Josefa N. S. Pandeirada

Josefa N. S. Pandeirada
University of Aveiro | UA · Department of Education and Psychology

PhD

About

85
Publications
42,583
Reads
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2,051
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - June 2018
University of Aveiro
Position
  • Researcher
April 2006 - August 2015
Purdue University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (85)
Poster
The animacy effect is a robust memory advantage for animate/living over inanimate/nonliving items, particularly in retrospective memory tasks. Some evidence also exists for its impact in prospective memory(PM), particularly in nonfocal tasks. This study investigated the influence of animacy on a focal-PM task. Eighty-four young adults performed a l...
Presentation
Oral communication (https://appesepexmeeting.appe.pt/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Provisional-programme-20-April.pdf) The animacy effect (ANEF) refers to a memory tuning towards animates/living beings over inanimates/nonliving things and is overly established in retrospective memory [1]. In a series of studies, we explored if animate targets (vs. in...
Poster
From an evolutionary perspective, it would be adaptive to prioritize the processing of animates, due to their relevance to fitness (e.g., animates can be predators, prey, sexual mates; Nairne et al., 2017). A mnemonic advantage for animates—the animacy effect, or the finding that people remember better animates/living beings over inanimates/ nonliv...
Poster
The animacy effect–a mnemonic advantage for animates over inanimates—has been obtained mostly with young adults; studies with older adults are still scarce. These studies tend to use words representing animates or inanimates as the to-be-remembered stimuli; this calls for the need of animacy norming data from this age-group, to ensure a proper mani...
Article
Full-text available
Words are widely used as stimuli in cognitive and linguistic research. As words may vary on various domains (e.g., lexicosemantic and affective), which can influence performance in many ways, it is essential to select them carefully. However, databases of European Portuguese words are still relatively scarce, and their presentation is spread in var...
Article
Full-text available
Words are widely used as stimuli in cognitive and linguistic research. As words may vary on various domains (e.g., lexicosemantic and affective), which can influence performance in many ways, it is essential to select them carefully. However, databases of European Portuguese words are still relatively scarce, and their presentation is spread in var...
Poster
Our results suggest that, when the PM target is an animate, PM performance if higher than when it is an inanimate. This is one of first reports of a PM advantage when animate (vs inanimate) targets are used.
Article
Full-text available
This work reports a preliminary validation of the Peer Conflict Scale (PCS) for Portuguese young adults (ages 18–30 years). This instrument assesses aggression considering two of its forms (overt and relational aggression) and its two functions (reactive and proactive aggression). The initially proposed 4-factor model provided the best fit for our...
Poster
Few studies on the free association of words exist in European Portuguese (EP). This constitutes an obstacle to understand the semantic network in this language. The main aim of this work was to provide free association norms for 100 EP words. Furthermore, based on the idea that Emotional words constitute a differentiated type of words, we explored...
Poster
Everything that surrounds us can be classified as an animate (living being; e.g. cat) or an inanimate (non-living thing; e.g. spoon). We collected animacy ratings for 224 words from a sample of elderly Portuguese people. Ratings were compared to those previously obtained from a younger Portuguese sample (Félix et al., 2020). Despite the high rating...
Article
Full-text available
Words are frequently used as stimuli in cognitive and linguistic research. Considering that there are various psycholinguistic variables known to influence word processing (e.g., frequency, concreteness), it is important to control for those variables. Recently, it has been reported that animacy (the characteristic of being a living/animate or a no...
Article
Human memory likely evolved to serve adaptive functions, that is, to help maximise our chances of survival and reproduction. One demonstration of such adaptiveness is the increased retention of information processed in survival contexts, the so-called Survival Processing Effect (SPE). This study examined this effect in a native (L1) and in a second...
Article
Full-text available
To face threats posed by pathogens, natural selection designed the Behavioral Immune System (BIS), which orchestrates several responses aimed to prevent contact with pathogens. Memory seems to augment this system. Using line drawings of objects, previous studies found that objects described as having been touched by sick people were better remember...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how the characteristics of the visual surrounding environment influence older- and young-adults’ cognitive performance. Sixty-four older adults and 64 young adults performed four visual cognitive tasks (attention and memory tasks) in two independent sessions while being exposed to a high-load and a low-load visual surroundin...
Article
Full-text available
We present an initial validation of the State Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) for Portuguese children and adolescents. No significant differences were found between sexes and among school cycle groups. The data revealed good psychometric properties and the ‘anxiety-absent’ and ‘anxiety-present’ factors were confirmed. Potential applications of th...
Article
Full-text available
A long-standing goal shared by researchers has been to design optimal experimental procedures, including the selection of appropriate stimuli. Pictures are commonly used in different research fields. However, until recently, researchers have relied mostly on line-drawings, which can have poor ecological validity. We developed a set of high quality...
Chapter
The animacy effect in memory generally refers to better retention of animates (or information processed as animate) compared to inanimates (or information processed as inanimate).
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by a complex maturation process of various cognitive abilities. Cognitive control, which includes response inhibition and working memory, is one of them. A typical study on response inhibition to visual stimuli presents distractors and targets on the same display (e.g., the computer screen). Howev...
Article
Full-text available
The animacy effect—the finding that animates are better remembered than inanimates—is proving to be a robust empirical phenomenon. Considering the adaptiveness of the animate advantage, one might expect it to remain after long retention intervals and also to be present irrespectively of an intention to learn. The present study explores these two as...
Article
Full-text available
Four experiments investigated the mnemonic effects of generating survival situations. People were given target words and asked to generate survival situations involving that stimulus (e.g., DOOR: "I'm in a house that's on fire, and I can escape through the door"). No constraints were placed on the generation process, other than that it must be surv...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing morningness-eveningness preferences (chronotype), an individual characteristic that is mirrored in daily mental and physiological fluctuations is crucial given their overarching influence in a variety of domains. The current work aimed to investigate the best factor structure of an instrument recently presented to asses this variable: the...
Poster
According to evolutionary psychology, animates played (and still play) an important role in our survival and chances of reproduction. Therefore, one could expect memory to remember animates particularly well. The animacy effect reflects the mnemonic advantage for animate (living) over inanimate (nonliving) items. Although it has proven to be a robu...
Article
The behavioral immune system (BIS) is characterized by affective, cognitive and behavioral processes that work in an articulated manner to prevent the occurrence of infections. Attention and memory evolved to enhance the organism's chances of survival and have been proposed to play an important role in the BIS. The present study investigated the ef...
Article
Full-text available
Our work aimed to provide a validated reduced form of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire to Portuguese adolescents (ages: 12-14 years). Using the dataset from the initial validation study of the full questionnaire (19 items) to Portuguese adolescents, we derived a 10-item reduced form – aMEQ-R (Phase 1); this was the smallest set of items th...
Article
Full-text available
Visual distraction is widely studied in children, particularly in visuospatial cognitive tasks. In these studies, targets and distractors are usually shown in the same display (e.g., the computer screen). However, children are constantly exposed to visually enriched environments (e.g., elementary school classrooms), and little is known about their...
Article
Full-text available
This work reports the initial psychometric characterization of the Morningness-Eveningness-Stability-Scale improved (MESSi) for Portuguese young-adults (N=466). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed a three-factor model (i.e., Morning Affect, Eveningness and Distinctness) in our data, as originally proposed. Furthermore, construct validity evide...
Article
Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by...
Article
Full-text available
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children is a self-report instrument inspired on the State-Trait theory extended by Spielberger that measures a momentary state of anxiety (state) and a stable tendency to experience anxiety (trait). This study presents an exploratory adaptation of the Trait Scale and provides its psychometric properties for Eu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Adaptive memory researchers study evolutionary influences on remembering. Our memory systems are the product of an evolutionary process, guided by natural selection, so one might reasonably assume that the footprints of nature's criterion (fitness) remain in memory's operating characteristics. In this chapter, we review relevant evidence across sev...
Poster
Full-text available
O ciclo de palestras UnderInvestigation tem por objetivo introduzir aos estudantes do primeiro ciclo as diferentes temáticas de investigação exploradas no nosso Departamento estimulando a sua curiosidade para as mesmas e criando oportunidade para que os mesmos se possam tornar atores ativos nesses mesmos trabalhos de investigação. Adicionalmente pr...
Article
Full-text available
According to the adaptive memory perspective, memory should function more efficiently in fitness-relevant domains. The current work explored whether there is a mnemonic tuning in a fundamental domain for human evolution: reproduction. In two experiments, female participants assessed how desirable potential male candidates (represented by a face and...
Poster
Full-text available
Our work aimed to investigate how the presence of visual elements in the surrounding environment influences cognitive performance measured by four cognitive tasks in elderly and in young-adults.
Poster
Full-text available
OUR AIM: To contribute to the understanding of the relation between chronotype, sleep and sports performance in elite football players.
Poster
Full-text available
Our aim was to study the influence of the load of the external environment (high vs. low-load external environment) in two cognitive tasks performed by a group of young-adults, and to explore if the position in which tasks are performed influences this effect.
Article
Humans likely evolved an adaptive disease avoidance system, the Behavioral Immune System, to mitigate the fitness costs posed by pathogens. This system is specially attuned to cues connoting infection risk: When perceived, these cues drive affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses, which work in an articulated way to enhance the organisms' cha...
Article
Full-text available
A few seconds of survival processing, during which people assess the relevance of information to a survival situation, produces particularly good retention. One interpretation of this benefit is that our memory systems are optimized to process and retain fitness-relevant information. Such a “tuning” may exist, in part, because our memory systems we...
Poster
Full-text available
AIM: To investigate the influence of the visual external environment in specific cognitive tasks in children.
Poster
Full-text available
AIM: To propose a validated reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for European Portuguese adolescents aged 12-14 years.
Article
Full-text available
Animate stimuli are better remembered than matched inanimate stimuli in free recall. Three experiments tested the hypothesis that animacy advantages are due to a more efficient use of a categorical retrieval cue. Experiment 1 developed an "embedded list" procedure that was designed to disrupt participants' ability to perceive category structure at...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout development individuals vary in their circadian preferences. One of the most notable changes occurs during adolescence when individuals tend to become progressively more evening-oriented. This is a critical age period to be studied given that eveningness preferences seem to relate with physical, psychological and social problems, whereas...
Poster
Full-text available
This work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of visuospatial attentional and memory tasks in 56 elderly. Overall, the results revealed better performance in the cognitive tasks when these were done in the non-distracting environment, as compared to when they were done in the distracting environment.
Article
The retrieval-practice paradigm has demonstrated that the act of selectively recovering some of the previously studied items from a category impairs the retrieval of the remaining items from that category, as compared to the retrieval of information from non-practiced categories (retrieval-induced forgetting); the practiced items are also better re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
O crecente envelhecimento populacional, nomeadamente em Portugal, exige dos psicólogos uma atenção particular a esta população que carece de cuidados acrescidos. Os idosos apresentam habitualmente declínios cognitivos, nomeadamente ao nível atencional e mnésico, e urge perceber que outros elementos podem debilitar o seu funcionamento nestes domínio...
Article
The present work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of attentional and working memory (WM) tasks in elderly participants. To this end, forty elderly performed two attentional tasks (simple reaction time and go/no-go tasks), and three WM tasks (arithmetic, memory for digits and sequences of letters and numbers)....
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments investigated the mnemonic effects of source-constrained retrieval in the survival-processing paradigm. Participants were asked to make survival-based or control decisions (pleasantness or moving judgments) about items prior to a source identification test. The source test was followed by a surprise free recall test for all items p...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests that animate stimuli are remembered better than matched inanimate stimuli. Two experiments tested whether this animacy effect persists in paired-associate learning of foreign words. Experiment 1 randomly paired Swahili words with matched animate and inanimate English words. Participants were told simply to learn the English...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As queixas mnésicas são muito frequentes na população, particularmente nos idosos. Contudo, a sua significância clínica não é consensual. Este trabalho apresenta dados comparativos de idosos e adultos relativos a um método objetivo de avaliação mnésica e a um método subjetivo. Para tal, 30 idosos e 30 adultos preencheram o Questionário de Lapsos de...
Article
Full-text available
The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the "survival processing effect...
Article
Full-text available
The survival processing paradigm has recently drawn attention to the functional aspects of memory functioning. The survival effect, characterized by better memory performance when information is processed in a survival context, as compared with a variety of controls, is now well established in healthy populations. The main goal of this study was to...
Article
Full-text available
Distinguishing between living (animate) and nonliving (inanimate) things is essential for survival and successful reproduction. Animacy is widely recognized as a foundational dimension, appearing early in development, but its role in remembering is currently unknown. We report two studies suggesting that animacy is a critical mnemonic dimension and...
Article
Full-text available
Inspired by a functional approach, Nairne, Thompson and Pandeirada (2007) showed for the first time that human memory performance is enhanced when the target information is encoded in the context of a survival scenario relative to a variety of controls. The effect came to be known as the “survival effect”. In this paper, we summarize the seminal wo...
Article
Full-text available
It is adaptive to remember animates, particularly animate agents, because they play an important role in survival and reproduction. Yet, surprisingly, the role of animacy in mnemonic processing has received little direct attention in the literature. In two experiments, participants were presented with pronounceable nonwords and properties character...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments investigated whether survival processing enhances memory for location. From an adaptive perspective, remembering that food has been located in a particular area, or that potential predators are likely to be found in a given territory, should increase the chances of subsequent survival. Participants were shown pictures of food or ani...
Article
Full-text available
Five experiments were conducted to investigate a proposal by Butler, Kang, and Roediger (2009) that congruity (or fit) between target items and processing tasks might contribute, at least partly, to the mnemonic advantages typically produced by survival processing. In their research, no significant survival advantages were found when words were pre...
Article
Full-text available
Memory researchers traditionally ignore function in favor of largely structural analyses. For example, it is well known that forming a visual image improves retention, and various proximate mechanisms have been proposed to account for the advantage (e.g., elaboration of the memory trace), but next to nothing is known about why memory evolved such s...
Article
Evolutionary psychologists often propose that humans carry around "stone-age" brains, along with a toolkit of cognitive adaptations designed originally to solve hunter-gatherer problems. This perspective predicts that optimal cognitive performance might sometimes be induced by ancestrally-based problems, those present in ancestral environments, rat...
Chapter
Defined generally, memory is the capacity to preserve and recover information. Yet neither memory's operation nor its structures are easily understood without some consideration of function. Like other biological systems, the capacity to remember evolved because of its fitness-enhancing properties. Memory helped solve adaptive problems that, in tur...
Article
Memory researchers traditionally ignore function in favor of largely structural analyses. For example, it is well known that forming a visual image improves retention, and various proximate mechanisms have been proposed to account for the advantage (e.g., elaboration of the memory trace), but next to nothing is known about why memory evolved such s...
Article
Full-text available
The survival processing effect refers to the mnemonic superiority of stimulus encoded according to their relevance to a survival scenario comparatively to other deep processing conditions. This effect, so far only observed in young adults, occurs in an incidental learning task which consists in rating the relevance of common nouns with respect to a...
Article
Recent studies suggest that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed in terms of its fitness value. When people are asked to rate the relevance of words to a survival scenario, performance on subsequent surprise memory tests exceeds that obtained after most other known encoding techniques. The present experiments e...
Article
Forgetting occurs when people fail to recover information that has been experienced previously. Most view forgetting as a nuisance, but the process is quite adaptive. This chapter provides a general tutorial on the psychology of forgetting. We focus on its empirical characteristics and proposed theoretical underpinnings, as revealed through studies...
Article
Do the operating characteristics of memory continue to bear the imprints of ancestral selection pressures? Previous work in our laboratory has shown that human memory may be specially tuned to retain information processed in terms of its survival relevance. A few seconds of survival processing in an incidental learning context can produce recall le...
Article
If memory evolved, sculpted by the processes of natural selection, then its operating characteristics likely bear the "footprints" of ancestral selection pressures. Psychologists rarely consider this possibility and generally ignore functional questions in their attempt to understand how human memory works. We propose that memory evolved to enhance...