Josep Penuelas

Josep Penuelas
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)-Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) · Global Ecology Unit

Prof.

About

1,390
Publications
619,074
Reads
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88,467
Citations
Introduction
Global ecology, global change, climate change, atmospheric pollution, Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds emissions, remote sensing, plant ecophysiology, functioning and structure of terrestrial plants and ecosystems, chemical ecology, ecometabolomics, microbial ecology, macroecology, biogeochemistry, environmental sustainability, food security.
Education
September 1984 - June 1985
University of Barcelona
Field of study
  • Analyst of scientific applications
September 1983 - June 1984
University of Barcelona
Field of study
  • Software programmer
June 1982 - October 1985
University of Barcelona
Field of study
  • PhD in Ecology

Publications

Publications (1,390)
Article
Soil microbial communities play a vital role in mediating nutrient turnover, thus enhancing growth and development of plants. Understanding the dynamics of microorganisms in soils can provide insight into the influence of fertilization practices on improving soil fertility and plant growth in agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we compared the...
Article
Applying industrial waste amendments, such as steel slag and biochar, to soils is an increasingly common practice to improve soil fertility, crop yield, and soil carbon (C) pool storage and stability. However, the effects of separate and combined applications of slag and biochar on total and active soil organic C (SOC) pools and the associated rela...
Article
The continuing warming of the climate system is reducing snow cover depth and duration worldwide. Changes in snow cover can significantly affect the soil microclimate and the functioning of many terrestrial ecosystems across latitudinal and elevational gradients. Yet, a quantitative assessment of the effects of snow cover change on soil physicochem...
Article
Within the ecosystem, mangroves serve diverse functions by acting as a carbon sink, removing nitrogen, providing habitats for marine organisms, and regulating climate. Nowadays, many mangrove forests are being converted to shrimp ponds across the world, and several studies have quantified the effects of this conversion on soil carbon stocks and gre...
Article
A widespread increase in intense phytoplankton blooms has been noted in lakes worldwide since the 1980s, with the summertime peak intensity amplifying in most lakes. Such blooms cause annual economic losses of multibillion USD and present a major challenge, affecting 11 out of the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Here, we evaluate r...
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Aims Soil warming significantly influences soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in terrestrial ecosystems through its impact on the processes of carbon (C) input and decomposition as well as the stabilization of SOC pools. Most studies demonstrated that soil warming reduces SOC pools, but the magnitude is highly variable, and the underlying mechanisms a...
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The accurate and timely prediction of crop yield at a large scale is important for food security and the development of agricultural policy. An adaptable and robust method for estimating maize yield for the entire territory of China, however, is currently not available. The inherent trade-off between early estimates of yield and the accuracy of yie...
Article
Intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) is a key physiological trait; however, the spatiotemporal variation in iWUE and which factors affect iWUE in the tropics and subtropics are poorly known. We determined the temporal (1920-2010) and spatial patterns of iWUE using leaf carbon-isotopic composition (δ¹³C) of 1,811 herbarium specimens and associated...
Article
The preservation of nutrient capital, soil fertility, and carbon (C) sequestration capacity in Mediterranean olive groves requires evaluation of agricultural practices beyond short-term productivity. We aim to contribute with a mechanistic understanding on the effects that the preservation of herbaceous cover and the use of chemical fertilizers hav...
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Soil fauna plays a key role in regulating biogeochemical cycles, but how multiple global change factors (GCFs) may affect faunal communities remains poorly studied. We conducted a meta‐analysis using 1154 observations to evaluate the individual and combined effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen (N) addition, warming, increased rainfall and drought on s...
Article
Worldwide regulatory agencies should (re)examine the consideration of: (i) sub-threshold responses, (ii) non-linear dose-response models able to detect sub-threshold responses of both a beneficial and detrimental nature, and (iii) abandoning the use of default dose-response models for their risk assessment. Mounting evidence for significant sub-thr...
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Global warming may lead to carbon transfers from soils to the atmosphere, yet this positive feedback to the climate system remains highly uncertain, especially in subsoils (Ilyina and Friedlingstein, 2016; Shi et al., 2018). Using natural geothermal soil warming gradients of up to +6.4 ∘C in subarctic grasslands (Sigurdsson et al., 2016), we show t...
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Plant litter is the major source of energy and nutrients in stream ecosystems and its decomposition is vital for ecosystem nutrient cycling and functioning. Invertebrates are key contributors to instream litter decomposition, yet quantification of their effects and drivers at the global scale remains lacking. Here, we systematically synthesized dat...
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The upcoming launch of the post-2020 biodiversity framework entails elucidating the future priorities and strategies for conserving biodiversity on a regional and global scale. Desertification has caused significant environmental and socio-economic problems in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. Phreatophytes increase nutrient levels and wat...
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The seasonal greening of Northern Hemisphere (NH) ecosystems, due to extended growing periods and enhanced photosynthetic activity, could modify near-surface warming by perturbing land-atmosphere energy exchanges, yet this biophysical control on warming sea-sonality is underexplored. By performing experiments with a coupled land-atmosphere model, h...
Article
Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is one of the most promising remote-sensing signals to assess spatio-temporal variation in photosynthesis. Yet, it has been shown that the positive linear relationship of SIF and photosynthesis, often reported from satellite and proximal remote sensing, is mainly driven by the amount of absorbed photosynth...
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The production of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (N) has grown so much in the last century that quantifying the effect of N enrichment on plant growth has become a central question for carbon (C) cycle research. Numerous field experiments generally found that N enrichment increased site-scale plant biomass, although the magnitude of the response a...
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Long‐term patterns of dissolved oxygen (DO) in estuarine and coastal waters remain poorly understood. Here we summarized DO concentrations and analyzed the crucial drivers of hypoxia in northwestern and southern Hong Kong and Mirs Bay over the past three decades. Deoxygenation was weak in the bottom water in northwestern Hong Kong, although DO was...
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Extreme temperatures are predicted to become increasingly common due to climate change, threatening the sustainability and profitability of global rice production. Manure amendment is a common agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields, but whether this practice modulates the effect of extreme temperatures on crop yiel...
Preprint
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Ecological theory posits that temporal stability patterns in plant populations are associated with differences in species ecological strategies. However, empirical evidence is lacking about which traits, or trade-offs, underlie species stability, specially across different ecosystems. To address this, we compiled a global collection of long-term pe...
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Forest biomass is an important component of terrestrial carbon pools. However, how climate, biodiversity, and structural attributes co-determine spatiotemporal variation in forest biomass remains not well known. We aimed to shed light on these drivers of forest biomass by measuring diversity and structural attributes of tree species in 400-m 2 plot...
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Safeguarding Earth’s tree diversity is a conservation priority due to the importance of trees for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services such as carbon sequestration. Here, we improve the foundation for effective conservation of global tree diversity by analyzing a recently developed database of tree species covering 46,752 species. We q...
Article
The incorporation of post-harvest crop straw and application of industrial and agricultural wastes to paddy soils increase rice crop yields and soil fertility. However, the impacts of combined applications of straw and waste products on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming potential (GWP) of paddy soils are unclear. Therefore, we condu...
Article
Comprehensive studies on the response of whole plant functional traits to nitrogen deposition can provide insight into the resource acquisition strategies of plants. However, current studies on nitrogen deposition have mainly focused on leaves or roots. We conducted nitrogen deposition simulation experiments with Machilus pauhoi (Lauraceae) from fi...
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Climatic warming has greatly increased vegetation productivity in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere since the 1980s, but how long this positive relationship will continue remains unknown. Here we show changes in the effect of warming on Northern Hemisphere summer gross primary productivity for 2001–2100 using Earth system model outputs. The cor...
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Since antiquity, the sense of smell (olfaction) is considered as a distance sense, just like sight and hearing. Conversely, the sense of taste (gustation) is thought to operate by direct contact, similarly to touch. With the progress of natural sciences, information at molecular, anatomical, and neurobiological levels has also contributed to the ta...
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Imbalanced anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have significantly increased the ratio between N and P globally, degrading ecosystem productivity and environmental quality. Lakes represent a large global nutrient sink, modifying the flow of N and P in the environment. It remains unknown, however, the relative retention of these t...
Article
Root exudates are well-known ‘labile’ sources of soil carbon that can prime microbial activity. Recent investigations suggest that the stability of labile carbon inputs in soil mostly depends upon the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the surroundings. Here, we propose that, in some ecosystems, such as forests and grasslands, root ex...
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Plant roots and associated mycorrhizae exert a large influence on soil carbon (C) cycling. Yet, little was known whether and how roots and ectomycorrhizal extraradical mycelia differentially contribute to soil organic C (SOC) accumulation in alpine forests under increasing nitrogen (N) deposition. Using ingrowth cores, the relative contributions of...
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Ecological stoichiometry is essential for understanding the biogeochemical cycle in forest ecosystems. However, previous studies of ecological stoichiometry have rarely considered the impacts of forest origins, which could help explain why to date so much uncertainty has been reported on this subject. In this study, we tried to reduce this uncertai...
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Researchers use both experiments and observations to study the impacts of climate change on ecosystems, but results from these contrasting approaches have not been systematically compared for droughts. Using a meta-analysis and accounting for potential confounding factors, we demonstrate that aboveground biomass responded only about half as much to...
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Estuarine wetlands, which typically store large amounts of phosphorus (P), are experiencing increased salinity as well as changed environmental factors caused by rising sea levels. In this study, the seasonal dynamics of P speciation, availability, and biogeochemical couplings with iron (Fe)-sulfur (S) in soil and porewater were measured in a low-s...
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Terrestrial vegetation is the largest contributor of isoprenoids (a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs)) to the atmosphere. BVOC emission data comes mostly from temperate regions, and less is known about BVOC emissions from tropical vegetation, even though it is estimated to be responsible for >70% of BVOC emissions. This review su...
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Soil fungi are crucial drivers of log decomposition in forest ecosystems, but how soil fungal community composition varies during the process of log decomposition remains poorly understood. We conducted an experiment incubating decaying logs in a subalpine coniferous forest on the eastern Qinghai‐Tibet Plateau, China. Five classes of decaying Minji...
Preprint
Understanding the causes of the arrest of species distributions has been a fundamental question in ecology and evolution. For trees, these questions are of particular interest due to their long lifespan and sessile nature. A surge in data-availability evokes for a macro-ecological analysis to determine the underlying forces limiting distributions....
Preprint
Alpine meadow degradation, usually involving decreased soil N and patchy landscapes, is challenging for natural restoration. However, the mechanism underlying plant species coexistence during degradation is unclear. In this study, we evaluated plant N niche complementarity in degraded alpine meadows by a 15N-labeling (15NO3-, 15NH4+ and 15N-glycine...
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Background and aimsGrasslands are expected to experience both long-term chronic reductions in precipitation as well as increased frequency of short-term intense droughts. However, few studies have assessed how these two types of drought differentially alter carbon-nutrient dynamics of grassland vegetation and soil on broad spatial and temporal scal...
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Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we...
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Climate change substantially advances the leaf onset date (LOD) and regulates carbon uptake by plants. Unlike temperature, the effect of precipitation remains largely elusive. Here we use carbon-flux measurements, in situ records of leaf unfolding and satellite greenness observations to examine the role of precipitation frequency (Pfreq, number of...
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Full-text available
Climatic warming alters the onset, duration and cessation of the vegetative season. While previous studies have shown a tight link between thermal conditions and leaf phenology, less is known about the impacts of phenological changes on tree growth. Here, we assessed the relationships between the start of the thermal growing season and tree growth...
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Food-energy-water (FEW) systems are increasingly vulnerable to natural hazards and climate change risks, yet humans depend on these systems for their daily needs, wellbeing, and survival. We investigate how adaptations related to food, energy, and water vulnerabilities are occurring and what the global community can learn about the interactions acr...
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Temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is an important parameter in models of the global carbon (C) cycle. Previous studies have suggested that substrate quality controls the intrinsic Q10, whereas environmental factors can impose large constraints. For example, physical protection of SOM and its association with m...
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Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) control biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. However, N and P addition effects on litter decomposition, especially biological pathways in subtropical forests, remain unclear. Here, a two-year field litterbag experiment was employed in a subtropical forest in southwestern China to examine N and P addition...
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Phosphorus (P) is often one of the most limiting nutrients in highly weathered soils of humid tropical forests and may regulate the responses of carbon (C) feedback to climate warming. However, the response of P to warming at the ecosystem level in tropical forests is not well understood because previous studies have not comprehensively assessed ch...
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The EU needs an integrated nutrient directive that regulates the agricultural application of nitrogen and phosphorus to prevent ecosystem degradation and support the Farm to Fork initiative. This directive must go beyond the current, inadequate regulations by considering nutrient balances and accounting for regional differences.
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Legume pasture species have been widely used to reestablish vegetation cover and control soil erosion in semiarid degraded ecosystems. Nevertheless, the long‐term effects of revegetation on aboveground biomass (AB) and the soil properties under different topographies remain unclear. We conducted a 16‐year in situ experiment to evaluate soil propert...
Preprint
The impacts of human-driven environmental changes on the stability of natural grasslands have been assessed by comparing differences between manipulative warming and grazing plots and reference plots. However, little is known about whether or how ambient climate regulates the effects of manipulative treatments. A 36-year observational dataset shows...
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How soil microorganisms respond to global warming is key to infer future soil-climate feedbacks, yet poorly understood. Here, we applied metatranscriptomics to investigate microbial physiological responses to medium-term (8 years) and long-term (>50 years) subarctic grassland soil warming of +6°C. Besides indications for a community-wide up-regulat...
Article
The chlorophyll/carotenoid index (CCI) is increasingly used for remotely tracking the phenology of photosynthesis. However, CCI is restricted to few satellites incorporating the 531 nm band. This study reveals that the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) broadband green reflectance (band 4) is significantly correlated with this xa...
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Reversing ecosystem degradation and halting global biodiversity loss due to climate change and other anthropogenic drivers are essential for socioeconomic development and human wellbeing, as well as for advancing global sustainability. The latest initiative in this direction is the 'Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework', which establishes a blue...
Article
We used automated spectroradiometers to continuously monitor changes in the optical parameters of phenological and photosynthetic traits in beech and spruce forests. We examined seasonal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), and solar-induced fluorescence in the oxygen A band (SIFA)...
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More efficient use of soil resources, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), can improve plant community resistance and resilience against drought in arid and semi-arid lands. Intercropping of legume and non-legumes can be an effective practice for enhancing P mineralization uptake, and plant nutrient status. However, it remains unclear how inter...
Article
Aim: The aim was to create global maps of foliar nitrogen-to- phosphorus (N:P) ratios across ecosystems, based on modelled climate, soil, and N and P deposition data, to identify global drivers of woody vegetation N:P ratios and to explore the role of genetic legacy (phylogenetics) in foliar N:P ratios of woody plants.Location: Woody cover globally...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. The capacity to forecast the effects of climate change on biodiversity largely rely on identifying traits capturing mechanistic relationships with the environment through standardized field experiments distributed across relevant spatial scales. The effects of short-term experimental manipulations on local communities, may overlap with regional...
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Vegetation is changing rapidly in dryland ecosystems, but critical gaps remain in understanding the long‐term fluxes of carbon (C) and water. We used six years of data from two adjacent eddy covariance sites in the Sonoran Desert, a species‐rich woody C3 native shrubland and a species‐poor C4 shrubland converted to buffelgrass savanna. Although emp...
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Aims Although tropical dry forests are among the most degraded and fragmented biomes in the world, we still only have a poor understanding of their basic ecological features and conservation status, particularly in the Neotropics. Here, we assess the diversity, composition, structure, and conservation value of tropical dry forests in a highly fragm...
Article
Analysing temporal patterns in plant communities is extremely important to quantify the extent and the consequences of ecological changes, especially considering the current biodiversity crisis. Long‐term data collected through the regular sampling of permanent plots represent the most accurate resource to study ecological succession, analyse the s...
Article
Many studies have shown that the microbial biomass content in paddy soils is much higher than that in upland soils, but a comprehensive review of the underlying mechanisms and processes is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature on the microbial biomass content in continuous paddy soils (>1700 data pairs) and paddy-upland rota...
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Aim Plant biomass allocation reflects the distribution of photosynthates among different organs in response to changing environmental conditions. Global change influences plant growth across terrestrial ecosystems, but impacts of individual and combined multiple global change factors (GCFs) on plant biomass allocation at the global scale are unclea...
Article
Rock‐derived nutrients such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are essential plant resources, yet depleted in highly weathered tropical soils, leading to nutrient limitation of productivity or other ecosystem processes. Despite this, substantial amounts of rock‐derived nutrients occur within wood, which raises questi...
Article
Wetland type plays an important role in controlling the phosphorus (P) biogeochemical cycle, while its effect on P availability and recycling in coastal wetlands remains unclear. In this study, chemical sequential extraction and high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT) techniques were employed to investigate P forms, mobilization, and...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change substantially advances the leaf onset date (LOD) and regulates carbon uptake by plants. Unlike temperature, the effect of precipitation remains largely elusive. Here we use carbon-flux measurements, in situ records of leaf unfolding and satellite greenness observations to examine the role of precipitation frequency (Pfreq, number of...