Joseph Arditti

Joseph Arditti
University of California, Irvine | UCI · Department of Developmental and Cell Biology

Ph. D. from the University of Southern California

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231
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Publications (231)
Article
When Dr. Paromik Bhattacharyya first asked me to write for this special issue of the South African Journal of Botany, I refused for several good reasons: Retired for 20 years, not having done research for 21 years, 89 1/2 years old, no longer reading as extensively as before my retirement, recovering from surgeries, trying to manage health problems...
Book
This is a three volume book. Copies are not available for free distribution. Please do not ask. Divided into three volumes, Micropropagation of Orchids Third Edition retains the exhaustive list of micropropagation protocols for many genera and updates each section to include new and/or revised information about: Culture media and vessels. Technique...
Chapter
Although not of major commercial importance Acampe has attracted some attention as a subject for studies of tissue culture and the isolation of protoplasts. Several Saccolabium species were/are sometimes classified as belonging to the genus Acampe. Acampe is an orchid genus consisting of 15 epiphytic species. Of the five species found in India, Aca...
Chapter
Although not of major commercial importance Acampe has attracted some attention as a subject for studies of tissue culture and the isolation of protoplasts. Several Saccolabium species were/are sometimes classified as belonging to the genus Acampe. Acampe is an orchid genus consisting of 15 epiphytic species. Of the five species found in India, Aca...
Chapter
Methods for the in vitro culture of isolated plant cells, tissues, and organs or of seeds require appropriate equipment, certain skills and some knowledge. This chapter outlines these skills and the list of methods, media, and apparatus. Culture media vary widely in the use and content of micro- or minor elements or nutrients. The reasons for this...
Chapter
Although not of major commercial importance Acampe has attracted some attention as a subject for studies of tissue culture and the isolation of protoplasts. Several Saccolabium species were/are sometimes classified as belonging to the genus Acampe. Acampe is an orchid genus consisting of 15 epiphytic species. Of the five species found in India, Aca...
Chapter
The roots of orchid micropropagation are intertwined with the history of tissue culture but they also have other origins. Its origins lie in several lines of research and came from the work of many scientists. The different lines of research is discussed and brought to where they converged and gave rise to orchid micropropagation as it is known and...
Article
Full-text available
div class="page" title="Page 1"> In the great majority of orchids buds are positioned with the labella uppermost and the gynostemia below them. However, flowers are borne with gynostemia above the labella which are lowermost. </div
Article
Full-text available
In this review we provide a detailed description of Darwin's prediction of the coevolution of a long‐spurred orchid, Angraecum sesquipedale, and a long‐tongued moth, his correspondence on the subject, the history of the moth and the subsequent literature. On seeing the long spur of A. sesquipedale, Darwin predicted that its pollinator would be a mo...
Article
Full-text available
Charles Darwin, Angraecum sesquipedale and Xanthopan morganii praedicta. In this review we provide a detailed description of Darwin’s prediction of the coevolution of a long-spurred orchid, Angraecum sesquipedale, and a long-tongued moth, his correspondence on the subject, the history of the moth and the subsequent literature. On seeing the long sp...
Article
Many far-fetched theories were proposed for the origin of orchids because their seeds were not seen or recognized until about 500 years ago. Nearly four centuries passed from the time orchid seeds were first seen and the development of a practical asymbiotic method for their germination. Tissue culture based micropropagation methods were developed...
Article
Full-text available
A good argument can be made that orchid multiplica-tions procedures were always innovative when compared to the plant propagation biotechnology of their time (Arditti, 1984, 1990, 2007) . Seed Germination. The first method for orchid seed ger-mination (for reviews see Arditti, 1984, 2007; Yam et al., 2002) was novel and very different from the meth...
Article
Full-text available
Charles Darwin's work with orchids and his thoughts about them are of great interest and not a little pride for those who are interested in these plants, but they are generally less well known than some of his other studies and ideas. Much has been published on what led to his other books and views. However, there is a paucity of information in the...
Article
Full-text available
Part I Orchid seeds are nearly microscopic in size. Because of that, many fanciful theories were proposed for the origin of orchids. Almost 400 years separate the time when orchid seeds were seen for the first time and the development of a practical asymbiotic method for their germination. The seeds were first observed and drawn during the sixteent...
Chapter
Full-text available
Vanilla planifolia, “the ice cream orchid” (Ecott, 2004), is the only orchid (Fig. 7-1A—I) grown as an edible plantation crop. The plant is a vine which produces long green fruits (they are capsules, not beans as they are usually referred to) that change color to brown (Fig. 7-2) and develop their well known aroma following curing. To produce fruit...
Article
Only 100&130 plants are mentioned in the Bible, some in general terms such as “thorns,” “thistles,” “briars”, “grass,” and similar vegetation (Blackman, 1983; Felix, 1974a; Musselman, 2005; Souvay, no date). Others are mentioned by specific names such as “shoshana” (which has been interpreted to mean “lily,” but in present day Hebrew is used for “r...
Book
As stated many times before the purpose of Orchid Biology, Reviews and Perspectives (OB) is to present reviews on all aspects of orchids. The aim is not to balance every volume, but to make a balanced and wide ranging presentation of orchids in the series as a whole. The chapters in this, the last volume of the series, range over a number of topics...
Article
Full-text available
Orchids were probably hand-pollinated for the first time in 1797–1799 by the German botanist, J. K. Wachter. The earliest description of orchid seedlings (Orchis morio and Bletia verecunda), was by the British botanist, R. A. Salisbury, in a paper delivered in 1802 and published in 1804. Germination of an orchid (Prescottia plantaginea) in a hortic...
Article
Full-text available
A commonly held view is that the ideas and basis for the practice of orchid micropropagation arose de novo in 1960 from the work of Georges Morel in France. In this paper we argue that the crucial developments in micropropagation were made by Gavino Rotor in 1949 in the USA and Hans Thomale in 1957 in Germany, and that Morel's work needs to be seen...
Article
Quantitative determinations of a number of naturally occurring D-hexoses and their oligosaccharides can be accomplished by combinations of enzymatic methods without prior separation of the sugars. These spectrophotometric methods employ readily-available enzymes and commercial reagents. The procedures are particularly useful for the quantitative an...
Article
Rapid separation and determination of tryptophan, N-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, trigonelline, kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid from pea seedling using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography is described. Accuracy of the determinations was better than 5 % a...
Article
Orchid aerial roots contained chlorophylls and were shown to be capable of photosynthesis. 14CO2 feeding in the light showed that the C3 pathway was operating during the day. Aerial roots also exhibited diurnal acidity fluctuations typical of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and malate was the only labelled compound isolated after night 14CO2 fee...
Article
Phytotoxicity of a homologous series of sulphoberaine surfactants, 3-(alkyldimethyl-ammonio)-1-propanesulphonates, on Brassocattleya orchids increased with increasing alkyl chain length from eight to 14 carbon atoms of the lipophile, levelled off and then declined with the 18 carbon derivative. Because of its high Krafft point the tatter had reduce...
Article
SummaryNAA, in concentrations exceeding 0.01 μg/flower, initiates post-pollination phenomena in Cymbidium (Orchidaceae) flowers similar to those brought on by pollination. These include stigmatic closure, swelling and loss of curvature of the column, wilting of the perianth, deformation of the calli, and anthocyanin production. Applications of rela...
Article
The stomata of Arachnis cv. Maggie Oei, Aranda cv. Deborah, Arundina graminifolia, Bromheadia finlaysoniana, Cattleya bowringiana×C. forbesii and Spathoglottis plicata (Orchidaceae) occur only on the lower epidermis of the leaves and are located within hyperstomatic chambers formed by cuticular ledges extending from the guard cells. Arachnis, Arand...
Chapter
A mature embryo within the seed represents a young plant before germination (Mauseth 1988). Since the pattern of the adult plant is formed during the course of embryo development, the study of embryos provides “essential information on the inception of the varied form and structure of plants” (Wardlaw, 1955). In recent years, especially through the...
Chapter
Orchid flowers (Fig. 1-1, 1-2, 1-9, 1-10, 1-13, 1-19, 1-31, 1-36, 1-46, 1-58, 1-59, 1-62, 1-63, 1-71, 1-95, 1-96, 1-97A, 1-97B, 1-99A, 1-99B, 1-100 - 1-103, 1-105 - 1-109) are unlike the blossoms of other Angiosperms (Arditti, 1992). Pollen is produced in masses known as pollinia (Fig. 1-3a, 1-6) which are usually yellow. Most orchids are monandrou...
Chapter
Orchid seeds (see frontispiece-like plates which are part of this chapter) are dust-like and difficult to observe with the naked eye. With two marginally possible exceptions’ they do not seem to have been associated with orchid products of any ethnobotanical or economic interest until orchids became important horticultural plants (Lawler, 1984; Ard...
Book
Note Not long after publication of Orchid Biology, Reviews and Perspectives (OB) volume VII, my co-editor, Dr. Alec M. Pridgeon informed me that the pressure of other duties, especially the editing of Genera Orchidacearum (GO) will make it impossible for him to continue as co-editor and eventually editor ofthe series. Alec is an excellent orchid sc...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY 367I. INTRODUCTION 367II. NUMBER 368III. SIZE 379IV. AIR SPACE IN THE SEEDS 381V. FLOATATION AND DISPERSAL 3831. Air 383(a) Physical considerations 383(b) Dispersal 387(c) Birds 4152. Water 416(a) Physical considerations 416(b) Dispersal 416VI. CONCLUSIONS 417Acknowledgements 417References 418Orchid seeds are very small, extremely light and...
Article
New Phytologist145 (2000), 1–3 In the January 2000 issue of New Phytologist, we published the forum article entitled ‘Cadmium for all meals – plants with an unusual appetite’ by U. Krämer. Since its publication, it has been brought to our attention that an error was introduced during typesetting. In the text several instances of concentrations are...
Chapter
The use of orchids as herbal medicines has a very long history in China (Hu, 1971). A total of 365 plants, including several orchids (Figs. 6-1–6-52, Tables 6-1, 6-2), is listed in the earliest known Chinese Materia Medica (Shen Nung Pên-tsao Ching, Divine Husbandsman’s Classic of the Materia Medica; Hu, 1971). Authorship of this classic has been a...
Chapter
During my first few years at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) Professor Leonard Machlis, founding editor of The Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology (ARPP) came to give a seminar. After we discussed the prefatory chapters by well-known scientists in ARPP, I suggested that he should consider writing such a chapter because future readers of A...
Book
A Personal Note I decided to initiate Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives in about 1972 and (alone or with co-authors) started to write some of the chapters and the appendix for the volume in 1974 during a visit to the Bogor Botanical Gardens in Indonesia. Professor H. C. D. de Wit of Holland was also in Bogor at that time and when we discover...
Article
Full-text available
A commonly held view is that the ideas and basis for the practice of orchid micropropagation arosede novoin 1960 from the work of Georges Morel in France. In this paper we argue that the crucial developments in micropropagation were made by Gavino Rotor in 1949 in the USA and Hans Thomale in 1957 in Germany, and that Morel's work needs to be seen i...
Article
Full-text available
Thickening of perianth segments, loss of original nonchlorophyllous pigments, and chlorophyll production occur in Phalaenopsis species of section Zebrinae Pfitzer as postpollination phenomena. This also occurs in several hybrids of members of this section with Phalaenopsis species whose perianth wilts following pollination. The observed dilution of...
Article
Thickening of perianth segments, loss of original nonchlorophyllous pigments, and chlorophyll production occur in Phalaenopsis species of section Zebrinae Pfitzer as postpollination phenomena. This also occurs in several hybrids of members of this section with Phalaenopsis species whose perianth wilts following pollination. The observed dilution of...
Article
Seeds of Cattleya aurantiaca (Orchidaceae) were germinated and grown aseptically on Knudson C medium containing 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 50 mg l-1 of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon), ethylphosphonic acid, or the inorganic acid moiety of both, phosphorous (phosphonic) acid. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene precursor, reduced leaf length...
Article
Seeds of Cattleya aurantiaca (Orchidaceae) were germinated and grown aseptically on Knudson C medium containing 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 50 mg l⁻¹ of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon), ethylphosphonic acid, or the inorganic acid moiety of both, phosphosphorous (phosphonic) acid. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene precursor, reduced leaf len...
Article
Plants of Tillandsia balbisiana, T. paucifolia, T. recurvata and T. utriculata exposed to 0.15, 0.30 or 0.45 ppm O3 or to 0.30, 0.60 or 1.20 ppm SO2 for 6 hr or sequentially to 0.30 ppm O3 (2 hr), 0.30 ppm O3 plus 0.60 ppm SO2 (2 hr) and 0.60 ppm SO2 (2 hr) did not exhibit visible injury. Fumigations also had no effect on foliar conductance or on Δ...
Article
This is a large and expensive book. Free copies are not available for distribution. Please do not ask. It can be purchased from Zip Publishing (info@zippublishing.com). This illustrated reference work provided a detailed scientific approach to orchid biology. There are 15 chapters: history (in Asia, Africa, Europe, New Guinea and Australia), incl...
Article
Explants of taro cultivars belonging to Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta have been nearly impossible to culture until recently. Here, we describe a method which induces callus formation from bud explants of Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, brings about shoot and root production, and leads to plantlet regeneration. The medium us...
Article
Full-text available
Axillary buds of taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta, Araceae) cultured on half strength Murashige-Skoog medium (HMS) containing taro extract (HMSTE) and 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid produce a compact, hard, slow growing callus which is not very active morphogenetically and produces only a few plantlets. When cultured on HMSTE plus 5 mg...
Article
Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may ha...
Article
Plants of Encyclia tampensis (Epidendrum tampense) and Epidendrum rigidum (Orchidazeae) exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 ppm SO2 or 0.15, 0.3 and 0.45 ppm O3 for 6 hr as well as sequentially to 0.3 ppm O3 (2 hr), 0.3 ppm O3 plus 0.06 ppm SO2 (2 hr) did not exhibit visible injuries. Exposures to pollutants were also without effect on stomatal conductance...
Article
Germinating seeds and developing seedlings of Phalaenopsis Habsburg and Phalaenopsis Ruth Burton x (Phalaenopsis Abendrot x Phalaenopsis Abendrot) can utilize glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, and maltoheptaose as carbon sources. Fresh weight decreased significantly with increased polymerization from glucose...
Article
Excised lateral buds of taro [Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) A.F. Hill] developed into plantlets and formed callus if cultured on media containing taro extract. α-Naphthaleneacetic acid enhanced the process but only if taro extract was also present. The tissue requirements for this variety of taro are different from those of Colocasia escu...
Article
Germinating seeds and developing seedlings of Phalaenopsis Habsburg and Phalaenopsis Ruth Burton × (Phalaenopsis Abendrot × Phalaenopsis Abendrot) can utilize glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, and maltoheptaose as carbon sources. Fresh weight decreased significantly with increased polymerization from glucose...
Article
Salinity tolerant taro tissues were selected and cultured in vitro on saline media (50–350 mOsm). Salt tolerance in these tissues was associated with increased levels of calcium oxalate, chlorophyll, protein and some secondary alkaloids. The concentration of other secondary alkaloids as well as the levels of quaternary alkaloids decreased. Calcium,...
Article
Cultured tissues of taro, Colocasia esculenta var antiquorum, were grown on modified Linsmaier-Skoog medium with and without the addition of 50–350 mOs (5–35%) artificial seawater (ASW). Cell wall thickness and cross-sectional area were variable, but not significantly different over the range of ASW concentrations from 0 to 300 mOs. However, cells...
Article
Zygotic embryos of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum cultured on Linsmaier-Skoog (LS) medium without the addition of hormones develop into mature plants only in the presence of endosperm tissue. Growth is usually evident within the first week of culture when embryos swell and become green. Embryos excised from endosperm and cultured on LS c...
Article
A computer enhanced video microscopy system can be used to study the morphometry of chloroplasts and cells of Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum. This system is rapid and accurate, and enhances microscopic images, thereby facilitating measurements. It also introduces automation in statistical analyses.

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