into the future, protected areas must be resilient to change. Evaluating the resilience of protected areas requires data across large spatial and temporal scales, which has proven to be a strength of community science in conservation research. Here, we assess the contributions of community science to different topics of protecte...
Article
Evidence-based decision-making often depends on some form of a synthesis of previous findings. There is growing recognition that systematic reviews, which incorporate a critical appraisal of evidence, are the gold standard synthesis method in applied environmental science. Yet, on a daily basis, environmental practitioners and decision-makers are f...
Article
Full-text available
To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, conservation approaches must be underpinned by robust information. Canada is uniquely positioned to contribute to meeting global biodiversity targets, with some of the world's largest remaining intact ecosystems, and a commitment to co-application of Indigenous ways of knowing alongside scientific,...
Article
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Scientific evidence is fundamental for guiding effective conservation action to curb biodiversity loss. Yet, research resources in conservation are often wasted due to biased allocation of research effort, irrelevant or low‐priority questions, flawed studies, inaccessible research outputs, and biased or poor‐quality reporting. We outline a striking...
Article
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Background Fish injury and mortality resulting from entrainment and/or impingement during downstream passage over/through hydropower infrastructure has the potential to cause negative effects on fish populations. The primary goal of this systematic review was to address two research questions: (1) What are the consequences of hydroelectric dam fish...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is growing evidence of the potential negative consequences of altered flow regimes, in terms of magnitude, frequency, timing, duration or season pattern, on fluvial ecosystems and the fisheries they support. The scientific and policy communities have acknowledged the need for a better understanding of the effects of flow alteration...
Article
Full-text available
Background Natural flow regimes are an essential component of healthy fluvial systems, but hydropower production alters flow components, disrupting natural processes and impacting species reliant on them. Establishing improved management of flow regimes requires a better understanding of how fish respond to altered flow components, such as flow mag...
Article
Efforts to conserve migratory species have been challenged by a poor understanding of their temporally-dynamic distributions over large geographies. Consequently, most conservation plans have focused on the stationary periods despite the importance of migratory periods for overall population dynamics and fitness. Strategies that identify stopover s...
Article
National parks occur in most nations around the globe and tend to have a dual role of protecting natural heritage features while also providing opportunities for the public to interact with natural areas through recreation and leisure. National parks are afforded varying degrees of protection with recreational fishing allowed in some form within th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Public health and safety concerns around the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic have greatly changed human behaviour. Such shifts in behaviours including travel patterns, consumerism, and energy use, are variously impacting biodiversity during the human-dominated geological epoch known as the Anthropocene. Indeed, the dramatic reducti...
Article
Full-text available
Governments worldwide are releasing data into the public domain via open government data initiatives. Many such data sets are directly relevant to environmental science and complement data collected by academic researchers to address complex and challenging environmental problems. The Government of Canada is a leader in open data among Organisation...
Article
Article impact statement: COVID-19 has demonstrated the need to optimize research activity, convey the gravity of loss, and reevaluate merit in conservation science.
Article
While fragmentation and habitat loss due to water infrastructure threaten freshwater biodiversity worldwide, historic canals have the potential to contribute to both cultural heritage and biodiversity conservation. Shifting management objectives regarding historic canals from development to recreation and conservation offer opportunities for achiev...
Article
Full-text available
Effective conservation of rare species requires reasonable knowledge of population locations. However, surveys for rare species can be time-intensive and therefore expensive. We test a methodology using stacked species distribution models (S-SDMs) to efficiently discover the greatest number of new rare species’ occurrences possible. We used S-SDMs...
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Funds to combat biodiversity loss are insufficient, requiring conservation managers to make trade-offs between costs for actions to avoid further loss and costs for research and monitoring to guide effective actions. Using species' management plans for 2328 listed species from three countries we show that 50% of species' proposed recovery plan budg...
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Environmental decision-makers and practitioners need and deserve high quality environmental evidence for effective decision-making. We collate and share a suite of best practices for applied environmental researchers to support their capacity to inform such decision-making processes. This raises a number of important questions: What does “relevant”...
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Threat classifications allow conservationists to categorize threatening processes faced by species of conservation concern, but lack of information on threat severity hampers efforts to establish the cost-effectiveness of conservation management actions. Actions and funds are often prioritized according to the prevalence of a threat; however, proba...
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owerful and well-implemented legislation is an important step towards the protection and recovery of species at risk of extinction (Ray and Ginsberg 1999; Schwartz 2008). For example, the U.S. Endangered Species Act, despite its flaws, has resulted in several species being saved from extinction (Evans et al. 2016). Although Canada has national legi...
Article
Surveillance of animal movements using electronic tags (i.e., biotelemetry) has emerged as an essential tool for both basic and applied ecological research and monitoring. Advances in animal tracking are occurring simultaneously with changes to technology, in an evolving global scientific culture that increasingly promotes data sharing and transpar...
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The resources available for conserving biodiversity are limited, and so protected areas need to be established in places that will achieve objectives for minimal cost. Two of the main algorithms for solving systematic conservation planning problems are Simulated Annealing (SA) and exact integer linear programing (EILP) solvers. Using a case study i...
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Species distribution models (SDMs) are used to test ecological theory and to direct targeted surveys for species of conservation concern. Several studies have tested for an influence of species traits on the predictive accuracy of SDMs. However, most used the same set of environmental predictors for all species and/or did not use truly independent...