Josef Krems

Josef Krems
Technische Universität Chemnitz · Department of Psychology

Dr.

About

387
Publications
80,479
Reads
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6,444
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
October 1995 - present
Technische Universität Chemnitz
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (387)
Conference Paper
Automated vehicles (AVs) need to interact in an expected manner with manual road users to ensure traffic safety and user acceptance. Therefore, established interaction patterns of manual traffic participants should be implemented in AVs. In manual driving, accepted time gaps (gap acceptance, GA) frequently coordinate interactions between different...
Preprint
Cycling offers the opportunity to reach destinations in a healthy and eco-friendly manner. However, cyclists are specifically vulnerable traffic participants facing potential hazards with possibly severe injuries. To support cyclists and enhance cycling safety, we developed and evaluated a cyclist warning system (CWS) using a combination of visual,...
Chapter
Cycling offers the opportunity to reach destinations in a healthy and eco-friendly manner. However, cyclists are specifically vulnerable traffic participants facing potential hazards with possibly severe injuries. To support cyclists and enhance cycling safety, we developed and evaluated a cyclist warning system (CWS) using a combination of visual,...
Article
Full-text available
To ensure traffic flow and road safety in automated driving, external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) could prospectively support the interaction between automated vehicles (AVs; SAE Level 3 or higher) and pedestrians if implicit communication is insufficient. Particularly elderly pedestrians (≥65 years) who are notably vulnerable in terms of traf...
Poster
Full-text available
A comparison of two Trust in Automation Scales: uni dimensional Trust in Automation Scale by Jian et al. (2000) vs. multi faceted Trust in Automation Scale by Körber et al. (2019).
Chapter
External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) could enhance the interaction between automated vehicles and surrounding traffic participants if implicit signals are insufficient. Traffic safety requires an appropriate level of trust considering potential eHMI failures. Thus, the current study investigated effects of eHMI system failures on elderly parti...
Chapter
Driving automation systems have already entered the commercial market and further advancements will be introduced in the near future. Level 3 automated driving systems are expected to increase safety, comfort and traffic efficiency. For the human driver, these functions and according human-machine interfaces are a novel technology. In the human fac...
Chapter
The vision of automated driving becomes more and more concrete and vehicles that drive autonomously—under the supervision of the human driver—are already on the roads. It might not take much longer and vehicle automation will be available with which drivers are allowed to divert their attention away from the driving task to non-driving related acti...
Conference Paper
To support road safety and user acceptance, the interaction capabilities of automated vehicles (AVs) need to be intuitive and transparent. Therefore, established interaction capabilities of manual drivers need to be implemented in AVs. In manual driving, accepted time gaps (gap acceptance, GA) are frequently applied to coordinate interactions betwe...
Conference Paper
The assessment of task demand caused by in-vehicle systems is crucial to avoid distraction while driving. The Box Task (BT) in combination with a tactile Detection Response Task (DRT) provides a method for measuring both visual-manual and cognitive secondary task demand. In the present study, the impact of cognitive, auditory-verbal tasks on the BT...
Conference Paper
Aim of this research was to better understand the impact of urban infrastructure design on people’s perceived environmental quality, perceived safety and the motivation for active mobility within the city. The requirements for walking and cycling infrastructure were first generated in face-to-face interviews (N = 82). Then, in a within-subject desi...
Poster
Full-text available
As vulnerable road users, cyclists have an increased risk of sustaining severe injuries when involved in an accident. Often, obstructed views and a lack of attention account for accidents or safety critical events (SCE) including cyclists. In turn, negative cycling experiences and/ or a poor sense of security when participating in road traffic may...
Article
Full-text available
Abductive reasoning describes the process of deriving an explanation from given observations. The theory of abductive reasoning (TAR; Johnson and Krems, Cognitive Science 25:903–939, 2001) assumes that when information is presented sequentially, new information is integrated into a mental representation, a situation model, the central data structur...
Conference Paper
Experts assume that the dark-number of non-registered less severe cyclists’ incidents that do not result in hospitalisations such as near misses or safety critical events (SCE) is vastly greater than the number of registered accidents. There are only few studies, which make estimates on the extent of this so-called underreporting. To our knowledge,...
Conference Paper
One of the key questions arising in the context of automation of our traffic system is: Which strategies will be implemented for the communication between automated vehicles (AVs) and other traffic participants, such as pedestrians? In this context, the current study examines light-based communication signals as one possible solution for designing...
Conference Paper
To ensure safety and support drivers' comfort and acceptance, automated vehicles (AVs) need to communicate with other traffic participants. Hence, a user-centred implementation of manual driving behaviour is considered as beneficial in AVs. Currently, manual driving is often coordinated by informal communication. Thus, specific parameters regarding...
Poster
Full-text available
In-vehicle information systems allow drivers to engage in secondary tasks, such as selecting music via the infotainment system, while driving. However, interacting with such systems can lead to visual, manual as well as cognitive distraction. Assessing in-vehicle system demand while driving is, therefore, a central topic in driver distraction resea...
Poster
Full-text available
Lastenpedelecs bieten eine große Chance für einen Wandel hin zu einer aktiveren und nachhaltigeren Mobilität - nicht zuletzt wegen ihres großen Potenzials, das Auto als Verkehrsmittel für bestimmte Wege zu ersetzen. Für eine verstärkte Nutzung dieses Transportmittels sind neben geeigneten Bereitstellungskonzepten auch Faktoren wie Nutzerfreundlichk...
Chapter
To exploit the benefits of automated vehicles (AVs), the systems’ functions need to be accepted by the driver and other traffic participants. Thus, the human-machine interaction should be considered as a key issue. Manual driving is often coordinated by implicit communication cues. Therefore, specific parameters such as drivers’ gap acceptance (GA)...
Article
Full-text available
Automated vehicles promise transformational benefits for future mobility systems, but only if they will be used regularly. However, due to the associated loss of control and fundamental change of in-vehicle user experience (shifting from active driver to passive passenger experience), many humans have reservations towards driving automation, which...
Chapter
Lane changes (LCs) are highly complex, therefore the announcement and anticipation at an early stage of these maneuvers is important for traffic safety. Since manual drivers mainly apply implicit driving cues, automated vehicles (AVs) need to be able to detect and apply these cues to enhance the acceptance of AVs and therefore exploit the benefits...
Preprint
Abductive reasoning is the process of finding the best explanation for a set of observations. As the number of possible observations and corresponding explanations may be very high, it is commonly accepted that the capacity of working memory is closely related to successful abductive reasoning. However, the precise relationship between reasoning an...
Preprint
Abductive reasoning describes the process of deriving an explanation from given observations. The Theory of Abductive Reasoning (TAR; Johnson & Krems, 2001) assumes that when information is presented sequentially, new information is integrated into a mental representation, a situation model, the central data structure on which all reasoning process...
Chapter
Automated driving is an ever-fast developing technology which is going to change the traffic system fundamentally. This development raises the question about how to interact in urban, less-regulated situations involving automated vehicles (AV) and vulnerable road users (VRU) like cyclists and/or pedestrians. Thus, it is essential to gain an underst...
Article
Full-text available
Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors researche...
Article
With highly automated vehicles (HAVs), the human role shifts from active driver to mostly passive passenger, which has an impact on the perceived comfort while being driven. A number of factors need to be taken into account when designing an automated driving style (ADS) with the aim to minimize human discomfort. In this paper, the authors build on...
Article
Full-text available
The use of advanced in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) and other complex devices such as smartphones while driving can lead to driver distraction, which, in turn, increases safety-critical event risk. Therefore, using methods for measuring driver distraction caused by IVIS is crucial when developing new in-vehicle systems. In this paper, we pres...
Chapter
Automated driving is an active topic of research, while first results have already found their way into productive use. Nonetheless, nearly all of today’s vehicles are still non-automated. Most modern vehicles, however, are equipped with communication capabilities. Hence, combining these two developments and enabling sophisticated cooperative maneu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of the International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction Research and Applications (CHIRA) is to bring together professionals, academics and students who are interested in the advancement of research and practical applications of interaction design & human-computer interaction. Five parallel tracks will be held, covering different...
Conference Paper
The idea of transferring vehicle control to an automated system and thereby transforming from driver to passenger has raised safety concerns among potential users. To examine vehicle occupants’ perception (perceived safety and driving comfort, monitoring gaze behavior) of automated vehicle control in light of actual system experience, a driving sim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors researche...
Article
Electromobility refers to the usage of vehicles that are propelled by electric engines. The term includes different kinds of vehicles (cars, pedelecs, e-bikes, e-scooters, buses, rail-bound trams, or trains) and infrastructure necessary for charging as well as the management of the system. It also includes organizational issues to support travel ne...
Conference Paper
Face tracking as innovative and unobtrusive sensor technology offers new possibilities for driver state monitoring regarding discomfort in automated driving. To explore the potential of automated facial expression analysis, video data of two driving simulator studies were analyzed using the Visage facial features and analysis software. A gender-bal...
Article
The present study aims to investigate user attitudes and behaviour when users interact with a corporate multimodal mobility sharing system, consisting of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), pedelecs (i.e. electric bicycles) and public transport. We analysed participants’ attitudes towards BEVs, pedelecs, public transport, and the underlying service t...
Article
Full-text available
For a successful market introduction of Level 3 Automated Driving Systems (L3 ADS), a careful evaluation of human–machine interfaces (HMIs) is necessary. User preference has often focused on usability, user experience, acceptance and trust. However, a thorough evaluation of measures when applied to ADS HMIs is missing. We investigated the appropria...
Article
Several tools have been developed over the past twenty years to assess the degree of driver distraction caused by secondary task engagement. A relatively new and promising method in this area is the box task combined with a detection response task (BT + DRT). However, no evaluation regarding the BT's sensitivity currently exists. Thus, the aim of t...
Chapter
Automated driving is expected to bring several benefits such as improved traffic safety, reduced congestions and emissions, social inclusion, enhanced accessibility and higher driving comfort. A central human–machine interaction issue addresses the question of how automated vehicles should drive to ensure comfort and a positive driving experience....
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of latency (i.e., technical system response time), action modality (button press, voice command) and display modality (head-mounted display, monitor) on the sense of agency (SOA). SOA is the experience of controlling one’s own actions and their corresponding effects in the environment. T...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster presentation of a driving simulator study executed to examine the passengers perception of automated vehicle control (AVC) compared to human vehicle control (HVC) during actual system experience in terms of driving experience (perceived safety and comfort) and monitoring gaze behavior (indicator of trust in the system).
Article
Objective We observe the driving performance effects of gesture-based interaction (GBI) versus touch-based interaction (TBI) for in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). Background As a contributing factor to a number of traffic accidents, driver distraction is a significant problem for traffic safety. More specifically, visual distraction has a st...
Article
Cell phone usage, especially texting while driving is common among drivers globally. Various experimental studies indicate that drivers compensate for the increased demand by reducing speed. However, naturalistic driving data analyses reveal only small changes in speed. For example, in an analysis of the SHRP 2 naturalistic driving data, only a sma...
Article
Background The Cognitive Load Theory provides a well-established framework for investigating aspects of learning situations that demand learners’ working memory resources. However, the interplay of these aspects at the cognitive and neural level is still not fully understood. Method We developed four computational models in the cognitive architect...
Book
Frequency of distraction while driving Secondary task engagement is one of the main causes of traffic accidents. In order to determine the crash risk, the prevalence of secondary task engagement has been examined in a variety of surveys and observational studies. However, the data in surveys and questionnaires may be subject to memory biases and o...
Conference Paper
With the role change from driver to passenger provoked by driving automation, human factors such as a pleasant driving experience are considered important for a broad system acceptance and usage. However, allocating vehicle control to an automated system has been shown to raise safety concerns among potential users, and to be perceived differently...
Article
Full-text available
Partially automated driving (PAD, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) level 2) features provide steering and brake/acceleration support, while the driver must constantly supervise the support feature and intervene if needed to maintain safety. PAD could potentially increase comfort, road safety, and traffic efficiency. As during manual driving, u...
Chapter
The evaluation of the distraction potential of secondary task activities while driving has traditionally been focused on visual-manual tasks. In previous years, different test protocols have been developed and standardized to evaluate the distraction effects of in-vehicle information systems while driving. However, the assessment of cognitive distr...
Article
The challenge of reducing worldwide greenhouse gas emissions has become increasingly important in recent years. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are a promising alternative having the potential for a CO2 neutral and sustainable utilization over the whole vehicle lifetime. However, BEVs limited range is still considered as one important usage barrie...
Article
Promoting eco-driving with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) can help drivers reduce their average energy consumption and enhance the driving range of a BEV. The present study examined the influence of three persuasive strategies (feedback regarding energy consumption, gamification, and financial rewards) compared to a baseline condition (no feedbac...
Article
Full-text available
Sequential abductive reasoning is the process of finding the best explanation for a set of observations. Explanations can be multicausal and require the retrieval of previously found ones from memory. The theory of abductive reasoning (TAR) allows detailed predictions on what information is stored and retrieved from memory during reasoning. In the...
Article
Full-text available
Within a workshop on evaluation methods for automated vehicles (AVs) at the Driving Assessment 2019 symposium in Santa Fe; New Mexico, a heuristic evaluation methodology that aims at supporting the development of human–machine interfaces (HMIs) for AVs was presented. The goal of the workshop was to bring together members of the human factors commun...
Article
Research has found that mobile phone call engagement while driving negatively affects driving performance. However, no studies exist characterising hand-held mobile phone calls while driving under naturalistic conditions that include aspects such as the duration of mobile phone subtasks and glance behaviour. Identifying the particularly distracting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Kurzfassung: In der Industrie 4.0 wird der Interaktionsanteil zwischen Mensch und digitaler Technologie stetig zunehmen. Technostress steht für das Erleben von Überforderung besonders im Zusammenhang mit Informations-und Kommunikationstechnologien im Alltag. In dieser Studie sollte explorativ der Zusammenhang zwischen dem Erleben von Technostress i...
Article
Full-text available
Problem: Some evidence exists that drivers choose to engage in secondary tasks when the driving demand is low (e.g., when the car is stopped). While such a behavior might generally be considered as rather safe, it could be argued that the associated diversion of attention away from the road still leads to a reduction of situational awareness, whic...
Chapter
Full-text available
Driving comfort is considered a key factor for broad public acceptance of automated driving. Based on continuous driver/passenger monitoring, potential discomfort could be avoided by adapting automation features such as the driving style. The EU-project MEDIATOR (mediatorproject.eu) aims at developing a mediating system in automated vehicles by con...
Article
Full-text available
Communication between automated vehicles (AVs) and vulnerable road users (VRUs) is highly relevant in coordinating traffic maneuvers and therefore ensuring road safety. Especially in shared spaces such as parking areas, communication is highly important. As automated driving changes the driver's role, communication between different traffic partici...
Article
The driving task is becoming increasingly automated, thus changing the driver's role. Moreover, in-vehicle information systems using different display positions and information processing channels might encourage secondary task engagement. During manual driving scenarios, varying secondary tasks and display positions could influence driver's glance...
Article
The success of introducing automated driving systems to consumers will depend on an appropriate understanding and human-automation interaction with this technology. Educating users on driving automation technology bears the potential to attain these two requirements. In a driving simulator study, we investigated the effects of user education on men...
Poster
Full-text available
Communication between automated vehicles (AVs), where the driver is potentially absent, and vulnerable road users (VRUs) requires a transformation to ensure road safety and comfort at different levels of vehicles’ automation. External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs, e.g. light signals) could supplement implicit messages in ambiguous traffic situat...
Poster
As the increase in displaying space does not necessarily imply further support of the driver, a context-aware adaptation of the content can support the driver’s resource allocation. In this field study (N=15), two context-aware HMI concepts were evaluated. They were modified based on a previous simulator study (N=41) that showed no difference betwe...
Article
Comfort in automated driving is considered a key issue for broad acceptance of automated vehicles. The research project KomfoPilot at Chemnitz University of Technology aimed to investigate factors that influence comfort in automated driving as well as to identify physiological indicators of discomfort. In an empirical driving simulator study, 40 pa...
Conference Paper
Lane changing actions in urban traffic can be highly risky. Drivers need to choose gaps in traffic flow adequately and synchronize their driving behavior with directly surrounding vehicles. Especially in urgent cases such as an approaching emergency vehicle, successful and safe lane changes are of high value. Automating vehicles as well as the use...
Article
Highly automated driving (HAD) is expected to improve future road transport, especially for older adults, provided that it is trusted and accepted by drivers. Research on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) suggests that system experience can enhance drivers’ trust and acceptance. To evaluate the transferability of this result to HAD, we exam...
Poster
Full-text available
In this study, we have been investigating, whether small changes in the work environment can be dis played in wellbeing measures that are assessed via short queries presented on a smartwatch. We hypothesize, that an increasing LoA [H1] and increased activity level [H2] will increase wellbeing
Conference Paper
Mit der Einführung automatisierter Fahrzeuge in den Straßenverkehr wird der Fahrer als Interaktionspartner für andere Verkehrsteilnehmer schrittweise durch das automatisierte Fahrzeug ersetzt. Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen stellt damit die sichere und intuitive Gestaltung der Kommunikation zwischen dem automatisierten Fahrzeug und anderen Ve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Higher level cognitive processes such as learning and mental models play a fundamental role in the success of automated driving, as technology can only be as good as our understanding and expectations of it. The present study investigated the development of these processes during interactions with driving automation. In a driving simulator study, N...
Chapter
To ensure road safety, automated vehicles (AVs) should be able to act and react to vulnerable road users (VRUs). External human-machine interfaces (e-HMIs) may allow AVs and VRUs to communicate effectively. We investigated the effects of various light signals presented by a light bar placed on the test vehicle’s roof (i.e. e-HMI). In addition, the...
Chapter
Full-text available
For a successful market introduction of Level 3 Automated Driving Systems (L3 ADS), a careful evaluation of Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) is necessary. This paper describes an empirical evaluation of a checklist that has been previously developed for the use in heuristic expert assessments, demonstrating that an ADS HMI that meets the guidelines...
Chapter
Due to age-related functional declines and changes in mobility patterns, older drivers struggle with complex traffic situations such as intersections. Innovative driver assistance systems could provide support for this group. One assistance approach addresses older drivers’ tendency to process multiple information successively (serially) rather tha...